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A mutation in the LAMC2 gene causes the Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa (H-JEB) in two French draft horse breeds
Dragan Milenkovic, Stéphane Chaffaux, Sead Taourit, Gérard Guérin
Genetics Selection Evolution , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/1297-9686-35-2-249
Abstract: (To access the full article, please see PDF)
Mutton and Milk Production and Trade in Botswana
M.Monkhei,A. A. Aganga
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: Sheep production in Botswana is not a very popular enterprise compared to cattle and goats production while dairy production is an emerging animal agriculture. This paper discusses constraints to mutton and dairy production and reviews the importation of mutton, milk and milk products over twelve years (1990-2001) into Botswana to meet the huge deficit in supply. Detailed mutton, milk and milk products import data were obtained from Trade Statistics Unit in Gaborone Botswana. Mutton import are from the Republic of South Africa (RSA), Lesotho, Zimbabwe and Namibia while milk and milk products are mainly from the Republic of South Africa. The bulk of mutton import was from RSA in the form of fresh or chilled carcasses and half carcasses. Botswana imported 27732 Kg of mutton in 1990 worth 209,050 South African Rands (6.0R=1 US$). The mutton importation increased drastically to777,164 Kg (2802.41%) in 2001 worth 4,896,273 Rands (2342.15%). Total import of fresh milk was 7.2 million litres in 2003. This paper suggests possible methods to enhance mutton and milk production locally and reduce the net import of mutton and milk products. The increase in mutton import is a clear indication for the need to increase sheep production in Botswana and the need for livestock farmers to diversify the beef industry and include other ruminants for commercial production.
Physical properties of mutton tallow
List, G. R.,Steidley, K. R.,Neff, W. E.,Snowder, G. D.
Grasas y Aceites , 2003,
Abstract: The physical properties of mutton tallows isolated from the kidney, back and intestinal regions were determined by pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance and Mett ler dropping point techniques. Kidney fat showed the highest amounts of solid fat measured over a temperature range of 10-50 oC followed by intestinal fat and back fat showed the least amount of solid fat. Mutton tallows contain 52-64% saturated acids, have iodine values ranging from 34-44 and contain small amounts (3-4%) of trans fatty acids. Se han determinado las propiedades físicas de sebo de cordero aislado de ri ones, lomo e intestino mediante resonancia magnética nuclear de pulso y técnicas de punto de deslizamiento. La grasa de ri ón mostró los mayores contenidos de grasa sólida medida en un rango de temperatura de 10-50 oC seguido por la grasa del intestino y siendo la grasa del lomo la que tuvo el contenido más bajo de grasa sólida. El sebo de cordero contiene ácidos grasos saturados en proporción del 52-64%, índice de yodo que oscilan entre 34-44 y cantidades peque as de ácidos grasos trans (3-4%).
Biological Assay of Toxoplasma gondii Egyptian Mutton Isolates  [PDF]
M.A. Hassanain,H.A. Elfadaly,R.M. Shaapan,N.A. Hassanain
International Journal of Zoological Research , 2011,
Abstract: Mutton signifies one of the most prevalent sources for human toxoplasmosis. However, sheep serological assays don't categorize the virulent strains initiating antibodies, so the biological bioassay of Egyptian mutton isolates with reference to their pathogenicity in both mice and kittens were done in this study for indicating to how extent their zoonotic bio-hazard. A total number of 280 of each sheep blood and tissue samples were collected during slaughtering at Cairo abattoir, Egypt. Sera assayed using Latex Agglutination Test (LAT) and immunosorbant assay (ELISA) and their corresponding mutton samples were microscopically examined after pepsin digestion for detection of Toxoplasma gondii infection. The sero-positive percent of the naturally infected sheep was 50.4 and 61.4 by LAT and ELISA, respectively, 47.9% of samples were confirmedly positive in both LAT and ELISA results. The microscopical examination revealed that only 28 out of 134 (20.9%) of the confirmed sero-positive animals by both tests were found harboring T. gondii tissue cysts in their mutton samples, while high percentage of confirmed sero-positve animals (79.1%) (106 out of 134) were biologically tissue cysts free mutton. Biological typing of the 28 T. gondii sheep isolates with reference to mice and kittens' bioassay indicated that 10.7, 50, 21.4 and 17.9% were type I, II, III and avirulent strains, respectively. The high T. gondii infection rate resulted in this study concludes that the feeding of under cooked mutton is a bad health habit as a source for human toxoplasmosis moreover; the T. gondii virulent strains obtained by mutton bioassay indicated that not all sero-positive sheep are connecting zoonotic bio-hazard through their mutton strains.
