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Effect of point-of-purchase calorie labeling on restaurant and cafeteria food choices: A review of the literature
Lisa J Harnack, Simone A French
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-5-51
Abstract: Computer-assisted searches were conducted using the PUBMED database and the Google Scholar world wide web search engine to identify studies published in peer-review journals that evaluated calorie labeling of cafeteria or restaurant menu items. Studies that evaluated labeling only some menu items (e.g. low calorie foods only) were excluded from the review since the influence of selective labeling may be different from that which may be expected from comprehensive labeling.Six studies were identified that met the selection criteria for this review. Results from five of these studies provide some evidence consistent with the hypothesis that calorie information may influence food choices in a cafeteria or restaurant setting. However, results from most of these studies suggest the effect may be weak or inconsistent. One study found no evidence of an effect of calorie labeling on food choices. Each of the studies had at least one major methodological shortcoming, pointing toward the need for better designed studies to more rigorously evaluate the influence of point-of-purchase calorie labeling on food choices.More research is needed that meets minimum standards of methodological quality. Studies need to include behavioral outcomes such as food purchase and eating behaviors. Also, studies need to be implemented in realistic settings such as restaurants and cafeterias.Eating out has become increasingly common in the US [1], with Americans now spending almost half of their food dollars on foods away from home [2]. Food eaten away from home at fast food and other restaurants has garnered particular scientific interest recently because it is associated with higher energy, fat and saturated fat intake; lower intake of fiber and calcium; greater consumption of hamburgers, French fries and soft drinks, and lower fruit and vegetable intake [1,3-9]. Several prospective studies have shown that frequent eating away from home at restaurants, especially fast food restaurants, is assoc
Consumer purchasing patterns in response to calorie labeling legislation in New York City
Maya K Vadiveloo, L Beth Dixon, Brian Elbel
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-8-51
Abstract: This study utilized a difference-in-difference design to survey 1,170 adult patrons of four popular chain restaurants in NYC and Newark, NJ (which did not introduce labeling) before and after calorie labeling was implemented in NYC. Receipt data were collected and analyzed to examine food and beverage purchases and frequency of fast food consumption. Descriptive statistics were generated, and linear and logistic regression, difference-in-difference analysis, and predicted probabilities were used to analyze the data.A difference-in-difference analysis revealed no significant favorable differences and some unfavorable differences in food purchasing patterns and frequency of fast food consumption between adult patrons of fast food restaurants in NYC and Newark, NJ. Adults in NYC who reported noticing and using the calorie labels consumed fast food less frequently compared to adults who did not notice the labels (4.9 vs. 6.6 meals per week, p <0.05).While no favorable differences in purchasing as a result of labeling were noted, self-reported use of calorie labels was associated with some favorable behavioral patterns in a subset of adults in NYC. However, overall impact of the legislation may be limited. More research is needed to understand the most effective way to deliver calorie information to consumers.Overweight and obesity and associated comorbidities are major contributors to avoidable mortality in the United States [1]. Nationwide, nearly 70% of adults are categorized as either overweight or obese [2]. The economic burden of this disease has led to consideration of environmental factors that could favorably affect disease prevention and progression. In 2008, New York City (NYC) became the first city to enact mandatory calorie labeling legislation as a public health strategy intended to inform consumers' away from home food purchases [3]. The present legislation requires restaurant chains with 15 or more outlets nationally to clearly post the calorie content of
Determinants of Fast Food Consumption among Iranian High School Students Based on Planned Behavior Theory  [PDF]
Gholamreza Sharifirad,Parastoo Yarmohammadi,Leila Azadbakht,Mohammad Ali Morowatisharifabad,Akbar Hassanzadeh
Journal of Obesity , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/147589
Abstract: Objective. This study was conducted to identify some factors (beliefs and norms) which are related to fast food consumption among high school students in Isfahan, Iran. We used the framework of the theory planned behavior (TPB) to predict this behavior. Subjects & Methods. Cross-sectional data were available from high school students who were recruited by cluster randomized sampling. All of the students completed a questionnaire assessing variables of standard TPB model including attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavior control (PBC), and the additional variables past behavior, actual behavior control (ABC). Results. The TPB variables explained 25.7% of the variance in intentions with positive attitude as the strongest ( , ) and subjective norms as the weakest ( , ) determinant. Concurrently, intentions accounted for 6% of the variance for fast food consumption. Past behavior and ABC accounted for an additional amount of 20.4% of the variance in fast food consumption. Conclusion. Overall, the present study suggests that the TPB model is useful in predicting related beliefs and norms to the fast food consumption among adolescents. Subjective norms in TPB model and past behavior in TPB model with additional variables (past behavior and actual behavior control) were the most powerful predictors of fast food consumption. Therefore, TPB model may be a useful framework for planning intervention programs to reduce fast food consumption by students. 1. Introduction Fast food intake is still increasing specially among younger generation [1]. Fast food intake has been associated with poor dietary intake [2, 3] and weight gain [4] among young population. Fast food restaurants are becoming widespread worldwide, both in developed and even developing countries like Iran [5]. Based on reports, one-third of adolescents consume fast foods three or more times during a week [6]. Fast food contains higher levels of calorie and fat compared to the home-prepared meals [7]. Our previous studies in Isfahan, Iran, showed that the majority of students consume high servings of fast food per week [8, 9] which was related to higher dietary energy density and higher weight and waist circumference. Previous studies in Isfahan, Iran, showed that fast food consumption was associated with obesity and central adiposity [8, 9]. An important time for assessing and evaluating fast food intake and detecting the associated factors is from adolescents to younger adulthood, a high risk time for being overweight and obesity [10, 11]. Determining the factors influence on dietary intakes
A Study On The Food Consumption Pattern In Slims Of Bangalore  [cached]
Prabhakara G.N,Aswath P.V,Shivaram C,Viswanath A.N
Indian Journal of Community Medicine , 1986,
Abstract: This paper presents the pattern of calorie consumption and food consumption among 1055 families in an urban slum area. The mean calorie intake was 2371.44. Presuming that socioeconomic status and environmental status influence the calorie intake, ANOVA model was used to identify the same. Surprisingly their relation could not be established by statistical procedure. The percentage of nutrients with respect of R.D.A. (Recommeded Dietary Allowance) was satisfactory expect for vitamin A, Riboflavin and vitamin C. The adequacy of nutrients even with low socioeconomic condition is probed to find out the obtained percentage of R.D.A. with respect to nutrients.
