Abstract:
We present an Ito's formula for the one-dimensional discrete-time quantum walk and give some examples including a Tanaka's formula by using the formula. Moreover we discuss integrals for the quantum walk.

Abstract:
Recently quantum walks have been considered as a possible fundamental description of the dynamics of relativistic quantum fields. Within this scenario we derive the analytical solution of the Weyl walk in 2+1 dimensions. We present a discrete path-integral formulation of the Feynman propagator based on the binary encoding of paths on the lattice. The derivation exploits a special feature of the Weyl walk, that occurs also in other dimensions, that is closure under multiplication of the set of the walk transition matrices. This result opens the perspective of a similar solution in the 3+1 case.

Abstract:
Quantum walk is one of the main tools for quantum algorithms. Defined by analogy to classical random walk, a quantum walk is a time-homogeneous quantum process on a graph. Both random and quantum walks can be defined either in continuous or discrete time. But whereas a continuous-time random walk can be obtained as the limit of a sequence of discrete-time random walks, the two types of quantum walk appear fundamentally different, owing to the need for extra degrees of freedom in the discrete-time case. In this article, I describe a precise correspondence between continuous- and discrete-time quantum walks on arbitrary graphs. Using this correspondence, I show that continuous-time quantum walk can be obtained as an appropriate limit of discrete-time quantum walks. The correspondence also leads to a new technique for simulating Hamiltonian dynamics, giving efficient simulations even in cases where the Hamiltonian is not sparse. The complexity of the simulation is linear in the total evolution time, an improvement over simulations based on high-order approximations of the Lie product formula. As applications, I describe a continuous-time quantum walk algorithm for element distinctness and show how to optimally simulate continuous-time query algorithms of a certain form in the conventional quantum query model. Finally, I discuss limitations of the method for simulating Hamiltonians with negative matrix elements, and present two problems that motivate attempting to circumvent these limitations.

Abstract:
The discrete time quantum walk defined as a quantum-mechanical analogue of the discrete time random walk have recently been attracted from various and interdisciplinary fields. In this review, the weak limit theorem, that is, the asymptotic behavior, of the one-dimensional discrete time quantum walk is analytically shown. From the limit distribution of the discrete time quantum walk, the discrete time quantum walk can be taken as the quantum dynamical simulator of some physical systems.

Abstract:
This dissertation presents investigations on dynamics of discrete-time quantum walk and some of its applications. Quantum walks has been exploited as an useful tool for quantum algorithms in quantum computing. Beyond quantum computational purposes, it has been used to explain and control the dynamics in various physical systems. In order to use the quantum walk to its fullest potential, it is important to know and optimize the properties purely due to quantum dynamics and in presence of noise. Various studies of its dynamics in the absence and presence of noise have been reported. We propose new approaches to optimize the dynamics, discuss symmetries and effect of noise on the quantum walk. Making use of its properties, we propose the use of quantum walk as an efficient new tool for various applications in physical systems and quantum information processing. In the first and second part of this dissertation, we discuss evolution process of the quantum walks, propose and demonstrate the optimization of discrete-time quantum walk using quantum coin operation from SU(2) group and discuss some of its properties. We investigate symmetry operations and environmental effects on dynamics of the walk on a line and an n-cycle highlighting the interplay between noise and topology. Using the properties and behavior of quantum walk discussed in part two, in part three we propose the application of quantum walk to realize quantum phase transition in optical lattice, that is to efficiently control and redistribute ultracold atoms in optical lattice. We also discuss the implementation scheme. Another application we consider is creation of spatial entanglement using quantum walk on a quantum many body system.

Abstract:
Quantum recurrence theorem holds for quantum systems with discrete energy eigenvalues and fails to hold in general for systems with continuous energy. We show that during quantum walk process dominated by interference of amplitude corresponding to different paths fail to satisfy the complete quantum recurrence theorem. Due to the revival of the fractional wave packet, a fractional recurrence characterized using quantum P\'olya number can be seen.

Abstract:
The discrete time quantum walk which is a quantum counterpart of random walk plays important roles in the theory of quantum information theory. In the present paper, we focus on discrete time quantum walks viewed as quantization of random walks on the path. We obtain a weak limit theorem for the time averaged distribution of our quantum walks.

Abstract:
The coin-position entanglement generated by the evolution operator of a discrete--time quantum walk converges, in the long time limit, to a well defined value which depends on the initial state. We also discuss the asymptotic bi-partite entanglement generated by several non-separable coin operations for two coherent quantum walkers, for which the entropy of entanglement increases logarithmically.

Abstract:
We investigate a space-inhomogeneous discrete-time quantum walk in one dimension. We show that the walk exhibits localization by a path counting method.

Abstract:
A proof that continuous time quantum walks are universal for quantum computation, using unweighted graphs of low degree, has recently been presented by Childs [PRL 102 180501 (2009)]. We present a version based instead on the discrete time quantum walk. We show the discrete time quantum walk is able to implement the same universal gate set and thus both discrete and continuous time quantum walks are computational primitives. Additionally we give a set of components on which the discrete time quantum walk provides perfect state transfer.