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Immunological regulation of Phellinus igniarius crude polysaccharides to tumor bearing mice

SONG Ai-Rong,WANG Guang-Yuan,ZHAO Chen,HE Zhong-Cheng,ZUO Zong-Bao,

菌物学报 , 2009,
Abstract: This paper deals with different immunological regulation effects of Phellinus igniarius crude polysaccharides on tumor-bearing mice. The tumor bearing mice were divided into four groups at random: crude exo-polysaccharide treatment group, mycelium crude polysaccharide treatment group, fruit body crude polysaccharide treatment group and negative group. The treated mice were killed in 10 days and the activity of natural killer cells (NK) and the lymphocyte proliferation were investigated. The results indicate...
Inhibition of IgE-dependent Mouse Triphasic Cutaneous Reaction by a Boiling Water Fraction Separated from Mycelium of Phellinus linteus  [PDF]
Naoki Inagaki,Tomonori Shibata,Tomokazu Itoh,Tomohiro Suzuki,Hiroyuki Tanaka,Tomoyuki Nakamura,Yukihito Akiyama,Hirokazu Kawagishi,Hiroichi Nagai
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2005, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/neh105
Abstract: Phellinus linteus, a mushroom, contains constituents that exhibit potent antitumor effects through activating immune cells. Recently, anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic properties of P. linteus extracts have also been implicated. In the present study, therefore, we separated the constituents of mycelium of P. linteus into five fractions—chloroform-soluble (CF), ethyl acetate-soluble (EA), methanol-soluble (AE), water-soluble (WA) and boiling water-soluble (BW) fractions—and examined their suppressive effects on the IgE-dependent mouse triphasic cutaneous reaction. The triphasic reaction was induced in the ear of BALB/c mice passively sensitized with anti-dinitrophenol IgE by painting with 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene 24 h later. Ear swelling appeared triphasically with peak responses at 1 h, 24 h and 8 days after the challenge. ME, WA and BW given orally at a dose of 100 mg kg−1 significantly inhibited the first and second phase ear swelling, and BW also inhibited the third phase response. CF only inhibited the second phase. The inhibition by BW was the most potent and almost dose-dependent at doses of 30–300 mg kg−1. BW also inhibited vascular permeability increase caused by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis and histamine, and ear swelling caused by tumor necrosis factor-α. In contrast, BW apparently potentiated the production of interleukin-4 and interferon-γ from anti-CD3-stimulated mouse splenocytes. These results indicate that BW derived from mycelium of P. linteus contains some constituents with anti-allergic as well as immunopotentiating properties.
Immunomodulatory effect of water soluble extract separated from mycelium of Phellinus linteus on experimental atopic dermatitis  [cached]
Hwang Ji,Kwon Ho-Keun,Kim Jung-Eun,Rho Jeonghae
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-12-159
Abstract: Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is becoming a popular treatment for modulating diverse immune disorders. Phellinus linteus (P. linteus) as one of the CAMs has been used to modulate cancers, inflammation and allergic activities. However, little evidence has been shown about its underlying mechanism of action by which it exerts a beneficial role in dermatological disease in vivo. In this study, we examined the immunomodulatory effects of P. linteus on experimental atopic dermatitis (AD) and elucidated its action mechanism. Methods The immunomodulatory effect of total extract of P. linteus on IgE production by human myeloma U266B1 cells was measured by ELISA. To further identify the effective components, P. linteus was fractionated into methanol soluble, water soluble and boiling water soluble extracts. Each extract was treated to U266B1 cells and primary B cells to compare their inhibitory effects on IgE secretion. To test the in vivo efficacy, experimental atopic dermatitis (AD) was established by alternative treatment of DNCB and house dust mite extract into BALB/c mice. Water soluble extract of P. linteus (WA) or ceramide as a positive control were topically applied to ears of atopic mouse every day for 2 weeks and progression of the disease was estimated by the following criteria: (a) ear thickness, clinical