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cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinase I Is Crucial for Angiogenesis and Postnatal Vasculogenesis  [PDF]
Alexandra Aicher, Christopher Heeschen, Susanne Feil, Franz Hofmann, Michael E. Mendelsohn, Robert Feil, Stefanie Dimmeler
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004879
Abstract: Background Endothelium-derived nitric oxide plays an important role for the bone marrow microenvironment. Since several important effects of nitric oxide are mediated by cGMP-dependent pathways, we investigated the role of the cGMP downstream effector cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (cGKI) on postnatal neovascularization. Methodology/Principal Findings In a disc neovascularization model, cGKI?/? mice showed an impaired neovascularization as compared to their wild-type (WT) littermates. Infusion of WT, but not cGKI?/? bone marrow progenitors rescued the impaired ingrowth of new vessels in cGKI-deficient mice. Bone marrow progenitors from cGKI?/? mice showed reduced proliferation and survival rates. In addition, we used cGKIα leucine zipper mutant (LZM) mice as model for cGKI deficiency. LZM mice harbor a mutation in the cGKIα leucine zipper that prevents interaction with downstream signaling molecules. Consistently, LZM mice exhibited reduced numbers of vasculogenic progenitors and impaired neovascularization following hindlimb ischemia compared to WT mice. Conclusions/Significance Our findings demonstrate that the cGMP-cGKI pathway is critical for postnatal neovascularization and establish a new role for cGKI in vasculogenesis, which is mediated by bone marrow-derived progenitors.
Gametogenesis in Malaria Parasites Is Mediated by the cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinase  [PDF]
Louisa McRobert,Cathy J. Taylor,Wensheng Deng,Quinton L. Fivelman,Ross M. Cummings,Spencer D. Polley,Oliver Billker,David A. Baker
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0060139
Abstract: Malaria parasite transmission requires differentiation of male and female gametocytes into gametes within a mosquito following a blood meal. A mosquito-derived molecule, xanthurenic acid (XA), can trigger gametogenesis, but the signalling events controlling this process in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum remain unknown. A role for cGMP was revealed by our observation that zaprinast (an inhibitor of phosphodiesterases that hydrolyse cGMP) stimulates gametogenesis in the absence of XA. Using cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) inhibitors in conjunction with transgenic parasites expressing an inhibitor-insensitive mutant PKG enzyme, we demonstrate that PKG is essential for XA- and zaprinast-induced gametogenesis. Furthermore, we show that intracellular calcium (Ca2+) is required for differentiation and acts downstream of or in parallel with PKG activation. This work defines a key role for PKG in gametogenesis, elucidates the hierarchy of signalling events governing this process in P. falciparum, and demonstrates the feasibility of selective inhibition of a crucial regulator of the malaria parasite life cycle.
Gametogenesis in Malaria Parasites Is Mediated by the cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinase  [PDF]
Louisa McRobert,Cathy J Taylor,Wensheng Deng,Quinton L Fivelman,Ross M Cummings,Spencer D Polley,Oliver Billker,David A Baker
PLOS Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0060139
Abstract: Malaria parasite transmission requires differentiation of male and female gametocytes into gametes within a mosquito following a blood meal. A mosquito-derived molecule, xanthurenic acid (XA), can trigger gametogenesis, but the signalling events controlling this process in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum remain unknown. A role for cGMP was revealed by our observation that zaprinast (an inhibitor of phosphodiesterases that hydrolyse cGMP) stimulates gametogenesis in the absence of XA. Using cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) inhibitors in conjunction with transgenic parasites expressing an inhibitor-insensitive mutant PKG enzyme, we demonstrate that PKG is essential for XA- and zaprinast-induced gametogenesis. Furthermore, we show that intracellular calcium (Ca2+) is required for differentiation and acts downstream of or in parallel with PKG activation. This work defines a key role for PKG in gametogenesis, elucidates the hierarchy of signalling events governing this process in P. falciparum, and demonstrates the feasibility of selective inhibition of a crucial regulator of the malaria parasite life cycle.
Spatiotemporal and Functional Characterisation of the Plasmodium falciparum cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinase  [PDF]
Christine S. Hopp, Christian Flueck, Lev Solyakov, Andrew Tobin, David A. Baker
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0048206
Abstract: Signalling by 3′–5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) exists in virtually all eukaryotes. In the apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium, the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) has previously been reported to play a critical role in four key stages of the life cycle. The Plasmodium falciparum isoform (PfPKG) is essential for the initiation of gametogenesis and for blood stage schizont rupture and work on the orthologue from the rodent malaria parasite P. berghei (PbPKG) has shown additional roles in ookinete differentiation and motility as well as liver stage schizont development. In the present study, PfPKG expression and subcellular location in asexual blood stages was investigated using transgenic epitope-tagged PfPKG-expressing P. falciparum parasites. In Western blotting experiments and immunofluorescence analysis (IFA), maximal PfPKG expression was detected at the late schizont stage. While IFA suggested a cytosolic location, a degree of overlap with markers of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was found and subcellular fractionation showed some association with the peripheral membrane fraction. This broad localisation is consistent with the notion that PfPKG, as with the mammalian orthologue, has numerous cellular substrates. This idea is further supported by the global protein phosphorylation pattern of schizonts which was substantially changed following PfPKG inhibition, suggesting a complex role for PfPKG during schizogony.
Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide relaxes gastric antral circular smooth muscle of guinea-pig through the cGMP/cGMP-dependent protein kinase pathway  [cached]
Chun-Yu Cai, Zheng-Xu Cai, Xin-Yi Gu, Lu-Juan Shan, Yong-Xiao Wang, Xue-Zhe Yin, Qing-Hui Qi, Hui-Shu Guo
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2008,
Abstract: AIM: To systematically investigate if cGMP/cGMP-dependent protein kinase G (PKG) signaling pathway may participate in dendroaspis natriuretic peptide (DNP)-induced relaxation of gastric circular smooth muscle.METHODS: The content of cGMP in guinea pig gastric antral smooth muscle tissue and perfusion solution were measured using radioimmunoassay; spontaneous contraction of gastric antral circular muscles recorded using a 4-channel physiograph; and Ca2+-activated K+ currents (IK(Ca)) and spontaneous transient outward currents (STOCs) in isolated gastric antral myocytes were recorded using the whole-cell patch clamp technique.RESULTS: DNP markedly enhanced cGMP levels in gastric antral smooth muscle tissue and in the perfusion medium. DNP induced relaxation in gastric antral circular smooth muscle, which was inhibited by KT5823, a cGMP-dependent PKG inhibitor. DNP increased IK(Ca). This effect was almost completely blocked by KT5823, and partially blocked by LY83583, an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase to change the production of cGMP. DNP also increased STOCs. The effect of DNP on STOCs was abolished in the presence of KT5823, but not affected by KT-5720, a PKA-specific inhibitor.CONCLUSION: DNP activates IK(Ca) and relaxes guinea-pig gastric antral circular smooth muscle via the cGMP/PKG-dependent singling axis instead of cAMP/PKA pathway.
cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Inhibitors in Health and Disease  [PDF]
Stefanie Wolfertstetter,Johannes P. Huettner,Jens Schlossmann
Pharmaceuticals , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ph6020269
Abstract: cGMP-dependent protein kinases (PKG) exhibit diverse physiological functions in the mammalian system e.g., in vascular and gastrointestinal smooth muscles, in platelets, in kidney, in bone growth, nociception and in the central nervous system. Furthermore, PKG were found in insects and in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Two different genes of PKG exist: a) the PKG-I gene that is expressed as cytosolic PKG-Iα or PKG-Iβ isoform, and b) the PKG-II gene, which expresses the membrane associated PKG-II protein. The enzyme kinetics, the localization and the substrates of these PKG enzymes differ utilizing different physiological functions. Various inhibitors of PKG were developed directed against diverse functional regions of the kinase. These inhibitors of PKG have been used to analyse the specific functions of these enzymes. The review article will summarize these different inhibitors regarding their specificity and their present applications in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, it will be discussed that the distinct inhibition of the PKG enzymes could be used as a valuable pharmacological target e.g., in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, diarrhea, cancer or malaria.
Phosphodiesterase 3 mediates cross-talk between the protein kinase- and cGMP- dependent pathways and cyclic AMP metabolism  [PDF]
Edyta Makuch,Janusz Matuszyk
Post?py Higieny i Medycyny Do?wiadczalnej , 2012,
Abstract: PDE3 is a dual-substrate phosphodiesterase responsible for hydrolyzing both cAMP and cGMP whilst being simultaneously inhibited by cGMP. This feature is related to presence of the 44 amino acid insert in the catalytic domain, which determines the mechanism of introduction of the cyclic nucleotide into the catalytic pocket of the enzyme. Once bound in the catalytic site cGMP results in steric hindrance for cAMP to enter the site. The regulatory domain of PDE3 consists of two hydrophobic regions: NHR1 and NHR2. Their presence defines the enzyme’s intracellular localization, thus determining its participation in particular signaling cascades. Due to the properties of PDE3 this enzyme has exceptional importance for the cross-talk between cAMP-dependent signaling and other cascades. There are two different mechanisms of action of PDE3 enzymes in cell signaling pathways. In many signaling cascades assembly of a signalosome is necessary for phosphorylation and activation of the PDE3 proteins. In response to certain hormones and growth factors, PDE3 merges the metabolism of cAMP with protein kinase-dependent signaling pathways. PDE3 also controls the level of cAMP with regard to the alternating concentration of cGMP. This effect occurs in signaling cascades activated by natriuretic peptide.
The cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinase II Is an Inhibitory Modulator of the Hyperpolarization-Activated HCN2 Channel  [PDF]
Verena Hammelmann,Xiangang Zong,Franz Hofmann,Stylianos Michalakis,Martin Biel
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017078
Abstract: Opening of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels is facilitated by direct binding of cyclic nucleotides to a cyclic nucleotide-binding domain (CNBD) in the C-terminus. Here, we show for the first time that in the HCN2 channel cGMP can also exert an inhibitory effect on gating via cGMP-dependent protein kinase II (cGKII)-mediated phosphorylation. Using coimmunoprecipitation and immunohistochemistry we demonstrate that cGKII and HCN2 interact and colocalize with each other upon heterologous expression as well as in native mouse brain. We identify the proximal C-terminus of HCN2 as binding region of cGKII and show that cGKII phosphorylates HCN2 at a specific serine residue (S641) in the C-terminal end of the CNBD. The cGKII shifts the voltage-dependence of HCN2 activation to 2–5 mV more negative voltages and, hence, counteracts the stimulatory effect of cGMP on gating. The inhibitory cGMP effect can be either abolished by mutation of the phosphorylation site in HCN2 or by impairing the catalytic domain of cGKII. By contrast, the inhibitory effect is preserved in a HCN2 mutant carrying a CNBD deficient for cGMP binding. Our data suggest that bidirectional regulation of HCN2 gating by cGMP contributes to cellular fine-tuning of HCN channel activity.
The C. elegans cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinase EGL-4 Regulates Nociceptive Behavioral Sensitivity  [PDF]
Michelle C. Krzyzanowski,Chantal Brueggemann equal contributor,Meredith J. Ezak equal contributor,Jordan F. Wood equal contributor,Kerry L. Michaels,Christopher A. Jackson,Bi-Tzen Juang,Kimberly D. Collins,Michael C. Yu,Noelle D. L'Etoile,Denise M. Ferkey
PLOS Genetics , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1003619
Abstract: Signaling levels within sensory neurons must be tightly regulated to allow cells to integrate information from multiple signaling inputs and to respond to new stimuli. Herein we report a new role for the cGMP-dependent protein kinase EGL-4 in the negative regulation of G protein-coupled nociceptive chemosensory signaling. C. elegans lacking EGL-4 function are hypersensitive in their behavioral response to low concentrations of the bitter tastant quinine and exhibit an elevated calcium flux in the ASH sensory neurons in response to quinine. We provide the first direct evidence for cGMP/PKG function in ASH and propose that ODR-1, GCY-27, GCY-33 and GCY-34 act in a non-cell-autonomous manner to provide cGMP for EGL-4 function in ASH. Our data suggest that activated EGL-4 dampens quinine sensitivity via phosphorylation and activation of the regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins RGS-2 and RGS-3, which in turn downregulate Gα signaling and behavioral sensitivity.
cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Contributes to Hydrogen Sulfide-Stimulated Vasorelaxation  [PDF]
Mariarosaria Bucci, Andreas Papapetropoulos, Valentina Vellecco, Zongmin Zhou, Altaany Zaid, Panagiotis Giannogonas, Anna Cantalupo, Sandeep Dhayade, Katia P. Karalis, Rui Wang, Robert Feil, Giuseppe Cirino
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0053319
Abstract: A growing body of evidence suggests that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a signaling molecule in mammalian cells. In the cardiovascular system, H2S enhances vasodilation and angiogenesis. H2S-induced vasodilation is hypothesized to occur through ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP); however, we recently demonstrated that it also increases cGMP levels in tissues. Herein, we studied the involvement of cGMP-dependent protein kinase-I in H2S-induced vasorelaxation. The effect of H2S on vessel tone was studied in phenylephrine-contracted aortic rings with or without endothelium. cGMP levels were determined in cultured cells or isolated vessel by enzyme immunoassay. Pretreatment of aortic rings with sildenafil attenuated NaHS-induced relaxation, confirming previous findings that H2S is a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. In addition, vascular tissue levels of cGMP in cystathionine gamma lyase knockouts were lower than those in wild-type control mice. Treatment of aortic rings with NaHS, a fast releasing H2S donor, enhanced phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein in a time-dependent manner, suggesting that cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) is activated after exposure to H2S. Incubation of aortic rings with a PKG-I inhibitor (DT-2) attenuated NaHS-stimulated relaxation. Interestingly, vasodilatory responses to a slowly releasing H2S donor (GYY 4137) were unaffected by DT-2, suggesting that this donor dilates mouse aorta through PKG-independent pathways. Dilatory responses to NaHS and L-cysteine (a substrate for H2S production) were reduced in vessels of PKG-I knockout mice (PKG-I?/?). Moreover, glibenclamide inhibited NaHS-induced vasorelaxation in vessels from wild-type animals, but not PKG-I?/?, suggesting that there is a cross-talk between KATP and PKG. Our results confirm the role of cGMP in the vascular responses to NaHS and demonstrate that genetic deletion of PKG-I attenuates NaHS and L-cysteine-stimulated vasodilation.
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