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Differential expression of a BMP4 reporter allele in anterior fungiform versus posterior circumvallate taste buds of mice
Ha M Nguyen, Linda A Barlow
BMC Neuroscience , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2202-11-129
Abstract: BMP4 is expressed in adult fungiform and circumvallate papillae, i.e., lingual structures composed of non-taste epithelium and taste buds. Unexpectedly, we find both differences and similarities with respect to expression of BMP4-driven ?-galactosidase. In circumvallate papillae, many fusiform cells within taste buds are BMP4-?-gal positive. Further, a low percentage of BMP4-expressing cells within circumvallate taste buds is immunopositive for markers of each of the three differentiated taste cell types (I, II and III). BMP4-positive intragemmal cells also expressed a putative marker of immature taste cells, Sox2, and consistent with this finding, intragemmal cells expressed BMP4-?-gal within 24 hours after their final mitosis, as determined by BrdU birthdating. By contrast, in fungiform papillae, BMP4-?-gal positive cells are never encountered within taste buds. However, in both circumvallate and fungiform papillae, BMP4-?-gal expressing cells are located in the perigemmal region, comprising basal and edge epithelial cells adjacent to taste buds proper. This region houses the proliferative cell population that gives rise to adult taste cells. However, perigemmal BMP4-?-gal cells appear mitotically silent in both fungiform and circumvallate taste papillae, as we do not find evidence of their active proliferation using cell cycle immunomarkers and BrdU birthdating.Our data suggest that intragemmal BMP4-?-gal cells in circumvallate papillae are immature taste cells which eventually differentiate into each of the 3 taste cell types, whereas perigemmal BMP4-?-gal cells in both circumvallate and fungiform papillae may be slow cycling stem cells, or belong to the stem cell niche to regulate taste cell renewal from the proliferative cell population.The mouse tongue contains three types of taste papillae: fungiform, circumvallate, and foliate. Each papilla houses one (fungiform) or many taste buds (circumvallate and foliate). In mice, each taste bud contains approximately
Characteristics of Dorsal Lingual Papillae of Zavot Cattle
Ebru Karadag Sari,Melek Kocak Harem,Ismail Sah Harem
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2010.123.130
Abstract: Reared for milk and meat production, the Zavot cattle breed, which is grazed on grassland in summer and fed on fodder in winter, is a cattle breed native to the East Anatolian region of Turkey. The objective of the study was to investigate the localization and histological features of the lingual papillae on the dorsal surface of the Zavot cattle tongue by light and scanning electron microscopy and to compare the findings with those of related ruminants. Tissue samples were harvested from the apex, body and root of the tongues and were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. Histologically, there were five types of papillae on the dorsal surface of the tongue, namely filiform, fungiform, circumvallate, lenticular and conical papillae. Filiform papillae had different structure on the apex and body of the tongue. On the body of the tongue each main papilla was accompanied by 1-3 secondary papillae. However, there was not any secondary papilla on the main papilla at the apex of the tongue. The taste pores were seen at the free surface of the fungiform papillae. Round to oval in shape circumvallate papillae were arranged twine and irregularly in two lines at the caudo-lateral region of the torus linguae. Lenticular papillae which were round or conical-like shape limited on the torus linguae. Conical papillae were distributed mainly on the lingual root. Tips of the conical papillae were covered with a thick layer of keratin. Variety of the distribution and morphological and histological charecteristics of the lingual papillae in Zavot cattle related to be kind of diet and feeding habits.
Nerve endings of filliform, fungiform and vallate papillae of dorsal tongue mucosa of White-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari): Neurohistological observations
Watanabe, Ii-sei;Guimar?es, Juliana Plácido;Boleta, Sebasti?o Aparecido;Almeida, Sonia Regina Yokomizo;Righeti, Martha Maria;Santos, Tatiana Carlesso;Miglino, Maria Angélica;Kfoury Junior, José Roberto;
Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-736X2009000400001
Abstract: the neurohistologic observations were performed using the specimens prepared by winkelmann and schmitt silver impregnation method. the tissues were fixed in 10% formalin solution and sections of 40μm thickness were obtained by leica cryostat at -30oc. the sections of dorsal mucosa of white-lipped peccary tongue showed numerous filliform and fungiform papillae, and two vallate papillae on the caudal part. the epithelial layer revealed queratinized epithelial cells and the connective tissue papillae of different sizes and shapes. thick nerve fiber bundles are noted into the subepithelial connective tissue of the papillae. the connective tissue of fungiform and vallate papillae contained numerous sensitive nerves fibers bundles forming a complex nerve plexus.
