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LIVING ADAPTATION AND BEHAVIORS OF LATE PLEISTOCENE HUMANS FROM HUANGLONG CAVE IN YUNXI OF HUBEI PROVINCE REFLECTED BY TOOTH USE MARKS
人类牙齿表面痕迹与人类生存适应及行为特征——湖北郧西黄龙洞更新世晚期人类牙齿使用痕迹

刘武,武仙竹,吴秀杰,裴树文
第四纪研究 , 2008,
Abstract: The use marks on human teeth are produced by the nonmasticatory utilization of teeth and other activities to obtain and process food,and some activities are related to the behavior.They thus can reflect various cultures of prehistory humans,recording information of living environment,food composition,way to get food,behavior and habits.In 2004 a new Late Pleistocene human fossil site named Huanglong Cave was discovered in Yunxi County,Hubei Province.The three excavations from 2004 to 2006 unearthed seven human teeth,evidence of fire use by humans,stone tools and other evidence of human activities.Preliminary studies indicate that the age of the human fossils is around 100ka.The discoveries are very important for the studies of Late Pleistocene human evolution and modern human origin in China.In the present study,the tooth use marks of the seven human teeth found in Huanglong Cave were observed,and further analyzed with the human behavior and environmental adaptations.Our observations reveal three kinds of use marks on the anterior teeth from the Huanglong Cave.They are enamel damage and chipping,cut marks on the crown labial surface,and interproximal grooves.(1)The enamel damage and chipping: They were identified in the incisal edge and adjacent regions of the upper incisor,upper lateral incisor and lower lateral incisor.The surface of the damage and chipping are very rugged and rough which seems to be caused by gnawing hard materials(like bones)or using the teeth as tools.It's worth noticing that all the enamel damage and chippings occurred in the anterior teeth.Such a distribution fits with the behavior using the anterior teeth for gnawing.Moreover,the enamel damage and chippings mainly appear in the lingual and buccal surface of crown closer to the incisal edge or near the corner regions of the incisal edge,which should be caused by the activities using the anterior teeth peeling the meat attached to bones or peeling some plant shell.(2)The interproximal grooves: Among the seven human teeth found in the Huanglong Cave,five were found to have interproximal wear facets.The interproximal wear facets in the upper lateral incisor and upper canine are semi-round shaped which seems to be produced by tooth-picking.The three grooves are all situated on the upper region of the crowns near the roots.Obviously,the groove-shaped wear facets in this region cannot be caused by the tooth contact.Moreover,some horizontal striates can be identified on the surface of the groove.We believe that the groove-shaped wear facts should be caused by tooth-picking activities.(3)The cut marks on the crown labial surface: Our observations found some damages on the upper lateral incisor of the Huanglong Cave.Under microscope,some vertical damage surface cutting marks can be identified.Such marks seem to be caused by sharp tools.Humans of the Huanglong Cave might use their anterior teeth to hold food or other materials.At the same time,they used sharp tools to peel meat or p
Mesnice: Eating meat: A middle age name for winter big fat eating cycle  [PDF]
Bojanin Stanoje
Glasnik Etnografskog Instituta SANU , 2009, DOI: 10.2298/gei0901107b
Abstract: This paper discusses the usage and meaning of the expression mesnice, based on the source from the 15th century. This term is related to the period in between Christmas and big fat eating cycle, when it is allowed to consume animal products, especially meat. The research shows an existence of a concept different than those of the Church one, expressed in terms mesopust (meat) and siropust (cheese) which imply restraint in consuming meat and cheese in a diet. The testimony about the existence of the unique term mesnice, which included the whole period of meat consuming, points out to a significance of the winter big fat eating cycle preceding Great fasting, and which has a special place in the cyclical change of season errands in an agrarian based society. In turn, this allows us to assume the existence of certain behavior and activities such as carnival forms of celebration similar to those in the Catholic environments in the late middle age Europe or much later, in the documented folk inheritance of the 19th and 20th century, which, in turn, could point out to new fields of research in poorly documented folklore of the middle age Serbia. The term mesnice (and meat weeks), much more than the term mesopust, points out to a social significance of the period preceding the Great fasting and its interpretation within a laic culture, folk rituals, celebrations and fun.
