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Estimation of hospital emergency room data using otc pharmaceutical sales and least mean square filters
AH Najmi, SF Magruder
BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6947-4-5
Abstract: The OTC data are grouped into a few categories and we estimate the clinical data using each individual category, as well as using a multichannel filter that encompasses all the OTC categories. The estimation (in the least mean square sense) is performed using an FIR (Finite Impulse Response) filter and the normalized LMS algorithm.We show all estimation results and present a table of effectiveness of each OTC category, as well as the effectiveness of the combined filtering operation. Individual group results clearly show the effectiveness of each particular group in estimating the clinical hospital data and serve as a guide as to which groups have sustained correlations with the clinical data.Our results indicate that Multichannle adaptive FIR least squares filtering is a viable means of estimating public health conditions from OTC sales, and provide quantitative measures of time dependent correlations between the clinical data and the OTC data channels.Surveillance of Over-the-Counter (OTC) pharmaceutical sales as a potential early indicator of developing public health conditions has been suggested in the literature [1]. OTC sales offer several advantages as possible early indicators of public health. They are, first of all, very widely used. According to a recent health survey [2], 77% of the U. S. population said they have used non-prescription medications to treat a health condition at least once in a 6-month period. This compares to 43% who said they consulted a physician in the same time period, and 38% who said they used prescription medications.A second advantage of OTCs is that reliable and detailed electronic records are made at the time of sale. These records are aggregated regionally for commercial purposes. The only additional burden for health surveillance purposes is to communicate this data to the appropriate public health organizations. The OTC data contain significant information, e.g. sales volume of each of several hundred possible products, and
Modeling the Customer Satisfaction Influence on the Long Term Sales: Example with Leading OTC Analgesics INN on National Market  [PDF]
Guenka Petrova, Nikolay Mateev, Dimitar Barumov, Lily Peikova, Maria Dimitrova, Manoela Manova
Modern Economy (ME) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/me.2013.49060
Abstract:

Background: The customer satisfaction models are used to examine brand loyalty and sales. The utilization of the counter medicines depends directly on the level of knowledge of consumers, preferences and their satisfaction could be considered as an important predictor for their revenue. Objectives: The goal of the current study is to develop a Markov model for assessing the influence of the customer satisfaction on long term sales of leading OTC international nonproprietary names (INNs) of analgesics on the national market. Methods: Two first-order stationary Markov models based on marketing data for OTC analgesics sales and customer satisfaction inquiry, particularly from metamizole (MET), paracetamol (PAR), acetysal (ASA), and ibuprofen (IBU) were created and manipulated. The first model considered the very satisfied customers and the second the very satisfied and the somewhat satisfied customers. Results: MET is the INN with the most loyal customers followed by PAR. The product Markov matrix was derived after multiplications of the matrixes with market share and loyal customers’ probabilities. The steady state is achieved after 17 years for the group of satisfied customers and after 40 iterations for the group of somewhat satisfied. The market fluctuations are more dynamic in the second model probably due to lower determination of customers purchasing behavior. Conclusions: The model allows prediction of the long term changes in sales, differences between the groups of customers and long term marketing fluctuations. It could be useful in companies’ strategic sales management.

美国otc药物的管理  [PDF]
孙亚丽
中国中医药信息杂志 , 1996,
Abstract: 1美国推行非处方药(otcdrug’s)情况1.1otc药的定义(defintions):①在美国otc药物管理规定:otc药安全、有效、正确制作;②需经政府主管部位(fda)批准后,做为otc药物使用;③适宜的标签(labeling);④需符合公众的需要;⑤结合保健系统。1.2推行非处方药的益处(purpose):①加强整体保健;②推动自我药疗的知识;③增加药品使用性,方便群众;④减少药品费用;⑤改变药品支付来源。1.3美国关于合理使用otc药的条件(conditions):①群众需求,关心和容易接受;②群众的知识及文化素质;③医疗卫生界容易接受;④药物的可使用性与供应流通性大;⑤药品应用中的足够科学性。
Association of Over-The-Counter Pharmaceutical Sales with Influenza-Like-Illnesses to Patient Volume in an Urgent Care Setting  [PDF]
Timothy Y. Liu, Jason L. Sanders, Fu-Chiang Tsui, Jeremy U. Espino, Virginia M. Dato, Joe Suyama
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0059273
Abstract: We studied the association between OTC pharmaceutical sales and volume of patients with influenza-like-illnesses (ILI) at an urgent care center over one year. OTC pharmaceutical sales explain 36% of the variance in the patient volume, and each standard deviation increase is associated with 4.7 more patient visits to the urgent care center (p<0.0001). Cross-correlation function analysis demonstrated that OTC pharmaceutical sales are significantly associated with patient volume during non-flu season (p<0.0001), but only the sales of cough and cold (p<0.0001) and thermometer (p<0.0001) categories were significant during flu season with a lag of two and one days, respectively. Our study is the first study to demonstrate and measure the relationship between OTC pharmaceutical sales and urgent care center patient volume, and presents strong evidence that OTC sales predict urgent care center patient volume year round.
