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A Novel Approach for Indoor Outdoor Air Pollution Monitoring  [PDF]
Mohammed Abdullah Hussein
International Journal of Computer Science Issues , 2012,
Abstract: Current increase of atmospheric air pollution rates in developing and developed countries requires efforts to design more cost effective and affordable devices. In developed countries pollution monitoring chambers are available to aid the monitoring process. The culture and the society are aware of the polluted environment side effects and measures have been taken to reduce pollution amounts. Most developing countries lack these chambers and they do not have cost effective tools for measuring pollution amounts for indoor and outdoor environments. Here, an effort has been made to modify low cost available pollution devices to work for indoor and outdoor pollution monitoring and a simple cost effective approach has been carried out. Indoor carbon monoxide gas level monitoring using cheap alarms sensor, supported by a car oxygen sensor for oxygen gas level monitoring. The same approach is used for outdoor gas pollution monitoring. A computer program has been designed to facilitate computer based monitoring process and logging of pollution data.
Outdoor/indoor air quality in primary schools in Lisbon: a preliminary study
Pegas, Priscilla Nascimento;Evtyugina, Margarita G.;Alves, Célia A.;Nunes, Teresa;Cerqueira, Mário;Franchi, Mariana;Pio, Casimiro;Almeida, Susana Marta;Freitas, Maria do Carmo;
Química Nova , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-40422010000500027
Abstract: simultaneous measurements of outdoor and indoor pollution were performed at three schools in lisbon. volatile organic compounds (vocs), formaldehyde and no2 were passively monitored over a two-week period. bacterial and fungal colony-forming units and comfort parameters were also monitored at classrooms and playgrounds. the highest indoor levels of co2 (2666 μg/m3), no2 (40.3 μg/m3), vocs (10.3 μg/m3), formaldehyde (1.03 μg/m3) and bioaerosols (1634 cfu/m3), and some indoor/outdoor ratios greater than unity, suggest that indoor sources and building conditions might have negative effects on air indoors. increasing ventilation rates and use of low-emission materials would contribute towards improving indoor air quality.
Investigation of Indoor and Outdoor Air Bactrial Density in Tehran Subway System
K. Naddafi,H. Jabbari,M. Hoseini,R. Nabizadeh
Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering , 2011,
Abstract: The wide use of subway system by citizens underlines the importance of hygienic issues including indoor air pollution in these public places especially in metro stations. The aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial contamination in indoor and outdoor air of two metro stations (Imam Khomeini and Sadeghiyeh stations) in Tehran subway system. In this cross sectional study, three sampling locations were selected in each station. Also, sampling was conducted in indoor air of two types (old and new) of trains. The range of bacterial colony count was 35-1501 CFU/m3. Maximum and minimum bacterial contamination levels in Imam Khomeini and Sadeghiyeh platform stations were averagely 1073 CFU/m3 and 242 CFU/m3, respectively. 14 bacterial species and genera were isolated; among them the dominant species were Staphylococcus epidermidis, Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus spp. Results showed that bacterial concentrations in indoor air were higher than the outdoor air; also the bacterial counts correlated significantly with number of the passengers (p<0.001) and air temperature (p<0.001).