Childhood meat eating and inflammatory markers: The Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study
CM Schooling, CQ Jiang, TH Lam, WS Zhang, KK Cheng, GM Leung
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-345
Abstract: We used multivariable linear regression in the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study phase 3 (2006-8) to examine the adjusted associations of recalled childhood meat eating, <1/week (n = 5,023), about once per week (n = 3,592) and almost daily (n = 1,252), with white blood cell count and its differentials among older (≥50 years) men (n = 2,498) and women (n = 7,369).Adjusted for age, childhood socio-economic position, education and smoking, childhood meat eating had sex-specific associations with white blood cell count and lymphocyte count, but not granulocyte count. Men with childhood meat eating almost daily compared to <1/week had higher white blood cell count (0.33 109/L, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.10 to 0.56) and higher lymphocyte count (0.16 109/L, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.25). Adjustment for obesity slightly attenuated these associations.If confirmed, this hypothesis implies that economic development and the associated improvements in nutrition at puberty may be less beneficial among men than women; consistent with the widening sex differentials in life expectancy with economic development.In long term industrialized western populations poor childhood conditions are associated with cardiovascular disease [1], although the underlying biological pathway is unclear. Cardiovascular disease may have an inflammatory component [2,3]. Poor childhood conditions are also usually associated with a pro-inflammatory state [4-9]. It is increasingly clear that the social patterning of cardiovascular disease or its risk factors, both traditional and non-traditional, is not universal but epidemiologic stage specific [9-14]. There is often a more marked and longer lasting reversal of the usual social patterning among men than women [9-11] for reasons which have tended to be interpreted mainly in terms of contemporaneous risk factors that differ by sex [11].A factor that countered the generally protective effect of social advantage among men at the early stages of economic development wou
Effect of Delayed Bleeding on Carcass and Eating Qualities of Rabbit Meat  [PDF]
A.B. Omojola
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2007,
Abstract: A total of forty eight matured New Zealand rabbits with an average weight of 2.06±0.45 kg were used to evaluate the effect of delayed bleeding on carcass and organoleptic characteristics of rabbit meat. The rabbits were fed concentrate diet containing 19.11% Crude Protein (CP) and 2514.3 Kcal/kg Metabolizable Energy (ME) for a period of thirty five days. The rabbits were randomly assigned to four treatment groups in a completely randomized design. Each treatment was replicated thrice with each replicate consisting of four rabbits. Treatment one served as control where the 12 rabbits were bled immediately after stunning while treatments 2, 3 and 4 comprised of rabbits that were bled 5, 10 15 minutes after stunning. After proper bleeding, the rabbits were skinned, washed and eviscerated and cut into primal cuts. Samples for sensory evaluations were taken from the thigh muscle and the remaining carcasses were aged at 4°C for 24 and 72 hours. The result showed that the dressing percentage, chilled carcass weight and the pH were not affected (p>0.05) by delayed bleeding while the volume of blood drained decreased (p<0.05) as the period between stunning and bleeding increased. The drip loss and cooking loss increased as the time between stunning and bleeding increased while the Water Holding Capacity (WHC) decreased. The effect of delayed bleeding on shear force, WHC, drip loss and cooking loss became more pronounced with ageing. Apart from the colour and juiciness rating that significantly (p<0.05) decreased, the other eating qualities were not affected (p>0.05) by delayed bleedin
First evidence of prey capture and meat eating by wild Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys in Yunnan, China  [cached]
Baoping REN, Dayong LI, Zhijin LIU, Baoguo LI, Fuwen WEI, Ming LI
Current Zoology , 2010,
Abstract: Most extant nonhuman primates occasionally prey on fast-moving, warm-blooded animals; however, Indriidae, Lepilemuridae, and Colobinae either scavenged for meat or did not eat meat at all. Here we report six cases of animal consumption by the snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti) in a wild, habituated group between 2004 and 2009 in Yunnan, China. At present, only males in an all-male unit within the study group were involved in active hunting. Such a male-biased activity may be related to the group structure and spatial spread of R. bieti. Two females were observed eating freshly killed birds. The findings confirmed that R. bieti engaged in scavenging and, when hunting, employed a cranio-cervical bite to kill their prey. Meat eating is likely a nutrient maximization feeding strategy in R. bieti, especially in males. A begging behavior occurred after successful prey capture. Although begging was observed, no sharing of the meat was seen. The present findings illuminate the dietary diversity of R. bieti and their ability to expand their dietary spectrum [Current Zoology 56 (2 ): 227–231, 2010].
Earliest Porotic Hyperostosis on a 1.5-Million-Year-Old Hominin, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania  [PDF]
Manuel Domínguez-Rodrigo, Travis Rayne Pickering, Fernando Diez-Martín, Audax Mabulla, Charles Musiba, Gonzalo Trancho, Enrique Baquedano, Henry T. Bunn, Doris Barboni, Manuel Santonja, David Uribelarrea, Gail M. Ashley, María del Sol Martínez-ávila, Rebeca Barba, Agness Gidna, José Yravedra, Carmen Arriaza
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0046414
Abstract: Meat-eating was an important factor affecting early hominin brain expansion, social organization and geographic movement. Stone tool butchery marks on ungulate fossils in several African archaeological assemblages demonstrate a significant level of carnivory by Pleistocene hominins, but the discovery at Olduvai Gorge of a child's pathological cranial fragments indicates that some hominins probably experienced scarcity of animal foods during various stages of their life histories. The child's parietal fragments, excavated from 1.5-million-year-old sediments, show porotic hyperostosis, a pathology associated with anemia. Nutritional deficiencies, including anemia, are most common at weaning, when children lose passive immunity received through their mothers' milk. Our results suggest, alternatively, that (1) the developmentally disruptive potential of weaning reached far beyond sedentary Holocene food-producing societies and into the early Pleistocene, or that (2) a hominin mother's meat-deficient diet negatively altered the nutritional content of her breast milk to the extent that her nursing child ultimately died from malnourishment. Either way, this discovery highlights that by at least 1.5 million years ago early human physiology was already adapted to a diet that included the regular consumption of meat.