Eradication of Lice in Cattle
O Nafstad, H Gr?nst?l
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica , 2001, DOI: 10.1186/1751-0147-42-81
Abstract: The eradication strategy was successful in 28 of 33 herds, but lice were still present in 5 herds 3 to 6 months after treatment. Biting lice were present in all these 5 herds, sucking lice were present in 3 herds. During the next 12 months, nine of the 28 herds were reinfected with lice. Six herds were reinfected with just biting lice, 2 herds with just sucking lice and one herd was reinfected with both. There was no significant difference between the 2 louse species regarding the risk of unsuccessful eradication or reinfection. The only significant risk factor for reinfection was either purchase of livestock or use of common pasture, combined with failure in pre-treatment of newly introduced animals.Pediculosis in cattle occurs throughout the world, and is more common in cattle than in any other domestic animal [33]. Two species of lice are endemic in Norwegian cattle, biting lice (Damalinia (Bovicola) bovis (Linnaeus 1758)) and sucking lice (Linognathus vituli (Linnaeus 1758)). Cattle lice cause irritation and restlessness, but there are conflicting opinions concerning their economic effects on livestock production. [14] and [23] maintained that lice can have a significant effect on milk production and weight gain. [16,28,29] found a significant effect on weight gain. However, [5] found no significant difference in weight gain or haematocrit levels between louse-infected and louse-free cattle. Other authors have also not found significant effects on growth rate [20,10,9]. In recent years, hide damage caused by lice has been increasingly recognised as a significant effect of lice infestations [4,35]. The damage is described as areas of grain loss up to 3 mm diameter that are seen on dyed crust leather [4].Historically, lice control has been obtained through the use of various insecticides [11,19,24,34], but toxicological problems, the environmental impact and residual effects have limited the practical use of topical insecticides. Different types of pyrethroids and
Inter-Dealer OTC E-markets  [PDF]
Iosif ZIMAN
Informatica Economica Journal , 2012,
Abstract: The global OTC markets have been very active in the past decade as many institutions have chosen to rely on growth in the OTC issuance to facilitate deal-making outside of the exchange regulated avenues. Products included in this category are bonds, converts, volatility and variance swaps, CDS contracts. This paper introduces the financial instruments used in connection with the OTC markets, presents and offers suggestions for setting up generic sell and buys side RFQ and market making systems and introduces the main concepts and compo-nents that need to be taken into account when developing such systems when targeting the growing E-Business focus of the market.
OTC analgesics and drug interactions: clinical implications  [cached]
Fendrick A Mark,Pan Deborah E,Johnson Grace E
Osteopathic Medicine and Primary Care , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1750-4732-2-2
Abstract: The risk of drug interactions with concurrent use of multiple medications is a clinically relevant issue. Many patients are unaware that over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics can cause potentially serious adverse effects when used in combination with other common medications such as anticoagulants, corticosteroids, or antihypertensive agents. Of particular significance is the increased risk of upper abdominal gastrointestinal adverse events in patients who take traditional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). This risk is dose dependent and further increased in patients who take more than one NSAID or use NSAIDs in combination with certain other medications. Some NSAIDs may also mitigate the antiplatelet benefits of aspirin and may increase blood pressure in patients with hypertension. Clinicians should be aware of potential drug interactions with OTC analgesics when prescribing new medications. Additionally, patients should be properly counseled on the appropriate and safe use of OTC analgesics.
Sales Promotion  [PDF]
Miklautsch M,Prem M
Journal für Ern?hrungsmedizin , 2010,
Abstract: Das verkaufsf rdernde Instrument der Sales Promotion k nnte durchaus genutzt werden, um auch den Absatz von als "gesund" bezeichneten Lebensmitteln zu f rdern. Um nachhaltige nderungen im Konsumationsverhalten zu erzielen, sind jedoch zus tzliche Ma nahmen erforderlich.
Apes, lice and prehistory  [cached]
Weiss Robin A
Journal of Biology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/jbiol114
Abstract: Although most epidemic human infectious diseases are caused by recently introduced pathogens, cospeciation of parasite and host is commonplace for endemic infections. Occasional host infidelity, however, provides the endemic parasite with an opportunity to survive the potential extinction of its host. Such infidelity may account for the survival of certain types of human lice, and it is currently exemplified by viruses such as HIV.
An Analysis of Lost Sales
Jeffrey E. Jarrett
Management and Economics Research Journal , DOI: 10.18639/MERJ.2015.01.159412
Abstract: The purpose of this manuscript is to shed light on problems associated with lost sales and the incurring of cost associated with lost sales. An investigation is made to determine if seasonality in sales and lost sales have effects on the efficient operations of supply chains. Optimization is alays a goal of management supply chains but cost increases due to insufficient inventory, low quality product and the like lead to customers not returning. These are lost sales which occur for many reasons. We study a data set to determine if the ignoring of time series component also have an effect on the variation in lost sales. If so, can we measure the magnitude of the effects of seasonal variation in lost sales and what are their consequences.
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