Determinants of fast food consumption in Kampala, Uganda
SA Ayo, J Bonabana-Wabbi, D Sserunkuuma
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2012,
Abstract: Consumption of fast-food in Uganda is becoming an increasingly important component of the food market as more of the working class choose to dine out rather than prepare meals at home. Despite the importance of the fast-food sector, limited attempts have been made to study the consumption and expenditure behaviour of consumers of fast-food in Uganda. The main objective of this study was to assess characteristics influencing the consumption of fast-food in Kampala district. Specifically, the objectives of the study were: to assess the factors influencing the probability of consuming fast-food; and to determine the level of expenditure on fastfood. Primary data on socio-economic characteristics were collected from a sample of 300 respondents using a multi-stage sampling procedure. The study revealed that majority (90%) of the respondents consumed fast-food. The consumption of fast-food was most motivated by their taste and convenience. Results from the Heckman model show that household size, education level and distance from work-place to restaurant negatively influenced the probability of fast-food consumption and level of expenditure on fast-food while disposable monthly income had a positive effect on the probability of consumption and level of expenditure on fast-food. The high demand for fast-food is seen as an easy solution to consumers’ busy schedules and limited meal preparation time. As changing tastes and need for convenience become the goal of households, consumption of fast-food will be expected to rise especially in urban areas. This increase in fast-food consumption, coupled with rising population and urbanization in Uganda offers new market opportunities for agribusiness firms to exploit the growing demand by investing in the fast-food sector and producing sufficiently for this market. In addition, fast-food establishments should ensure proximity of their products and services to the consumers as convenience greatly influences fast-food consumption. Future research should include identification of sources of agricultural products used by fast-food outlets to provide information about the contribution of the fast-food sector to agricultural marketing and farmers’ livelihoods in Uganda.
Effects of calorie labeling and value size pricing on fast food meal choices: Results from an experimental trial
Lisa J Harnack, Simone A French, J Michael Oakes, Mary T Story, Robert W Jeffery, Sarah A Rydell
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-5-63
Abstract: To examine the effect of point-of-purchase calorie information and value size pricing on fast food meal choices a randomized 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted in which participants ordered a fast food meal from one of four menus that varied with respect to whether calorie information was provided and whether value size pricing was used. Study participants included 594 adolescents and adults who regularly ate at fast food restaurants. Study staff recorded the foods ordered and consumed by each participant. Participants also completed surveys to assess attitudes, beliefs and practices related to fast food and nutrition.No significant differences in the energy composition of meals ordered or eaten were found between menu conditions. The average energy content of meals ordered by those randomized to a menu that included calorie information and did not include value size pricing was 842 kcals compared with 827 kcals for those who ordered their meal from a menu that did not include calorie information but had value size pricing (control menu). Results were similar in most analyses conducted stratified by factors such as age, race and education level.Additional research is needed to better evaluate the effects of calorie labeling and value size pricing on fast food meal choices. Studies in which participants are repeatedly exposed to these factors are needed since long term exposure may be required for behavior change.The prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States has increased dramatically [1]. One factor that many believe to be an important contributor to this increase is the number of meals and snacks eaten away from home. Over the past several decades the proportion of total food expenditures spent on food away from home has increased from 34% in 1974 to about half in 2004 [2]. Foods available at restaurants and other away from home eating locations tend to be higher in calories and fat [3-6] and often larger in portion size [7,8] compared to food
Variation in Protein and Calorie Consumption Following Protein Malnutrition in Rattus norvegicus  [PDF]
Donna C. Jones,Rebecca Z. German
Animals , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ani3010033
Abstract: Catch-up growth rates, following protein malnutrition, vary with timing and duration of insult, despite unlimited access to calories. Understanding changing patterns of post-insult consumption, relative rehabilitation timing, can provide insight into the mechanisms driving those differences. We hypothesize that higher catch-up growth rates will be correlated with increased protein consumption, while calorie consumption could remain stable. As catch-up growth rates decrease with age/malnutrition duration, we predict a dose effect in protein consumption with rehabilitation timing. We measured total and protein consumption, body mass, and long bone length, following an increase of dietary protein at 40, 60 and 90 days, with two control groups (chronic reduced protein or standard protein) for 150+ days. Immediately following rehabilitation, rats’ food consumption decreased significantly, implying that elevated protein intake is sufficient to fuel catch-up growth rates that eventually result in body weights and long bone lengths greater or equal to final measures of chronically fed standard (CT) animals. The duration of protein restriction affected consumption: rats rehabilitated at younger ages had more drastic alterations in consumption of both calories and protein. While rehabilitated animals did compensate with greater protein consumption, variable responses in different ages and sex highlight the plasticity of growth and how nutrition affects body form.