Car indoor air pollution - analysis of potential sources
Daniel Müller, Doris Klingelh?fer, Stefanie Uibel, David A Groneberg
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1745-6673-6-33
Abstract: Therefore the present article aims to summarize recent studies that address i.e. particulate matter exposure. It can be stated that although there is a large amount of data present for outdoor air pollution, research in the area of indoor air quality in vehicles is still limited. Especially, knowledge on non-vehicular sources is missing. In this respect, an understanding of the effects and interactions of i.e. tobacco smoke under realistic automobile conditions should be achieved in future.Air quality plays an important role in occupational and environmental medicine and many airborne factor negatively influence human health [1-6]. This review summarizes recent data on car indoor air quality published by research groups all over the world. It also refers to formerly summarized established knowledge concerning air pollution. Air pollution is the emission of toxic elements into the atmosphere by natural or anthropogenic sources. These sources can be further differentiated into either mobile or stationary sources. Anthropogenic air pollution is often summarized as being mainly related to motorized street traffic (especially exhaust gases and tire abrasion). Whereas other sources including the burning of fuels, and larger factory emissions are also very important, public debate usually addresses car emissions.The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates 2.4 million fatalities due to air pollution every year. Since the breathing of polluted air can have severe health effects such as asthma, COPD or increased cardiovascular risks, most countries have strengthened laws to control the air quality and mainly focus on emissions from automobiles.In contrast to the amount of research that is currently conducted in the field of health effects, only little is known on specific exposure situations due to external sources which are often present in the indoor environment of a car but not related to the car emissions. The studies addressed a number of vehicular or non-vehicular sou
INDOOR AIR POLLUTION
Ahmet Soysal,Yucel Demiral
TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin , 2007,
Abstract: The existance of hazardious materials including biological, chemical, and physical agents such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, radon, volotile organic compounds, microorganisms in houses and the other non-industrilized buildings have been defined as indoor air pollution . Indoor air pollutants could possible arised from inside or outside environment and categorized into six subgroups. Almost 80% Turkish population have living in the urban areas and people in the cities have spending approximetely 90% of their time in the closed enviroments, health problems could increased due to indoor air pollution. Moreover, currently there is no specific regulation on this area. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(3): 221-226]
Determination of Lead, Cations, and Anions Concentration in Indoor and Outdoor Air at the Primary Schools in Kuala Lumpur  [PDF]
Normah Awang,Farhana Jamaluddin
Journal of Environmental and Public Health , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/408275
Abstract: This study was carried out to determine the concentration of lead (Pb), anions, and cations at six primary schools located around Kuala Lumpur. Low volume sampler (MiniVol ) was used to collect the suspended particulates in indoor and outdoor air. Results showed that the concentration of Pb in indoor air was in the range of 5.18 ± 1.08?μg/g–7.01 ± 0.08?μg/g. All the concentrations of Pb in indoor air were higher than in outdoor air at all sampling stations. The concentrations of cations and anions were higher in outdoor air than in indoor air. The concentration of (39.51 ± 5.01?mg/g–65.13 ± 9.42?mg/g) was the highest because the cation existed naturally in soil dusts, while the concentrations of and were higher in outdoor air because there were more sources of exposure for anions in outdoor air, such as highly congested traffic and motor vehicles emissions. In comparison, the concentration of (29.72 ± 0.31?μg/g–32.00 ± 0.75?μg/g) was slightly higher than . The concentrations of most of the parameters in this study, such as , , , , and , were higher in outdoor air than in indoor air at all sampling stations. 1. Introduction Air pollution is generally the most widespread and obvious kind of environmental damage [1]. Kuala Lumpur, which is the federal capital and the largest city in Malaysia, is also suffering from air pollution problem. The last decade has seen its phenomenal growth as a centre of commerce in the region, and this trend is still continuing. With the increase in energy consumption and urbanization in Kuala Lumpur, the increase in ambient air pollution seems inevitable [2]. Air pollutants, which exist in the form of solid, semisolid, liquid, and gas, are emitted directly or indirectly from their sources. Some heavy metals such as lead and cadmium are common environmental pollutants in industrialised and developing countries [3]. Lead is a very toxic, nondegradable heavy metal that exists naturally in Earth’s crust [4, 5]. Lead in the atmosphere arises from two major ways, which are primary sources including lead from mining activities and secondary sources such as industrial emission, battery manufacturing, and additives in motor vehicles gasoline. In any population, children are more vulnerable to lead exposure than adults because children have higher hand-to-mouth activities and higher rate of gastrointestinal absorption, and their developing brains are more sensitive to insults from lead exposure [6]. Ionic species either anions or cations can significantly be found in the form of particulate in the air especially during air pollution.
Effects of indoor air pollution on respiratory symptoms of non-smoking women in Ni?, Serbia
Aleksandra Stankovi?, Maja Nikoli?, Mirjana Arandjelovi?
Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/2049-6958-6-6-351
Abstract: The study was carried out in 1,082 never-smoking females, aged 20-40 years, who were not occupationally exposed to indoor air pollution. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms and illnesses was assessed using the American Thoracic Society questionnaires. Multivariate methods were used in the analysis.A strong association was found between respiratory symptoms and indoor air pollution. The associations between home dampness and sinusitis and bronchitis were also found to be statistically significant.Indoor air pollution exposure is an important risk factor for respiratory symptoms and illnesses in non-smoking women in Ni?, Serbia.Sources of indoor air pollution can exist in any home, with constant or periodical emission of pollutants. The pollutants that are emitted are different from outdoor pollutants in terms of their concentration, which can be sometimes significantly higher [1]. There are many different types of pollutants which may given rise to combined effects. The main factors related to indoor air pollution are chemicals for intended use or unintentional emissions from different sources, particles, microbes, pets, humidity, ventilation, temperature.The presence of indoor pollutants, even at low concentrations, may have an important biological impact on account of long exposure periods [2]. In developing countries, it is typical for individuals to be exposed to very high levels of pollution for 3-7 hours each day over many years [3].Exposure to hazardous pollutants may have an immediate or a long-term effect, which may not become manifest for many years. The significance of the exposure depends upon the source, how much is emitted from the source, how harmful the pollutant is, and how much has accumulated within the home [4].The respiratory system is the primary target of indoor air pollutants' effects because most frequently they enter the human organism through inhalation. Air pollution-related diseases are the most important cause of respiratory morbidity
Use of Ventilation-Index in the Development of Exposure Model for Indoor Air Pollution—A Review  [PDF]
Krishnendu Mukhopadhyay, Rengaraj Ramasamy, Banani Mukhopadhyay, Santu Ghosh, Sankar Sambandam, Kalpana Balakrishnan
Open Journal of Air Pollution (OJAP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojap.2014.32004
Abstract:

In indoor environment, emission factor of the cooking fuel plays a vital role in determining correlation between exposure assessment and health effects. Both indoor and outdoor air pollution exposures are widely influenced by the ventilation status. An optimum control of the air change rate has also significant impact on the exposure pattern. A number of studies revealed that the indoor particulates and gaseous exposures, resulting from the combustion of various cooking fuels, are associated with significant adverse health effects on pregnant mothers and new born babies. The impacts of ventilation status on air pollution exposure in households’ kitchens or living rooms have not been explored enough. Except a few studies with concrete rooms, especially in industries, no other studies have been established on the correlation between the ventilation index and air pollution exposure. The intent of this review is to discuss reported findings focused on the ventilation and exposure to air pollution. This will obviously help better understanding to modulate exposure profile in household condition using simple tool of ventilation measurement.

THE INFLUENCE OF THE LIVING PLACE ON THE EXPOSURE TO THE INDOOR AIR POLLUTION  [PDF]
Aleksandra Stankovi?,Dragana Niki?,Maja Nikoli?
Acta Medica Medianae , 2005,
Abstract: There are many sources of indoor air pollution in any home. The exposure to pollutants of the indoor air pollution provokes very serious health problems. Pregnant women belong to sensitive groups of population, and exposure to the indoor air pollution influence the mother’s health and intrauterine growth.In this respect, the aim of this research is to assess the exposure of pregnant women to the indoor air pollution, who live in different zones of the town, and also to determine a possible difference in that exposure. A standard questionnaire prepared by WHO was used in the study. The questionnaire included questions on the place of living and its characteristics. 327 pregnant women over 25 years of age living in different zones of the town took part in the investigation. One group (174) lives in the center of Ni , and the other one (153) lives in the suburb.On the basis of the results obtained, we concluded that the examinees living in the immediate surrounding of Nis were statistically significantly more exposed to the factors of the indoor air pollution. Our investigation showed that the place of living influences decreased or increased exposure to the majority of the indoor air pollution factors.
Recommended concentration limits of indoor air pollution indicators for requirement of acceptable indoor air quality  [PDF]
Wang J., Zhang X.
International Journal of Energy and Environment , 2010,
Abstract: Object and goals of indoor air pollution control with ventilation may influence improvement of indoor air quality, building energy consumption and even carbon emissions. Indicators of indoor air pollution caused by occupants-related sources and building-related sources were chosen based on sources emitting characteristics, pollutants composition, indicator choosing principles and indoor air pollution situation in China. Then the recommended concentration limits of indicators were given for unadapted and adapted persons according to logarithmic index evaluation method, combined with percentage of dissatisfaction and joint effect of indoor air pollution caused by these two kinds of sources.
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