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Acacia trotilis and Calotropis procera: Do They Substantially Promote Soil Carbon Sequestration?  [PDF]
Taoufik Saleh Ksiksi
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2012.22017
Abstract: Very little is known about the type and mix of desert plant species and their management to optimize carbon sequestration in desert ecosystems. Overgrazing is one important practice that affects soil carbon cycling and therefore sequestration. Improving soil carbon in desert ecosystems may be best through the use of native trees and shrubs. Acacia tortilis and calotropis procera are two important species in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The former is a native species that improves biodiversity and the latter is not native and has been reported to be an indicator of overgrazing. The average soil organic matter (SOM) content was higher in soils dominated by A. tortilis when compared to those dominated by C. procera; 2.98 and 1.34; respectively (P < 0.05). Moreover, A. tortilis leaves had a higher OM content than C. procera leaves (94.1% and 90.6%; respectively). The higher OM content of A. tortilis leaves explains the higher contribution of this species to the overall soil organic matter inputs. There was also a significant effect of shrub species on total SOC (P < 0.05). A total of about 14.7 tons of SOC were added per hectare in the areas dominated by A. tortilis. While only about 6.6 tons of SOC were added to the areas dominated by C. procera. In short, it is believed that both species substantially promote soil carbon sequestration. Some significant superiority of the native A. tortilis has been shown. But much has to be done to investigate the mix of plant species that promote the best soil carbon sequestration in the desert areas. Further studies are required in order to assess temporal as well as spatial variations in soil carbon sequestration in the UAE deserts. This will certainly help, in addition to other practices, in mitigating CO2 emission.
Calotropis procera -induced keratitis
Pandey Nidhi,Chandrakar A,Garg M,Patel Santosh
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 2009,
Abstract: Calotropis procera produces copious amounts of latex, which has been shown to possess several pharmacological properities. Its local application produces intense inflammatory response. In the 10 cases of Calotropis procera -induced keratitis reported here, the clinical picture showed corneal edema with striate keratopathy without any evidence of intraocular inflammation. The inflammation was reversed by the local application of steroid drops.
Gupta Sudesh,Gupta Bhawana,Kapoor Karishma,Sharma pooja
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: The herbal medicine occupy distinct position right from ancient period. The plant Calotropis procera is known by different names in different part of the world. It is a wild growing medicinal plant distributed throughout India. The various parts of the plant are practiced in various traditional systems of medicine around the world and popular among the various ethnic groups for the treatment of variety of ailments. Following the various traditional claims on use of Calotropis procera in curing number of diseases, considerable efforts have been made by researchers to verify its utility through scientific pharmacological screenings. Pharmacological studies have revealed that aqueous and organic extracts of various parts of Calotropis procera and its constituents possess a wide range of biological activities such as antidiabetic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiarthritic, antioxidant, anthelmintic, anticandidial, wound healing, anticonvulsant, antitumour, antiasthmatic, hepatoprotective and cytotoxic. The studies have also revealed the toxic effects of the plant in some experimental animal models on chronic use. This review presents a detailed survey of the literatures on traditional, pharmacognostical, phytochemical and experimentally evaluated medicinal uses of Calotropis procera.
Involvement of prostaglandins in inflammation induced by latex of Calotropis procera  [PDF]
Vijay L. Kumar,Yatin M. Shivkar
Mediators of Inflammation , 2004, DOI: 10.1080/09511920410001713583
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: The aerial parts of the plant Calotropis procera produce milky white latex that causes inflammation of the skin and mucous membranes. Prostaglandins are one of the mediators released in an inflammatory response following induction of cyclooxygenase (COX). In the present study, we have evaluated the role of prostaglandins in inflammatory response elicited by the latex of C. procera.
Study on antibacterial activity of Calotropis procera  [PDF]
Muhammad Muzammal
PeerJ , 2015, DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.430v1
Abstract: Comparative study of plant extracts crude and aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic with antibiotics, provide evidence that calotropis procera extracts has the similar antibacterial activity as these antibiotics against test pathogens i.e. Salmonella typhi and E.coli. The analysis of antimicrobial activity of aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extract of leaves and flower of Calotropis procera was carried out in disc method and also determined MIC value at 600nm through optical density using spectrophotometer. The zone of inhibition produced by extracts was examined and compares it with zone produced by antibiotics. The effect exhibited by ethanolic extract of leaves and flower was significantly greater than the aqueous and methanolic extract of leaves and flower. Crude extracts i.e. latex, leaves, fruit and flower crude extracts. Among them, flower crude extracts shows similar zone of inhibition to test anitibiotics.while in MIC value, we made different concentration of extracts and antibiotics.i.e for crude we made 25%, 50%.75% and 100% concentration of crude juice and for the aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic we made 0.5mg/mL,1mg/mL,2mg/mL,3mg/mL,4mg/mL, 5mg/mL and 6mg/mL in Dimethyl salfoxide, and same antibiotics concentration. Aqueous leaves extracts show MIC at 0.5mg/ml against E.coli while against Salmonella it shows MIC at 1mg/ml... We also determine phytochemical analysis for presences of different compounds in crude extracts. The obtained results provide a support for the use of Calotropis procera, in traditional medicine and suggest its further advance investigation.
