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TV Viewing and BMI by Race/Ethnicity and Socio-Economic Status  [PDF]
Kerem Shuval, Kelley Pettee Gabriel, Tammy Leonard
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0063579
Abstract: Objective To assess the association between TV viewing and obesity by race/ethnicity and socio-economic status. Design Cross-sectional analysis of 5,087 respondents to the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS), a nationally representative sample of US adults. Multivariate regression models were computed to assess the association between quartiles of TV viewing and BMI, stratified by race/ethnicity, educational attainment, employment and health insurance status. Results Findings indicate that increased TV viewing was associated with higher odds for being overweight/obese in the entire sample, while adjusting for physical activity and other confounders. After stratification by race/ethnicity, increased odds for overweight/obesity in the 3rd and 4th quartiles of TV viewing (e.g., 3rd quartile- cumulative OR = 1.43, 95%CI 1.07–1.92) was observed in non-Hispanic whites, with statistical significance. In non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics, the odds were similar to whites, but did not reach statistical significance. Significant relations between greater TV viewing and increased BMI were observed in college graduates and non-graduates, those with health insurance and the employed. Conclusions This study extends previous research by examining potential inconsistencies in this association between various racial/ethnic groups and some socio-economic variables, which primarily were not found.
TV Viewing versus Play - Trends and Impact on Obesity  [cached]
Manmeet Kaur Sodhi
Online Journal of Health & Allied Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted involving 10000 students from randomly selected government and private schools of Amritsar district to identify the trends of TV viewing and playing in school children aged 5 years and above, to compare TV viewing in both sexes, different age groups and urban versus rural children and to study the impact of TV viewing and playing on obesity in children. The results showed that TV viewing has replaced outdoor playing in most children, irrespective of age, sex and residence. A positive relation between TV viewing and obesity was also documented.
Exploring Causality between TV Viewing and Weight Change in Young and Middle-Aged Adults. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study  [PDF]
Harri Helaj?rvi, Tom Rosenstr?m, Katja Pahkala, Mika K?h?nen, Terho Lehtim?ki, Olli J. Heinonen, Mervi Oikonen, Tuija Tammelin, Jorma S. A. Viikari, Olli T. Raitakari
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0101860
Abstract: Background Television viewing time (TV time) is associated with increased weight and obesity, but it is unclear whether this relation is causal. Methods and Results We evaluated changes in TV time, waist circumference (waist) and body mass index (BMI) in participants of the population-based Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study (761 women, 626 men aged 33–50 years in 2011). Waist and BMI were measured, and TV time was self-reported in 2001, 2007, and 2011. Changes in waist and BMI between 2001 and 2011 were studied a) for the whole group, b) in groups with constantly low (≤1 h/d), moderate (1–3 h/d), or high (≥3 h/d) TV time, and c) in groups with ≥1 hour in-/decrease in daily TV time between 2001 and 2011. BMIs in 1986 were also evaluated. We explored the causal relationship of TV time with waist and BMI by classical temporality criterion and recently introduced causal-discovery algorithms (pairwise causality measures). Both methods supported the hypothesis that TV time is causative to weight gain, and no evidence was found for reverse or bidirectional causality. Constantly low TV time was associated with less pronounced increase in waist and BMI, and waist and BMI increase was lower with decreased TV time (P<0.05). The increase in waist and BMI was at least 2-fold in the high TV time group compared to the low TV time group (P<0.05). Adjustment for age, sex, BMI/waist in 2001, physical activity, energy intake, or smoking did not change the results. Conclusions In young and middle-aged adults, constantly high TV time is temporally antecedent to BMI and waist increase.
Excessive TV viewing and cardiovascular disease risk factors in adolescents. The AVENA cross-sectional study
David Martinez-Gomez, J Pablo Rey-López, Palma Chillón, Sonia Gómez-Martínez, Germán Vicente-Rodríguez, Miguel Martín-Matillas, Miguel Garcia-Fuentes, Manuel Delgado, Luis A Moreno, Oscar L Veiga, Joey C Eisenmann, Ascension Marcos, AVENA Study Group
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-274
Abstract: A sample of 425 adolescents, aged 13- to 18.5-year-old, was included in this study. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein (apo) A-1, apo B-100, and lipoprotein(a) levels were determined. A composite CVD risk score was computed based on age-, sex-, sexual maturation- and race-standardized triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and glucose. TV viewing was self-reported.Two hundred and twenty-five adolescents (53%) who spent >3 hrs/day watching TV were considered as the "high TV viewing" group. Ninety-nine adolescents (23%) from the total sample were classified as overweight according to International age- and sex-specific BMI values. The high TV viewing group had significantly less favorable values of HDL-cholesterol, glucose, apo A1 and CVD score, independent of age, sex, sexual maturation, race and weight status. There was a significant interaction effect of TV viewing × weight status (P = 0.002) on WC, and the negative influence of TV viewing on WC persisted in the overweight group (P = 0.031) but was attenuated in non-overweight adolescents (P > 0.05).Excessive TV viewing seems to be related to an unfavorable CVD risk factors profile in adolescence. Reducing TV viewing in overweight adolescents might be beneficial to decrease abdominal body fat.Cardiovascular and metabolic diseases are the principal causes of mortality in developed countries [1]. Therefore, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and metabolic risk factors are very important concerns in public health policies [2]. To prevent atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome, it is necessary to develop actions from childhood and adolescence because CVD risk factors track towards adulthood [3]. Likewise, the increasing prevalence of CVD risk factors in children and adolescents might be, at least in part, a response to the worldwide trends in pediatric overweight and obesity [4,5].Adequate
Are parental concerns for child TV viewing associated with child TV viewing and the home sedentary environment?