Obliteration study of lambdatic and obelionic region sutures in ruminant, carnivores and hominids  [cached]
Gibert, J.,Ribot, F.,Gibert, P.,Gibert, L.
Estudios Geologicos , 2006, DOI: 10.3989/egeol.0662112
Abstract: The morphology of Orce cranial fragment VM-0 is contrasted with the fronto-parietal region in artiodactyls, and the obelionic region in carnivores and primates including hominids. Sutural development at obelion is compared in those taxa throughout the growth period up to the onset of sutural obliteration, and ontogenetic differences between non-primates and primates lead us to conclude that the configuration in VM-0 more resembles that found in hominids than in artiodactyls or carnivores. Moreover, cranial capacity for VM-0 is estimated at >470cm3, comparable to Plio Pleistocene hominids, but greater than in young equids. La morfología del fragmento cranial de Orce (VM-0) se contrasta con la región fronto-parietal de los artiodáctilos y con la región obélica de los carnívoros y primates incluyendo los homínidos. Se compara en estos taxones, el desarrollo de las suturas en esta región a lo largo del periodo de crecimiento hasta que ocurre la obliteración de las mismas. Las diferencias ontogenéticas entre no primates y primates nos permiten concluir que la anatomía de VM-0 es más próxima a los hominidos que a la de los artiodáctilos y carnívoros. Se estima que la capacidad craneana de VM-0 tiene que ser > 470 cm3, comparable a la de los homínidos del Plio-Pleistoceno y mayor que la de los équidos juveniles.
Preliminary study on the living environment of hominids at the Donggutuo site, Nihewan Basin
ShuWen Pei,XiaoLi Li,DeCheng Liu,Ning Ma,Fei Peng
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2009, DOI: 10.1007/s11434-009-0646-9
Abstract: The Donggutuo site, situated in the east margin of Nihewan basin, is one of the most important Paleolithic sites in China, characterized by the longest excavation seasons and the most abundant cultural remains recovered in the region. Based on well-constructed sporopollen, sediment grain size analysis, magnetic susceptibility, and iron oxide analysis of the 2000–2001 excavated section, four stages of environmental change in the Nihewan Beds are identified by the authors. The results indicate four major stages of environment and climate change from 1) warm and humid forest grass to 2) temperate and humid forest grass to 3) temperate and dry forest grass to 4) warm and humid forest, which is suitable for hominid occupation. The changes correspond to the stages of lake transgression and regression. The environment after the lake died out away has been cold and dry boschveld. The hominid activities at the site took place in the Early Pleistocene (1.10 Ma), which corresponds to the early three environmental stages. Therefore, it can be inferred that the early hominids adapted to the relatively low lake level episodes through activities involving sporadic stone tool making, procuring of raw materials for tools, concentrating stone artifacts, and hunting and butchering. In conclusion, the results will be of great significance to research regarding the relationship between hominid occupation and environmental changes as well as the adaptive behaviors of early humans at the Donggutuo site.
A New Malaria Agent in African Hominids  [PDF]
Benjamin Ollomo equal contributor,Patrick Durand equal contributor,Franck Prugnolle ,Emmanuel Douzery,Céline Arnathau,Dieudonné Nkoghe,Eric Leroy,Fran?ois Renaud
PLOS Pathogens , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000446
Abstract: Plasmodium falciparum is the major human malaria agent responsible for 200 to 300 million infections and one to three million deaths annually, mainly among African infants. The origin and evolution of this pathogen within the human lineage is still unresolved. A single species, P. reichenowi, which infects chimpanzees, is known to be a close sister lineage of P. falciparum. Here we report the discovery of a new Plasmodium species infecting Hominids. This new species has been isolated in two chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) kept as pets by villagers in Gabon (Africa). Analysis of its complete mitochondrial genome (5529 nucleotides including Cyt b, Cox I and Cox III genes) reveals an older divergence of this lineage from the clade that includes P. falciparum and P. reichenowi (~21±9 Myrs ago using Bayesian methods and considering that the divergence between P. falciparum and P. reichenowi occurred 4 to 7 million years ago as generally considered in the literature). This time frame would be congruent with the radiation of hominoids, suggesting that this Plasmodium lineage might have been present in early hominoids and that they may both have experienced a simultaneous diversification. Investigation of the nuclear genome of this new species will further the understanding of the genetic adaptations of P. falciparum to humans. The risk of transfer and emergence of this new species in humans must be now seriously considered given that it was found in two chimpanzees living in contact with humans and its close relatedness to the most virulent agent of malaria.
Illuminating European Trade Marks?
Abbe E L Brown
SCRIPT-ed , 2004,
Abstract: An analysis of recent developments in European trade mark law and a consideration of the future for trade marks and harmonisation of trade mark law in Europe, with particular reference to less conventional trade marks.
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