Molecular Identification of Collagen 17a1 as a Major Genetic Modifier of Laminin Gamma 2 Mutation-Induced Junctional Epidermolysis Bullosa in Mice  [PDF]
Thomas J. Sproule,Jason A. Bubier,Fiorella C. Grandi,Victor Z. Sun,Vivek M. Philip,Caroline G. McPhee,Elisabeth B. Adkins,John P. Sundberg,Derry C. Roopenian
PLOS Genetics , 2014, DOI: doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004068
Abstract: Epidermolysis Bullosa (EB) encompasses a spectrum of mechanobullous disorders caused by rare mutations that result in structural weakening of the skin and mucous membranes. While gene mutated and types of mutations present are broadly predictive of the range of disease to be expected, a remarkable amount of phenotypic variability remains unaccounted for in all but the most deleterious cases. This unexplained variance raises the possibility of genetic modifier effects. We tested this hypothesis using a mouse model that recapitulates a non-Herlitz form of junctional EB (JEB) owing to the hypomorphic jeb allele of laminin gamma 2 (Lamc2). By varying normally asymptomatic background genetics, we document the potent impact of genetic modifiers on the strength of dermal-epidermal adhesion and on the clinical severity of JEB in the context of the Lamc2jeb mutation. Through an unbiased genetic approach involving a combination of QTL mapping and positional cloning, we demonstrate that Col17a1 is a strong genetic modifier of the non-Herlitz JEB that develops in Lamc2jeb mice. This modifier is defined by variations in 1–3 neighboring amino acids in the non-collagenous 4 domain of the collagen XVII protein. These allelic variants alter the strength of dermal-epidermal adhesion in the context of the Lamc2jeb mutation and, consequentially, broadly impact the clinical severity of JEB. Overall the results provide an explanation for how normally innocuous allelic variants can act epistatically with a disease causing mutation to impact the severity of a rare, heritable mechanobullous disorder.
Microbial quality of chevon and mutton sold in Tamale Metropolis of Northern Ghana
Adzitey Frederick, Teye G Ayum, Ayim A Gifty, Addy Samuel
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management , 2010,
Abstract: The microbial quality of 80 meat samples made up of 40 chevon and 40 mutton were collected from the Aboabo, Central-internal, Central-external, and Sakasaka meat shops in Tamale Metropolis and assessed in order to ascertain it safety. Chevon from Aboabo and mutton from the Central market-internal had the highest mean total aerobic bacterial count of 3.9 X 10 6 cfu/cm2 and 3.7 X 106 cfu/cm2 , respectively. The lowest total aerobic count in chevon was found in the Central-internal (6.0 X 105 cfu/cm2) and that of mutton was found in Sakasaka market meat shop (6.0 X 10 5 cfu/cm2). Bacteria isolated from the samples were Escherichia coli, Streptococcus species, Salmonella species , Enterococcus species, and Staphylococcus species, some of which harbor human pathogens of public health concern. The isolation of various bacteria in chevon and mutton sold in the Tamale Metropolis indicates that, lower standard of operating systems in the slaughtering, processing and sale of meats are adhered to. The Government of Ghana, Ministry of Health and Ministry of Food and Agriculture should enforce the laws that prohibit the illegal slaughtering of animals without veterinary inspection, unstandardized methods of handling animals, slaughtering and selling of meats on the open market. @JASEM J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage. December, 2010, Vol. 14 (4) 53 - 55
Microbial Quality of “Tchachanga”, a Barbecued Mutton Sold in Benin  [PDF]
Kadoéito Cyrille Boko, Martial Gangnito, Soumanou S. Toleba, Philippe Sessou, Ulbad Polycarpe Tougan, Oscar Nestor Aguidissou, Marc T. Kpodekon, Soua?bou Farougou
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2017.78049
Abstract: The microbial quality of Tchachanga, a barbecued mutton sold at Bohicon and Hilla-Condji bus stations in Benin was assessed in accordance with French standards (DGAL, 2000). The analyses revealed that the average total viable counts (TVC) recorded in Bohicon (3.96 × 108 cfu/g) and Hilla-Condji (5.51 × 108 cfu/g) exceeded standard safety limits (3 × 105 cfu/g). Similar observations were made for other parameters such as fecal coliforms count, Escherichia coli count, sulphite-reducing anaerobes, Staphylococcus aureus, yeasts and molds. Salmonella sp were absent in all samples. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the microbial loads obtained in Bohicon and Hilla-Condji. This study shows that barbecued mutton sold in these two stations is unsafe for human consumption. It is therefore important for food safety authorities in Benin to take appropriate measures and sensitize sellers on strict observance of hygiene rules in order to preserve public health.