Influence of Calotropis procera roots on biochemistry of reproductive organs of ovariectomized rats  [cached]
Ahirwar D,Ahirwar Bharti,Kharya M
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: Biochemical alterations have been observed in the uterus, cervix and vagina of ovariectomized rats treated with alcoholic extract of Calotropis procera roots administered in the presence and absence of ethynilestradiol. Ovariectomy resulted in the decrease of glycogen and protein content as well as activity of acid and alkaline phosphatase in the uterus, cervix and vagina. Administration of the alcoholic extract of Calotropis procera increases glycogen and protein content and activity of acid and alkaline phosphatase in uterus and cervix with increasing weights, whereas, the glycogen contents decreased significantly in vagina. Combined treatments of the alcoholic extract with ethynilestradiol act synergistically confirm the estrogenic action of alcoholic extract of Calotropis procera roots in adult ovariectomized rats.
Antimicrobial activities of calotropis procera on selected pathogenic microorganisms
S.O Kareem, I Akpan, O.P Ojo
African Journal of Biomedical Research , 2008,
Abstract: The antimicrobial effect of ethanol, aqueous and chloroform extracts of leaf and latex of Calotropis procera on six bacteria namely, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus albus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae and three fungi: Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporium boulardii and one yeast Candida albicans were determined using agar well diffusion and paper disk methods. The results revealed that ethanol was the best extractive solvent for antimicrobial properties of leaf and latex of C. procera followed in order by Chloroform and aqueous (P<0.05). The ethanolic extracts of C. procera latex gave the widest zone of inhibition (14.1mm) against E-coli using agar well diffusion while 9.0 mm was recorded for the same organism in the disc plate method.The growth of six bacterial isolates were inhibited by the three extracts except P.aeruginosa and S.pyogenes that were not inhibited by the aqueous extracts of both leaf and latex of C.procera. Similarly, the growth of four test fungi were inhibited by ethanol and chloroform extracts while the aqueous extract was the least effective on the test fungi. The best antifungal activity was recorded in ethanol extract of C.procera latex against Candida albicans. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for the ethanol extract was between 5.0 and 20.0 mg/ml for fungi. This study revealed that the C.procera latex demonstrated strong inhibitory effect on the test organisms than C.procera leaf. The results therefore established a good support for the use of C.procera in traditional medicine (Afr. J. Biomed. Res. 11: 105 – 110)
Ocular toxicity by latex of Calotropis procera (Sodom apple)  [cached]
Basak Samar,Bhaumik Arup,Mohanta Ayan,Singhal Prashant
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 2009,
Abstract: We report the spectrum of ocular toxicity following accidental inoculation of latex of Calotropis procera (Sodom apple) in 29 eyes between January 2003 and December 2006. All patients presented with sudden painless dimness of vision with photophobia. Twenty-five (86%) patients had initial visual acuity of less than 20/60. All eyes had conjunctival congestion and mild to severe corneal edema with Descemet′s folds. Three (10%) eyes had an epithelial defect, nine (31%) had iridocyclitis, and seven (24%) had associated secondary glaucoma. After treatment with topical corticosteroids, antiglaucoma agents, cycloplegics, hypertonic saline and tears supplements, 27 (93%) eyes recovered completely within 3-14 days. After three months, 17 (74%) out of 23 eyes showed a significant low endothelial cell count compared to the normal fellow eye ( P < 0.001). The latex of Calotropis procera causes significant ocular morbidity which may be preventable by simple health education. The long-term effect on corneal endothelium has to be studied further.
Histamine mediates the pro-inflammatory effect of latex of Calotropis procera in rats  [PDF]
Yatin M. Shivkar,Vijay L. Kumar
Mediators of Inflammation , 2003, DOI: 10.1080/096293503310001619708
Abstract: Introduction: Calotropis procera is known to produce contact dermatitis and the latex of this plant produces intense inflammation when injected locally. However, the precise mode of its pro-inflammatory effect is not known. In present study we have pharmacologically characterized the inflammation induced by latex of C. procera in a rat paw edema model and determined the role of histamine in latex-induced inflammation.
Phytochemical and Antibacterial Properties of Root and Leaf Extracts of Calotropis procera
MM Mainasara, BL Aliero, AA Aliero, M Yakubu
Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Phytochemical and antibacterial properties of water, methanol and ethanol extracts obtained from root and leaf of Calotropis procera were investigated. Antibacterial growth inhibition was determined using Ditch method against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyrogenes. The phytochemical screening reveals the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, and cardiac glycosides, balsams and volatile oil and steroids with higher amount in water extracts. The concentration of the phytochemical constituents were in the order of water > methanol > ethanol. Water extracts showed broad spectrum activity against the tested organisms at concentrations of 30, 60, 90 and 120 mg/ml. Methanol and ethanol extracts did not show a significant effect against the tested organisms at 120 mg/ml as compared with those of tetracycline. The result of this study validates the use of water extract of this species in ethnomedicine and could provide a lead in the isolation of antibacterial agents from water extracts of Calotropis procera.
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