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China’s ancient gold drugs
Zhao Huaizhi,Ning Yuantao
Gold Bulletin , 2001, DOI: 10.1007/BF03214805
Abstract: The earliest application of gold as a therapeutic agent was in China, and it was widely used by physicians and surgeons. For example, pure gold was used to treat furuncles, smallpox and skin ulcers and to remove mercury from skin and flesh; some ancient bl]References noted that gold drugs can cure joint disease and disease in lungs. There were also prescriptions containing gold for curing measles and other diseases. Plant and animal medicines were used in ancient prescriptions and many of these contain gold as a trace element. Ancient China had remarkable achievements in the pharmacology of gold. The evolution of “medicinal gold” and “potable gold” also promoted the development of preparation techniques using gold foil and gold powder, and refining and separation techniques for gold and gold-silver. The scientific benefits gave a worldwide lead at that time and still have relevance in contemporary pharmacology, chemistry and metallurgy of gold.
Gold powder: Its preparation & application as described in ancient Sanskrit texts
R. K. Dube
Gold Bulletin , 1991, DOI: 10.1007/BF03214717
Abstract: Basically two techniques — mechanical comminution and chemical methods — were used in Indian antiquity for making gold powder. However, there were many variants of these techniques, which are described in detail below. It has been shown that two important applications of gold powder in ancient India were in medicine and for making colours for painting.
Three Techniques Used to Produce BaTiO3 Fine Powder  [PDF]
Natheer B. Mahmood, Emad K. Al-Shakarchi
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2011.211175
Abstract: Homogeneous BaTiO3 fine powder has been synthesized at (80°C) by using three different chemical methods using the roots TiCl4, BaCl2 and NaOH or Oxalic acid. The resultant powders were characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD) to estimate the crystal structure, lattice parameters and the crystallite size to investigate the favor method in producing BaTiO3 fine powder. The criteria that was dependent on considering the favor method that was given better results of XRD and demand a least time in preparation which tend to consume a lowest energy.
Gold in Ancient Palestine
Janina Altman
Gold Bulletin , 1979, DOI: 10.1007/BF03216544
Abstract: In the wake of successive conquests, Ancient Palestine was subjected to a variety of cultural influences. Gold objects found in excavations there reflect these influences and bear witness to the importance of the area as a main trade route.
The ancient craft of gold beating
Eric D. Nicholson
Gold Bulletin , 1979, DOI: 10.1007/BF03215119
Abstract: Transferable gold coatings, the manufacture and application of which were reviewed in Gold Bulletin a year ago, are now widely used for decorative purposes. True beaten gold leaf, however, remains the material of choice for prestige gilding in which durability is called for. Gold beating by hand has been practised for some five thousand years and the exponents of this ancient craft, to whom ‘address is requisite’, are justifiably proud of the traditions associated with it.
Advances in gold powder technology
Neville Collier
Gold Bulletin , 1977, DOI: 10.1007/BF03215432
Abstract: The routes for the preparation of gold powders, required for many important industrial applications, are described in this article. Attention is drawn to the highlights of recent work designed to improve the reproducibility of particle size and shape of gold powders made by precipitation from aqueous solutions.
Ancient Egyptian gold refining
J. H. F. Notton
Gold Bulletin , 1974, DOI: 10.1007/BF03215038
Abstract: The technique of smelting mined gold ore concentrates reported by Diodorus Siculus as being used in Egypt in the Second Century B.C. has been simulated in the laboratory. A considerable degree of refining was found, comparable with that yielded by the medieval process of cementation with salt, and with a negligible loss of gold.
The ancient Chinese casting techniques  [PDF]
Tan Derui,Lian Haiping
China Foundry , 2011,
Abstract: In the course of Chinese civilization, which lasted more than 5,000 years, casting production has made a huge contribution. In this paper, some representative metal castings were presented. According to their forming techniques, they can be grouped into stone mould casting, clay mould casting, ablation casting, lost wax casting, stack casting, permanent mould casting, sand casting, etc. According to their materials, they can be categorized into tin bronze, bimetallic bronze, malleable cast iron, ductile cast iron, brass, cupronickel alloy (Packtong), etc. According to their surface decorative techniques they can be devided into gem inlay, gilding, gold and silver inlay, copper inlay, engraved decoration, surface tin-enrichment, mother-of-pearl inlay, burnished works with gold or silver inlay, surface coloring and cloisonné enamel, etc.
Amalgamation and Small-Scale Gold Mining at Ancient Sardis, Turkey  [PDF]
William E. Brooks, Hüseyin ?ztürk, Zeynep Cansu
Archaeological Discovery (AD) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ad.2017.51003
Abstract: In the ancient world gold was mined mainly from alluvial occurrences using gravity methods combined with the use of mercury (amalgamation), a method that is still used today in small-scale alluvial gold mines worldwide. Cyanide, which was first used in the 1880s, is used in large-scale hardrock mines to recover gold, silver, copper, and other metals from porphyry and disseminated ore deposits. Therefore, amalgamation must be considered, or specifically in the case of Sardis, reconsidered as the technology for ancient alluvial gold mining. Evidence that includes: the availability of cinnabar, the ore of mercury; an ancient mercury retort; ancient use of cinnabar as a pigment and mercury for gilding and amalgamation; the very fine-grained alluvial gold at Sardis; and the composition of the end-product gold, a Byzantine coin. These all indicate that amalgamation must be considered as the mining technology that supplied gold to Sardis’ ancient refineries and craftsmen.
Gold-working in Ancient America
Warwick Bray
Gold Bulletin , 1978, DOI: 10.1007/BF03216538
Abstract: European observers of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries were impressed by both the aesthetic sensitivity and the technical virtuosity of native American goldsmiths. By examining early Spanish descriptions in the light of modern scientific and technical knowledge, a surprisingly detailed picture of aboriginal gold technology can be built up.
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