Food consumption in Mexican adolescents
Ortiz-Hernández,Luis; Gómez-Tello,Blanca Lilia;
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1020-49892008000800007
Abstract: objective: to examine the relationship between demographic and socioeconomic factors and food consumption in mexican adolescents. methods: a representative sample (n = 7 218) of mexican adolescents (12-19 years old) was analyzed. independent variables included age, gender, and main activity of the adolescents; gender and age of the head of household; socioeconomic position; size of town (rural, semiurban, or urban); and area of residence. the consumption frequency of 13 food groups was assessed. through multivariate logistic regression models, the effect of independent variables over consumption frequency was evaluated. results: among mexican adolescents only one-third consumed fruits and vegetables daily, a little less than one-half consumed dairy products daily, one-third drank soft drinks daily, and one-fifth consumed sweets and salty snacks. males reported higher consumption of legumes. age increase was associated with higher frequency of milk consumption. adolescents who worked and those who neither studied nor worked consumed fruits, sweets, and salty snacks less frequently. eating fruits, vegetables, cereals, dairy products, bread, starchy vegetables, red meat, white meat, and fast food decreased with regard to socioeconomic position; on the other hand, the lower socioeconomic strata had more frequent consumption of legumes and soft drinks. conclusions: there are groups of adolescents who are less likely to consume healthy foods (such as fruits, vegetables, and dairy products). socioeconomic and cultural processes that can explain the differences observed are discussed.
Neighborhood fast food restaurants and fast food consumption: A national study
Andrea S Richardson, Janne Boone-Heinonen, Barry M Popkin, Penny Gordon-Larsen
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-543
Abstract: We used national data from U.S. young adults enrolled in wave III (2001-02; ages 18-28) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 13,150). Urbanicity-stratified multivariate negative binomial regression models were used to examine cross-sectional associations between neighborhood fast food availability and individual-level self-reported fast food consumption frequency, controlling for individual and neighborhood characteristics.In adjusted analysis, fast food availability was not associated with weekly frequency of fast food consumption in non-urban or low- or high-density urban areas.Policies aiming to reduce neighborhood availability as a means to reduce fast food consumption among young adults may be unsuccessful. Consideration of fast food outlets near school or workplace locations, factors specific to more or less urban settings, and the role of individual lifestyle attitudes and preferences are needed in future research.Neighborhood availability of fast food restaurants has recently received considerable attention as a target to prevent obesity [1-6]. It is intuitive that fast food restaurants contribute to obesity by promoting fast food consumption. However, few studies have tested the relationship between access to fast food and diet behavior and those that have rely on measures of fruit and vegetable intake [7-9]. Findings from an even smaller literature that investigates direct relationships with fast food consumption are mixed [10-12].Furthermore, most evidence focuses on urban populations, with little research in suburban or rural populations. One of the difficulties is that urbanicity is often classified according to population density [13], which may correlate with cultural or social influences on diet and thus obscure important heterogeneity across urban, suburban and rural areas. Because the nature of accessibility in suburban or rural environments differ from urban environments, and other social, environmental, and individual infl
Using Distance Estimation and Deep Learning to Simplify Calibration in Food Calorie Measurement  [PDF]
Pallavi Kuhad,Abdulsalam Yassine,Shervin Shirmohammadi
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: High calorie intake in the human body on the one hand, has proved harmful in numerous occasions leading to several diseases and on the other hand, a standard amount of calorie intake has been deemed essential by dieticians to maintain the right balance of calorie content in human body. As such, researchers have proposed a variety of automatic tools and systems to assist users measure their calorie in-take. In this paper, we consider the category of those tools that use image processing to recognize the food, and we propose a method for fully automatic and user-friendly calibration of the dimension of the food portion sizes, which is needed in order to measure food portion weight and its ensuing amount of calories. Experimental results show that our method, which uses deep learning, mobile cloud computing, distance estimation and size calibration inside a mobile device, leads to an accuracy improvement to 95% on average compared to previous work
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