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Knowledge in process? Exploring barriers between epidemiological research and local health policy development
Joyce de Goede, Kim Putters, Tom van der Grinten, Hans AM van Oers
Health Research Policy and Systems , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1478-4505-8-26
Abstract: Based on a literature search and a short inventory on experiences from Regional Health Services, we made a description of existing research utilization models and concepts about research utilization. Subsequently we mapped different barriers in research transmission.The interaction model is regarded as the main explanatory model. It acknowledges the interactive and incremental nature of policy development, which takes place in a context and includes diversity within the groups of researchers and policymakers. This fits well in the dynamic and complex setting of local Dutch health policy.For the conceptual framework we propose a network approach, in which we "extend" the interaction model. We not only focus on the one-to-one relation between an individual researcher and policymaker but include interactions between several actors participating in the research and policy process.In this model interaction between actors in the research and the policy network is expected to improve research utilization. Interaction can obstruct or promote four clusters of barriers between research and policy: expectations, transfer issues, acceptance, and interpretation. These elements of interactions and barriers provide an actual explanation of research utilization. Research utilization itself can be measured on the individual level of actors and on a policy process level.The developed framework has added value on existing models on research utilization because it emphasizes on the 'logic' of the context of the research and policy networks. The framework will contribute to a better understanding of the impact of epidemiological research in local health policy development, however further operationalisation of the concepts mentioned in the framework remains necessary.In the Netherlands in 1989 a new law on collective prevention was approved by parliament: the Public Health Preventive Measures Act (in Dutch abbreviated to WCPV) [1]. This law made the municipalities responsible to protect
Exploring health systems research and its influence on policy processes in low income countries
Adnan A Hyder, Gerald Bloom, Melissa Leach, Shamsuzzoha B Syed, David H Peters, Future Health Systems: Innovations for Equity
BMC Public Health , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-7-309
Abstract: This paper provides a review of the research-policy interface in low-income countries and proposes a conceptual framework, followed by directions for empirical approaches. First, four developmental perspectives are considered: social institutional factors; virtual versus grassroots realities; science-society relationships; and construction of social arrangements. Building on these developmental perspectives three research-policy interface entry points are identified: 1. Recognizing policy as complex processes; 2. Engaging key stakeholders: decision-makers, providers, scientists, and communities; and 3. Enhancing accountability. A conceptual framework with three entry points to the research-policy interface – policy processes; stakeholder interests, values, and power; and accountability – within a context provided by four developmental perspectives is proposed. Potential empirical approaches to the research-policy interface are then reviewed. Finally, the value of such innovative empirical analysis is considered.The purpose of this paper is to provide the background, conceptual framework, and key research directions for empirical activities focused on the research-policy interface in low income settings. The interface can be strengthened through such analysis leading to potential improvements in population health in low-income settings. Health system development cognizant of the myriad factors at the research-policy interface can form the basis for innovative future health systems.The interface between policymaking and research in low-income countries is highly complex. Health systems research in such settings face a number of challenges including under-investment, lack of human capacity, lack of public demand, inadequate utilization, and poor dissemination of results [1-3]. Mismatch between need for health research and investment has been highlighted and attempts made to address the '10/90' gap including: research capacity strengthening; promotion of research invest
Priority Setting and Policy Advocacy for Community Environmental Health by Nursing Associations: A Conceptual Framework to Guide Research
Aporia : The Nursing Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Nursing associations' choices to engage in community environmental health transpires in a complex decisionmaking context in which a number of issues compete for their attention and a number of factors influence their choices. Given the complexity of this decision environment, theoretically informed research can lead to understanding about the dynamics, supports, and constraints shaping nursing associations' decisions. We propose a conceptual framework to guide research to understand whether and how nursing associations' take action for community environmental health. The framework depicts nursing associations' priority setting and policy advocacy for community environmental health embedded in a policy decision-making context in which internal association factors and external factors at all system levels (local to global) influence the organizational choices and actions taken.