Natalie Pearson, Jo Salmon, David Crawford, Karen Campbell, Anna Timperio
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-8-102
Abstract: Parents of children aged 5-6 years ('younger' children, n = 430) and 10-12 years ('older children', n = 640) reported usual duration of their child's television (TV) viewing, their concerns regarding the amount of time their child spends watching TV, and on aspects of the home environment. Regression analyses examined associations between parental concern and child TV viewing, and between parental concern and aspects of the home environment. Analyses were stratified by age group.Children of concerned parents watched more TV than those whose parents were not concerned (B = 9.63, 95% CI = 1.58-17.68, p = 0.02 and B = 15.82, 95% CI = 8.85-22.80, p < 0.01, for younger and older children respectively). Parental concern was positively associated with younger children eating dinner in front of the television, and with parental restriction of sedentary behaviours and offering sedentary activities (i.e. TV viewing or computer use) as a reward for good behaviour among older and young children. Furthermore, parents of older children who were concerned had fewer televisions in the home and a lower count of sedentary equipment in the home.Children of concerned parents watched more TV than those whose parents who were not concerned. Parents appear to recognise excessive television viewing in their children and these parents appear to engage in conflicting parental approaches despite these concerns. Interventions targeting concerned parents may be an innovative way of reaching children most in need of strategies to reduce their television viewing and harnessing this parental concern may offer considerable opportunity to change the family and home environment.Television viewing is the most prevalent sedentary behaviour for young people in industrialised countries, and for many the most prevalent leisure time activity [1,2]. Evidence suggests that many young people far exceed the recommended two hours per day of total screen time in front of the television alone [3-7]. Time spent wa
Mothers’ Behaviors about Viewing of Television and TV Ratings System  [cached]
Selman Belviranli,Kubilay Ceritoglu,Cagla Bilgin,Feyza Bayraktar
TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin , 2008,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Excessive viewing of television results serious negative effects on physical and mental health of children and adolescents. In Turkey, Radio and Television Supreme Council (RTUK) started a TV ratings project to inform parents about program contents on 23rd of April 2006. The objective of this study was to determine mothers behaviors about viewing of television and their knowledge and opinions about TV ratings system. METHODS: This descriptive research was performed among 253 mothers who have children under 18 years old. A questionnaire that consists of 21 questions was applied to the mothers face to face in Mothers and Children Health Centre in Ankara, Turkey between 3 and 12 December 2007. RESULTS: In al of the houses there was at least one television set. Mothers mean viewing of television time is 3,1 ± 2,0 hours and children s mean viewing of television time is 2,7 ± 2,2 hours. Children s TV viewing time is correlated with their mothers viewing time (p<0,05). Mothers with middle school or higher education level and aged under 33 years had better TV rating score. CONCLUSION: Most of the children watch TV over recommended daily time. Mothers had insufficient information on TV rating codes. A public education program, targeting mothers, TV s health effects and TV ratings system may be helpful to prevent negative effects of TV on children. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2008; 7(3): 191-198]
Is There Any Association between TV Viewing and Obesity in Preschool Children in Japan?
Acta Medica Okayama , 2010,
Abstract: Obesity in children is a serious public health problem, and TV viewing is considered a potential risk factor. Since, however, no relevant association studies have been conducted in Japan, we evaluated the association between TV viewing and obesity using a population-based study conducted in a Japanese town. All 616 preschool children in the town were enrolled in February 2008, and a self-administered questionnaire to collect children's and parents' characteristics was sent to the parents. We dichotomized the time spent TV viewing and evaluated associations by logistic regression using a "less than 2h" category as a reference. The questionnaire was collected from 476 participants (77.3%), of whom 449 were available for the final analyses. Among them, 26.9% of preschool children reported 2 or more hours of TV viewing per day and 8.2% were defined as obese. In logistic regression analyses, there was no positive association in unadjusted (odds ratio [OR]1.11, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]:0.50-2.49) or adjusted models for exclusively breastfed status, sleep duration, or maternal factors (OR1.11, 95% CI:0.50-2.51). We also found no positive association between TV viewing and overweight status, possibly owing to the influence of social environment, low statistical power, or misclassification.