Genetic studies on the South African Mutton Merino: growth traits
F.W.C. Neser, G.J. Erasmus, J.B. Van Wyk
South African Journal of Animal Science , 2000,
Abstract: Genetic parameters were estimated for 36-, 42-, 50-, 100- and 150-day weight in the South African Mutton Merino breed. The direct heritability estimates obtained were 0.270, 0.366, 0.278, 0.185 and 0.115 respectively. The maternal heritability estimates for the respective weights were 0.494, 0.249, 0.129, 0.091 and 0.080. The correlation between the animal effects (direct and maternal) varied between -1.000 for 36-day weight to -0.376 for 150-day weight. Very little selection progress was made over the period (1980-1999) in the breed. (South African Journal of Animal Science, 2000, 30(3): 172-177)
D.N. Van Wyk,N.F. Treurnicht
South African Journal of Industrial Engineering , 2012,
Abstract: ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Agricultural activities in Namibia contribute 5.5% of Namibia’s GDP, while 70% of the population relies on agriculture for employment and day-to-day living. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships between the various price and non-price factors contributing to the supply dynamics within the mutton industry in Namibia. The autoregressive distributed lag approach to co-integration was used to determine the longrun and short-run supply response elasticities between economic and climatology factors on time-series data. Supply shifters showed significant short-run and long-run elasticities with regard to the mutton produced. Results also revealed that the system takes nearly two months to recover to the long-run supply equilibrium, should any disturbances occur within the supply system. AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Landbou-aktiwiteite in Namibi dra 5.5% by tot die nasionale Bruto Binnelandse Produk, in ’n land waar meer as 70% van die bevolking afhanklik is van landbou om ’n bestaan te kan maak. Die doel van hierdie studie is om die verwantskappe te ondersoek tussen verskeie prys- en nie-prys-faktore wat bydra tot die aanboddinamika van die skaapvleisbedryf. ’n Outoregressie verspreide sloering benadering tot ko-integrasie is gebruik om die langtermyn en korttermyn elastisitiete tussen ekonomie- en klimaatfaktore vir skaapvleisaanbod te bepaal. Resultate het gewys dat aanbodfaktore betekenisvolle kort- en langtermyn elastisiteite toon. Resultate het ook getoon dat die sisteem twee maande neem om te herstel na die langtermyn aanbodekwilibruim, sou daar enige drastiese veranderings gebeur in die stelsel.
Effect of electrical stimulation of carcasses from Dorper sheep with two permanent incisors on the consumer acceptance of mutton: review article
M Davel, MJC Bosman, EC Webb
South African Journal of Animal Science , 2003,
Abstract: The inconsistency in the eating quality characteristics of meats, predominantly tenderness, is probably the most critical problem faced by the meat industry worldwide. Consumers consider tenderness to be the single most important component of meat quality. An alternative method for increasing meat tenderness may exist in the form of electrical stimulation of the carcass shortly following slaughter. The aim of this research was to study the effect of electrical stimulation on the consumer acceptance of, preference for and consumption intent regarding mutton of the recently introduced class-AB sheep carcasses (carcasses from sheep with one to two permanent incisors) in South Africa. A total of 22 wethers of class-AB, weighing between 45 and 50 kg, was selected from a homogeneous group of Dorpers. Carcasses were divided into two groups, one was electrically stimulated (0.4 amp/h for 45 sec) and the other group not stimulated. Samples of the left M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum of both groups were oven roasted and a consumer panel evaluated the acceptability of the mutton regarding certain sensory characteristics. Three consumer sensory tests, namely the hedonic rating of the acceptability of each sensory attribute, a preference test and a food action rating test, were conducted in sequence. The acceptability of the juiciness, tenderness, flavour and overall acceptability were not significantly influenced by the electrical stimulation of carcasses. Samples from both the electrically stimulated and non-stimulated carcasses were highly acceptable to consumers. No significant differences in preference or percentage cooking losses were obtained. The present results indicate that electrical stimulation of class-AB carcasses did not have a significant influence on the consumer's acceptance of, nor consumption intent towards the class-AB mutton. This study shows that consumers revealed a positive attitude by declaring their intention to eat samples from both electrically stimulated and non-electrically stimulated carcasses once a week. Moreover, the variation in shear force values of meat samples from the electrically stimulated group was less compared to that of the non-stimulated group, indicating that electrical stimulation can successfully be applied to reduce the variation in tenderness within the class-AB mutton.
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