Exploring evidence-policy linkages in health research plans: A case study from six countries
Shamsuzzoha B Syed, Adnan A Hyder, Gerald Bloom, Sandhya Sundaram, Abbas Bhuiya, Zhang Zhenzhong, Barun Kanjilal, Oladimeji Oladepo, George Pariyo, David H Peters, Future Health Systems: Innovation for Equity
Health Research Policy and Systems , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1478-4505-6-4
Abstract: The interface between evidence and policymaking is complex, particularly in low and middle income countries and has received increasing attention in the literature [1]. Recent calls have been made for continued researcher engagement in exploring the interface [2-4]. The non-linear nature of translation of evidence into policy has been acknowledged and the multiple inputs into policy making processes in these settings have been subject to increasing review [5]. Decision makers and researchers often come from different cultures and have disparate motivations; thus priorities emanating from these two groups are often distinct [6,7]. Increasing the global knowledge base on the operation of the interface, especially in low and middle income countries, is required in order to facilitate evidence based health systems development.Future Health Systems (FHS): Innovations for Equity is a research consortium that hopes to enhance understanding of the evidence-policy interface in the development of future health systems, with a particular focus on the poor [8]. The overall goal of the 'research to policy' thematic activities in the consortium is to understand the relationship between evidence and development of policies, especially their impact on the poor [9]. More specifically the consortium seeks to: document previous experiences of decision makers with health research; understand overall values placed on health research and evidence by decision makers; define the context and conditions under which decision makers will demand health research; identify characteristics of health research that make it attractive to decision makers; and explore the existence and performance of institutional mechanisms that allow interaction between research evidence and policy development and implementation at national and sub-national level [8].The aim of this paper is to report on initial consortium efforts in strengthening the interface between planned health systems research and policy-makin
Was kann qualitative Forschung zur Implementation von Erziehungsprogrammen beitragen? Evidenzen und Argumente aus der Perspektive eines Entwicklungs- und übergangslandes Can Qualitative Research Inform Policy Implementation? Evidence and Arguments from a Developing Country Context Puede la investigación cualitativa instruir la implementación de políticas? Evidencia y argumentos desde el contexto de un país en desarrollo
Brigitte Smit
Forum : Qualitative Social Research , 2003,
Abstract: Was kann qualitative Forschung zur Implementation von Erziehungsprogrammen beitragen? Mein Artikel soll helfen, zur Beantwortung dieser komplexen und wichtigen Frage beizutragen, und zwar bezogen auf Südafrika, ein Land, das sich in einer übergangsphase befindet: Im Rahmen einer qualitativen Studie versuche ich, der Stimme von Lehrern und Lehrerinnen Ausdruck zu verleihen und zu zeigen, wie deren Wissen in die Durchführung von Erziehungsprogrammen einbezogen werden kann. Dies steht der gegenw rtigen Situation entgegen, denn obwohl Lehrer und Lehrerinnen eine wichtige Rolle im Erziehungssystem spielen, werden sie selten geh rt – lokales Wissen wird für Programmimplementationen untersch tzt, missachtet oder einfach ignoriert. In meinem Beitrag zeige ich zuerst die Entwicklung qualitativer Forschung für dieses Feld. Danach rekonstruiere ich aus einer interpretativen Perspektive das lokale Wissen der Lehrer und Lehrerinnen, diskutiere widerst ndiges Verhalten und auch die Reaktionen erfahrener Lehrerinnen und Lehrer. Abschlie end skizziere ich, wie qualitative Forschung substantielle und detailreiche Erkenntnisse über die komplexen Erfordernisse w hrend der verschiedenen Stufen der Implementation von Programmen beitragen kann. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs030363 How can qualitative research inform policy implementation? This article hopes to shed some light on this complex yet relevant issue and locates this inquiry in a transitional South African context. I intend to qualitatively reveal the local teacher voice, in times of transition and show how such knowledge could contribute to policy implementation. That said, I argue that although teachers play an important role in our education system, more often than not, the teacher voice is a silent voice, which implies that local knowledge for policy implementation might be underplayed, discounted or simply ignored. First, I briefly discuss the development of qualitative research in policy-oriented work. Second, I work from an interpretive perspective to illuminate teacher voice as local knowledge, discussing resistant behaviour and the responses of experienced teachers. Finally, I conclude how qualitative research offers substance and deep nuanced understandings of the complexities at the levels of policy implementation. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs030363 Cómo la investigación cualitativa puede instruir la implantación de políticas? Este artículo espera proveer alguna luz sobre este complejo pero relevante asunto y ubicar esta investigación en un contexto sur africano de transición. Intento revelar cualitativamente la v
Translating research into policy: lessons learned from eclampsia treatment and malaria control in three southern African countries