Immunohistochemical observation of actin filaments in epithelial cells encircling the taste pore cavity of rat fungiform papillae
Y Ohishi,S Komiyama,K Wakida,T Uchida
European Journal of Histochemistry , 2009, DOI: 10.4081/1598
Abstract: Epithelial cells are connected to each other around taste pores in rat fungiform papillae. Cytoskeletal components are responsible for the maintenance of intracellular adhesion, and we investigated the identification and localization of actin filaments around taste pores. On the basis of observations made by immunohistochemical transmission electron microscopy comparing with confocal laser scanning microscopy using actin-lectin double staining, actin filaments were found to be localized, encircling the squeezed taste pore cavity, in epithelial cells a few micrometers below the papilla surface. In addition, these observations suggest that the organization of actin filaments around taste pores might be involved in the constriction of taste pores.
MamuSNP: A Resource for Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) Genomics  [PDF]
Ripan S. Malhi, Brad Sickler, Dawei Lin, Jessica Satkoski, Raul Y. Tito, Debbie George, Sreetharan Kanthaswamy, David Glenn Smith
PLOS ONE , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000438
Abstract: We developed a novel method for identifying SNPs widely distributed throughout the coding and non-coding regions of a genome. The method uses large-scale parallel pyrosequencing technology in combination with bioinformatics tools. We used this method to generate approximately 23,000 candidate SNPs throughout the Macaca mulatta genome. We estimate that over 60% of the SNPs will be of high frequency and useful for mapping QTLs, genetic management, and studies of individual relatedness, whereas other less frequent SNPs may be useful as population specific markers for ancestry identification. We have created a web resource called MamuSNP to view the SNPs and associated information online. This resource will also be useful for researchers using a wide variety of Macaca species in their research.
Pyrosequencing as a method for SNP identification in the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta)
Jessica A Satkoski, RS Malhi, S Kanthaswamy, RY Tito, VS Malladi, DG Smith
BMC Genomics , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-9-256
Abstract: By testing our previously reported single nucleotide polymorphisms, we identified a subset of high-confidence, high-MAF polymorphisms. Resequencing revealed a large number of regionally specific SNPs not identified through a single pyrosequencing run. By resequencing a pooled sample of four individuals, we reliably identified loci with a MAF of at least 12.5%. Finally, we found that when applied to a larger, geographically variable sample of rhesus, a large proportion of our loci were variable in both populations, and very few loci were ancestry informative. Despite this fact, the SNP loci were more effective at discriminating Indian and Chinese rhesus than STR loci.Pyrosequencing and pooled resequencing are viable methods for the identification of high-MAF SNP loci in rhesus macaques. These SNP loci are appropriate for screening both the inter- and intra-population genetic variation.Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) are used more extensively as animal models for the study of human disease than any other primate species. They provide the primary model for research in infectious diseases, reproductive biology, behavior, neuroscience and immunology. More recently, they have been employed in research and vaccine development for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) [1-3]. The severe shortage of rhesus macaques as subjects for biomedical research prompted the establishment of national centers for breeding them in the US [4-6]. After their exportation from India ceased in 1978, China became the principal supplier of rhesus macaques to these centers and, thus, domestically bred rhesus macaques represent both countries of origin with only negligible contributions from rhesus macaques from other countries [7]. The particular shortage of Indian-derived rhesus macaques available for use as subjects in biomedical research and their desirability over Chinese rhesus macaques have led to efforts to acquire Indian-like rhesus macaques from sources outside India, such as Nepal and
FGF Signaling Regulates the Number of Posterior Taste Papillae by Controlling Progenitor Field Size  [PDF]
Camille I. Petersen equal contributor,Andrew H. Jheon equal contributor,Pasha Mostowfi,Cyril Charles,Saunders Ching,Shoba Thirumangalathu,Linda A. Barlow,Ophir D. Klein
PLOS Genetics , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002098