score, (b) serum total IgE, IgG and mite specific IgE level by ELSIA, (c) histological examination of ear tissue by H&E staining and (d) cytokine profile of total ear cells and CD4+ T cells by real time PCR and ELSIA. Results Treatment of total extracts of P. linteus to U266B1 inhibited IgE secretion. Among the diverse extracts of P. linteus, water soluble extract of P. linteus (WA) significantly reduced the IgE production in primary B cells and B cell line U266B1. Moreover, treatment of WA reduced AD symptoms such as ear swelling, erythema, and dryness and decreased recruitment of lymphocyte into the inflamed site. Interestingly WA treatment significantly reduced IgE level without affecting IgG levels and also down-regulated the levels of pathogenic cytokines (IL-4, IL-13, IL-12 and IFN-γ) and chemokines (CCL17 and CCL22) involved in AD development. Conclusions Our study indicates that protective effect of water soluble extract of P. linteus in atopic dermatitis is mediated by inhibiting IgE production and expression of AD associated pathogenic cytokines as well as chemokines, suggesting the beneficial effect of P. linteus to modulate allergic skin disease.
Optimization of mycelium biomass and exopolysaccharides production by Hirsutella sp. in submerged fermentation and evaluation of exopolysaccharides antibacterial activity
R Li, X Jiang, H Guan
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2010,
Abstract: Hirsutella is a hyphomycete that has been used as biopesticide. Many compounds with antimycobacterial activity have been reported. However, there were fewer reports about fermentation condition for the Hirsutella and activity of its exopolysaccharides. In the present investigation, the fermentation condition and medium for mycelia growth and exopolysaccharides production were optimized and the antibacterial activity of exopolysaccharides (EPS) from Hirsutella sp. was studied. The optimized conditions and medium were as follows: initial pH 5.5, potato extract 20% (w/v), sucrose 2.5%, peptone 0.5%, K2HPO4 0.2%, MgSO4 0.05% and fermentation for 4 days. The highest production of EPS and mycelium biomass yield reached 2.17 and 10.06 g/l, respectively. The content of sugar and protein of EPS were 92.7 and 5.2%, respectively. The monosaccharide component of EPS was mannose, galactose and glucose with a molar ratio of 4.0:8.2:1.0. Its molecular weight was 23 kDa. The antibacterial effect of EPS was observed that they were most effective against gram-positive bacterium, especially Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus tetragenus. The MIC of exopolysaccharides to B. subtilis and M. tetragenus was 1 and 2.5 mg/ml, respectively. These results are helpful to expand the application of Hirsutella sp. as a biological pesticide.
Effects of organic nitrogen and carbon sources on mycelial growth and polysaccharides production and their optimization in the submerged culture of Grifola umbellate, a Chinese medicinal herb
Y Zhou, S Hong-bo, D-Y Chen
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2009,
Abstract: Grifola umbellate is a famous and expensive Chinese herb medicine and the main medicinal component is polysaccharide mainly produced by its mycelia. Effects of organic nitrogen and carbon resources on mycelial growth and polysaccharides production of a medicinal mushroom, G. umbellate were studied in the submerged culture system. Soybean meal was selected as the optimal organic nitrogen source for its significant promotion effects on mycelial growth and polysaccharides synthesis based on results of an orthogonal matrix experiment design. Glucose was proved to be a preferred carbon source by comparison with fructose and sucrose. The optimal dosages of soybean meal 5.63% (w/v) and glucose 4.33% (w/v) were obtained, respectively through the curvilinear regressions experiment. The productions of mycelial dry weight, exo-polysaccharide (EPS) and inner polysaccharide (IPS), in the optimal medium, were about 3.16, 1.48 and 2.78 folds higher than those in the basal medium, respectively and culture duration was shortened to half through optimizing the organic nitrogen and carbon sources. These results will be significant contribution to process biochemistry of medicinal fungus in the submerged culture system.
The Kinetic Characteristics of Mycelium Growth of Medicinal Mushroom Ganoderma sinense in Liquid-submerged Cultivation