Godfrey Woelk, Karen Daniels, Julie Cliff, Simon Lewin, Esperan?a Sevene, Benedita Fernandes, Alda Mariano, Sheillah Matinhure, Andrew D Oxman, John N Lavis, Cecilia Lundborg
Health Research Policy and Systems , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1478-4505-7-31
Abstract: We used a qualitative case-study methodology to explore the policy making process. We carried out key informants interviews with a range of research and policy stakeholders in each country, reviewed documents and developed timelines of key events. Using an iterative approach, we undertook a thematic analysis of the data.Prior experience of particular interventions, local champions, stakeholders and international networks, and the involvement of researchers in policy development were important in knowledge translation for both case studies. Key differences across the two case studies included the nature of the evidence, with clear evidence of efficacy for MgSO4 and ongoing debate regarding the efficacy of bed nets compared with spraying; local researcher involvement in international evidence production, which was stronger for MgSO4 than for malaria vector control; and a long-standing culture of evidence-based health care within obstetrics. Other differences were the importance of bureaucratic processes for clinical regulatory approval of MgSO4, and regional networks and political interests for malaria control. In contrast to treatment policies for eclampsia, a diverse group of stakeholders with varied interests, differing in their use and interpretation of evidence, was involved in malaria policy decisions in the three countries.Translating research knowledge into policy is a complex and context sensitive process. Researchers aiming to enhance knowledge translation need to be aware of factors influencing the demand for different types of research; interact and work closely with key policy stakeholders, networks and local champions; and acknowledge the roles of important interest groups.The evidence-based medicine approach, which focused initially on clinical decision-making, has more recently been extended to policy and management decisions, where it is sometimes referred to as 'evidence-based' or 'evidence-informed' policy making [1-3]. Increasingly, the use of glob
Policy Making in Populist Context  [PDF]
Negin Bavili
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2017.73034
Abstract: In this paper,?how policy making can be affected by different political contexts will be studied. This study considers negative meaning load for the word populism and assumes populism as a communicative strategy that politicians use in order to get in touch with unrecognized sections of society. Populist Context with concentration on the role of people would help politicians manipulate mass of people and benefit welfare policies as means in attraction of people in order to achieve their goals. And comparison of welfare policies in?Iran after 1989 will clarify how Ahmedinejad’s populist policy making affected?Iran’s welfare.
The development of health policy in Malawi: The influence of context, evidence and links in the creation of a national policy for cotrimoxazole prophylaxis
E Hutchinson
Malawi Medical Journal , 2011,
Abstract: Within the health policy field, a growing literature is attempting to understand the diverse responses of policy makers to research, and to explain why certain research findings make their way into policy while others are effectively ignored. In this paper we apply a policy analysis framework to the development of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis national policy in Malawi. Arguing that Malawi was one of the early adopters of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis at a national level, we show how the research to policy process was influenced by national healthcare context, the networks of individuals involved, and the nature of the public health evidence itself.
Fiscal Policy in the Context of the Economic Crisis  [PDF]
Elena Pelinescu,Petre Caraiani
Romanian Journal of Fiscal Policy , 2010,
Abstract: This paper tries to briefly analyze the characteristics of fiscal policy in the context of the actual crisis. We start from the ongoing discussion regarding the role of fiscal policy during the economic and financial crisis. We then focus on the case of CEE countries and on Romanian economy and analyze the way fiscal policy affects economies in the crisis context and its capacities to boost economy.
Data Sharing for Context-Sensitive Access Control Policy Evaluation and Enforcement  [cached]
Hassan Rasheed
International Journal of Computer Network and Information Security , 2012,
Abstract: Context-awareness has long been an important building block in designing systems that vary their operating behavior based on an analysis of rapidly changing operating conditions. There is the need however to define context more formally so that context data-sharing can take place between systems and more complex interactions between connected systems can be developed. The area of computer security is examined in particular as an area where the representation and sharing of context data can lead to more effective policy enforcement. A framework is proposed for sharing data between assessment sensors and enforcement mechanisms in order to facilitate more accurate policy enforcement. A detailed performance analysis of the proposed system is offered along with conclusions on the feasibility of such systems.
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