Abstract: The sense of taste is fundamental to our ability to ingest nutritious substances and to detect and avoid potentially toxic ones. Sensory taste buds are housed in papillae that develop from epithelial placodes. Three distinct types of gustatory papillae reside on the rodent tongue: small fungiform papillae are found in the anterior tongue, whereas the posterior tongue contains the larger foliate papillae and a single midline circumvallate papilla (CVP). Despite the great variation in the number of CVPs in mammals, its importance in taste function, and its status as the largest of the taste papillae, very little is known about the development of this structure. Here, we report that a balance between Sprouty (Spry) genes and Fgf10, which respectively antagonize and activate receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling, regulates the number of CVPs. Deletion of Spry2 alone resulted in duplication of the CVP as a result of an increase in the size of the placode progenitor field, and Spry1?/?;Spry2?/? embryos had multiple CVPs, demonstrating the redundancy of Sprouty genes in regulating the progenitor field size. By contrast, deletion of Fgf10 led to absence of the CVP, identifying FGF10 as the first inductive, mesenchyme-derived factor for taste papillae. Our results provide the first demonstration of the role of epithelial-mesenchymal FGF signaling in taste papilla development, indicate that regulation of the progenitor field size by FGF signaling is a critical determinant of papilla number, and suggest that the great variation in CVP number among mammalian species may be linked to levels of signaling by the FGF pathway.
A2BR Adenosine Receptor Modulates Sweet Taste in Circumvallate Taste Buds  [PDF]
Shinji Kataoka, Arian Baquero, Dan Yang, Nicole Shultz, Aurelie Vandenbeuch, Katya Ravid, Sue C. Kinnamon, Thomas E. Finger
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0030032
Abstract: In response to taste stimulation, taste buds release ATP, which activates ionotropic ATP receptors (P2X2/P2X3) on taste nerves as well as metabotropic (P2Y) purinergic receptors on taste bud cells. The action of the extracellular ATP is terminated by ectonucleotidases, ultimately generating adenosine, which itself can activate one or more G-protein coupled adenosine receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Here we investigated the expression of adenosine receptors in mouse taste buds at both the nucleotide and protein expression levels. Of the adenosine receptors, only A2B receptor (A2BR) is expressed specifically in taste epithelia. Further, A2BR is expressed abundantly only in a subset of taste bud cells of posterior (circumvallate, foliate), but not anterior (fungiform, palate) taste fields in mice. Analysis of double-labeled tissue indicates that A2BR occurs on Type II taste bud cells that also express Gα14, which is present only in sweet-sensitive taste cells of the foliate and circumvallate papillae. Glossopharyngeal nerve recordings from A2BR knockout mice show significantly reduced responses to both sucrose and synthetic sweeteners, but normal responses to tastants representing other qualities. Thus, our study identified a novel regulator of sweet taste, the A2BR, which functions to potentiate sweet responses in posterior lingual taste fields.
Scanning Electron Microscopy Study of the Dorsal Surface of the Tongue in Zaedyus pichiy (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Dasypodidae)
Ciuccio,M; Estecondo,S; Casanave,E. B;
International Journal of Morphology , 2008, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-95022008000100002
Abstract: the dorsal surface of the tongue of zaedyus pichiy (desmarest, 1804) was examined by scanning electron microscopy. conical and branched filiform, fungiform and vallate papillae are described. no foliate papillae were seen. conical filiform papillae are distributed in the apex, both lateral edges and caudally to the vallated ones. the branched papillae represent the most numerous type of lingual papillae; they are distributed over the entire dorsal surface of the tongue. the fungiform papillae are placed among the filiform ones, more densely distributed on the tip of the lingual apex. in the posterior third of the tongue there are two vallated papillae surrounded by a deep circular grove. fungiform and circumvallate papillae are related to the sense of taste; openings of taste pores are visible on their surface. the filiform papillae have a mechanical and protective role.
Unusual Vesical Calculus in Rhesus Monkey (Macaca mulatta)
Hong Wang,Wei Si,Yuyu Niu,Lixian Chen,Ye Yan
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2012.1790.1792
Abstract: Several cases of urinary calculi have been reported in cynomolgus monkeys but vesical calculi were not reported in rhesus monkeys. The adult male rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) presented here had a vesical calculi which was entire urate.
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