Gong Jianhua,Wang Yijun,

微生物学报 , 2002,
Abstract: The study was carried out to investigate the kinetic characteristics of Ganoderma sinense mycelium growth in liquid-submerged cultivation, using a air-lift bioreactor ALR/ff specially designed for the cultivation of mushrooms' suspending mycelia cultures. Mycelia of G. sinense grew in the range of 25 degrees C-35 degrees C, and at the different temperature in which the specific growth rate showed by the mycelia much differed. The specific growth rates with the maximum of 0.0444(h-1) at 1.64 vvm of aeration in the cultivation were more than at 0.93 vvm, also more than at 2.50 vvm. In comparison with the less glucose concentration, the culture of 2.80 g glucose/100 mL in the medium had a shorter lag-period, and the more concentration of glucose favoured mycelia growth in the latter cultivation course with the denser pellets of mycelia. Then the culture of the less concentration of glucose in the medium had the higher conversion-rates of glucose to G. sinense biomass all along the cultivation course, than of the more concentration of glucose. Futhermore, in the continuous cultivations with growth-limiting substrate of carbon source the mycelia displaying different growing activities, demonstrated the varied forms of mycelium-gathering. In that cases the relationships among mycelia biomass, growth-limiting substrate and productivity of mycelium biomass obviously differed from the ones in the case of bacteria. Also in the range of dilution rates 0.010-0.220 (h-1) the growing of G. sinense mycelia followed the function of Contois equation.
Effects of medicinal insect, Catharsius molossus on biosynthesis of polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum in submerged culture

Gaoqiang Liu,Chongyang Ding,Kechang Zhang,Xiaoling Wang,Wenjun Han,

生物工程学报 , 2009,
Abstract: We studied the effects of several medicinal insects on biosynthesis of polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum in submerged culture. The results showed that the medicinal insect, Catharsius molossus at 5 g/L significantly promoted the biosynthesis of intracellular polysaccharides (IPS) and extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) of G. lucidum, and compared with control, IPS and EPS yields markedly enhanced from (1.93 ± 0.09) g/L to (2.41 ± 0.12) g/L and (520.3 ± 20.2) mg/L to (608.9 ± 20.2) mg/L, respectively (P < 0.05). Both IPS and EPS consisted of five kinds of components, and IPS-1 and EPS-1 were the major components of IPS and EPS, respectively. Further separation studies showed that IPS-1 was made up of three single compounds, while EPS-1 was made up of two single compounds. There were no new components in both IPS and EPS obtained from G. lucidum in submerged culture by the addition of the insect, C. molossus, suggesting the biosynthetic pathways of the major components of IPS and EPS had not been changed.
Biological Activities of the Polysaccharides Produced in Submerged Culture of Two Edible Pleurotus ostreatus Mushrooms
Emanuel Vamanu
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/565974
Abstract: Exopolysaccharides (EPS) and internal (intracellular) polysaccharides (IPS) obtained from the Pleurotus ostreatus M2191 and PBS281009 cultivated using the batch system revealed an average of between 0.1–2 (EPS) and 0.07–1.5 g/L/day (IPS). The carbohydrate analysis revealed that the polysaccharides comprised 87–89% EPS and 68–74% IPS. The investigation of antioxidant activity in vitro revealed a good antioxidant potential, particularly for the IPS and EPS isolated from PBS281009, as proved by the EC50 value for DPPH, ABTS scavenging activity, reducing power, and iron chelating activity.
Three species of Phellinus (Basidiomycota, Hymenochaetaceae) new to China

DI Ming-Xiao,WEI Yu-Lian,GU Yue,

菌物学报 , 2012,
Abstract: 报道了木层孔菌属Phellinus 3个中国新记录种。赤杨木层孔菌Phellinus alni典型特征为菌盖具有较宽的同心环带和清晰的密集环纹菌核;黑木层孔菌P. nigricans具有较大的担孢子;东方木层孔菌P. orienticus具有平伏的子实体,担孢子相对较小。对这3个种进行了详细的描述和显微结构绘图。
Topical tretinoin in acanthosis nigricans  [cached]
Lahiri Koushik,Malakar Subrata
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 1996,
Abstract: Efficacy of topical tretinoin was assessed in 30 cases of idiopathic acanthosis nigricans which were recalcitrant to conventional modalities of treatment. Topical tretinoin once at night application was found to be very effective both clinically and histologically.
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