Mediators of longitudinal associations between television viewing and eating behaviours in adolescents
Natalie Pearson, Kylie Ball, David Crawford
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-8-23
Abstract: Eating behaviours were assessed using a web-based survey completed by a community-based sample of 1729 adolescents from years 7 and 9 of secondary schools in Victoria, Australia, at baseline (2004-2005) and two years later. TV viewing and the potential mediators (snacking while watching TV and perceived value of TV viewing) were assessed via the web-based survey at baseline.Adolescents who watched more than two hours of TV/day had higher intakes of energy-dense snacks and beverages, and lower intakes of fruit two years later. Furthermore, the associations between TV viewing and consumption of energy-dense snacks, energy-dense drinks and fruit were mediated by snacking while watching TV. Perceived value of TV viewing mediated the association between TV viewing and consumption of energy-dense snacks, beverages and fruit.Snacking while watching TV and perceived value of TV viewing mediated the longitudinal association between TV viewing and eating behaviours among adolescents. The efficacy of methods to reduce TV viewing, change snacking habits while watching TV, and address the values that adolescents place on TV viewing should be examined in an effort to promote healthy eating among adolescents.Consumption of energy-dense foods and beverages during youth have both immediate and long-term health consequences, including higher body mass index (BMI) [1]. On the other hand, diets rich in fruits and vegetables have important health-protective effects including protection against the development of certain cancers at puberty [2] and in adulthood [3]. Despite this, many young people do not meet current recommendations for fruit and vegetable consumption [4,5], and many regularly consume foods high in fats, sodium and sugar [5,6]. The tendency for eating behaviours established in adolescence to persist into adulthood [7,8] has important implications for nutrition promotion, highlighting the need for a greater understanding of the influences on adolescent eating behaviours.Th
Television Viewing Time in Hong Kong Adult Population: Associations with Body Mass Index and Obesity  [PDF]
Yao Jie Xie, Sunita M. Stewart, Tai Hing Lam, Kasisomayajula Viswanath, Sophia S. Chan
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085440
Abstract: Background Obesity is increasing dramatically in the Asia-Pacific region particularly China. The population of Hong Kong was exposed to modernization far earlier than the rest of China, reflecting conditions that are likely to be replicated as other Chinese cities undergo rapid change. This study examined the relationship between television viewing and obesity in a Hong Kong sample. Information about the relationship between a key sedentary behavior, TV viewing, and obesity, and its moderation by demographic characteristics may identify sectors of the population at highest risk for excess weight. Methods Data were from Hong Kong Family and Health Information Trends Survey (2009–2010), a population-based survey on the public's use of media for health information and family communication by telephone interviews with 3,016 Hong Kong adults (age≥18 years). TV viewing time, body mass index (BMI), physical activity and other lifestyle variables were analyzed. Results Viewing time was longer in women, increased with age but decreased with education level and vigorous physical activity (all P<0.01). Longer TV viewing time was significantly associated with higher BMI (Coefficients B = 0.17, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.24) after adjusting for age, gender, employment status, marital status, education level, smoking activity and vigorous physical activity. This association was stronger in women than men (Coefficients B: 0.19 versus 0.15) and strongest in those aged 18 to 34 years (Coefficients B = 0.35). Furthermore, an hour increase in daily TV viewing was associated with 10% greater odds of being obese. Conclusions A significant socioeconomic gradient in television viewing time was observed. TV viewing time positively associated with BMI and obesity. The TV viewing – BMI associations were strongest in women and young adults, suggesting vulnerable groups to target for obesity prevention by decreasing TV viewing.
TV Viewing and Physical Activity Are Independently Associated with Metabolic Risk in Children: The European Youth Heart Study  [PDF]
Ulf Ekelund ,S?ren Brage,Karsten Froberg,Maarike Harro ?,Sigmund A Anderssen,Luis B Sardinha,Chris Riddoch,Lars Bo Andersen
PLOS Medicine , 2006, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0030488
Abstract: Background TV viewing has been linked to metabolic-risk factors in youth. However, it is unclear whether this association is independent of physical activity (PA) and obesity. Methods and Findings We did a population-based, cross-sectional study in 9- to 10-y-old and 15- to 16-y-old boys and girls from three regions in Europe (n = 1,921). We examined the independent associations between TV viewing, PA measured by accelerometry, and metabolic-risk factors (body fatness, blood pressure, fasting triglycerides, inverted high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, glucose, and insulin levels). Clustered metabolic risk was expressed as a continuously distributed score calculated as the average of the standardized values of the six subcomponents. There was a positive association between TV viewing and adiposity (p = 0.021). However, after adjustment for PA, gender, age group, study location, sexual maturity, smoking status, birth weight, and parental socio-economic status, the association of TV viewing with clustered metabolic risk was no longer significant (p = 0.053). PA was independently and inversely associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, insulin (all p < 0.01), and triglycerides (p = 0.02). PA was also significantly and inversely associated with the clustered risk score (p < 0.0001), independently of obesity and other confounding factors. Conclusions TV viewing and PA may be separate entities and differently associated with adiposity and metabolic risk. The association between TV viewing and clustered metabolic risk is mediated by adiposity, whereas PA is associated with individual and clustered metabolic-risk indicators independently of obesity. Thus, preventive action against metabolic risk in children may need to target TV viewing and PA separately.
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