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Variation of TTC Repeat Pattern In The Dna of Mycobacterium Leprae Isolates Obtained from Archeological Bones and Leprosy Patients From East Nusa Tenggara  [PDF]
Dinar Adriaty,Ratna Wahyuni,Iswahyudi,Bimo Aksono
Journal of Tropical Life Science , 2012,
Abstract: The existence of leprosy or kusta or Morbus Hansen or Hansen’s disease has been known for years, including in Indonesia. Starting from the discovery of Mycobacterium leprae isolates from ancient bone (about 1.000 years B.C), the archaeological excavations results in East Nusa Tenggara, interesting questions arise about how the development of leprosy in eastern Indonesia is. Biology molecular study would become a powerful tool to investigate the presence of leprosy bacillary whether there are similarities between the genomes of M. leprae isolates in the primeval and the present. PCR examinations were performed on mandibular bone fragments from ancient human who lived 1000 years B.C. discovered in archaeological surveys on the island of Lembata and three leprosy patients from East Nusa Tenggara. The DNA extraction was performed using a kit from Qiagen products and its TTC repeating pattern was seen with the method of direct sequencing. It turned out that the TTC profile obtained from samples of archaeological was as many as 13 copies, while the repetition of TTC in three samples of leprosy patients were 15, 17 and 26 copies. The different number of TTC repetition shows the different isolates of M. leprae between in the ancient times and the present. Further studies are needed to verify the differences in the genome that occur, for example from the study of SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms).
Leprosy: a modern assessment of an ancient neglected disease
Margoles, Lindsay;Río, Carlos del;Franco-Paredes, Carlos;
Boletín médico del Hospital Infantil de México , 2011,
Abstract: leprosy or hansen's disease is a chronic mycobacterial infectious disease caused by mycobacterium leprae and affects mainly peripheral nerves and skin as well as upper respiratory mucosae. this infection is a conjoined bacteriological and immunological disease. target cells of infection are macrophages, histiocytes in the skin, and the nonmyelinating and myelinating schwann cells in the peripheral nerves leading to axonal dysfunction and demyelination leading to functional impairment and deformity. leprosy reactions represent the most important determinant of nerve impairment if untreated and unrecognized. control of leprosy transmission remains a challenge despite substantial improvements through the use of multidrug therapy in many settings. most importantly, although many patients have been microbiologically cured through the efforts of the world health organization, many are left with significant disability that has recently been estimated to be ~20% of those treated (~15 million individuals) in the last decades. further efforts are needed to elucidate the epidemiology and risk factors for disability among those with multibacillary forms.
Detection and Strain Typing of Ancient Mycobacterium leprae from a Medieval Leprosy Hospital  [PDF]
G. Michael Taylor, Katie Tucker, Rachel Butler, Alistair W. G. Pike, Jamie Lewis, Simon Roffey, Philip Marter, Oona Y-C Lee, Houdini H. T. Wu, David E. Minnikin, Gurdyal S. Besra, Pushpendra Singh, Stewart T. Cole, Graham R. Stewart
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0062406
Abstract: Nine burials excavated from the Magdalen Hill Archaeological Research Project (MHARP) in Winchester, UK, showing skeletal signs of lepromatous leprosy (LL) have been studied using a multidisciplinary approach including osteological, geochemical and biomolecular techniques. DNA from Mycobacterium leprae was amplified from all nine skeletons but not from control skeletons devoid of indicative pathology. In several specimens we corroborated the identification of M. leprae with detection of mycolic acids specific to the cell wall of M. leprae and persistent in the skeletal samples. In five cases, the preservation of the material allowed detailed genotyping using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and multiple locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). Three of the five cases proved to be infected with SNP type 3I-1, ancestral to contemporary M. leprae isolates found in southern states of America and likely carried by European migrants. From the remaining two burials we identified, for the first time in the British Isles, the occurrence of SNP type 2F. Stable isotope analysis conducted on tooth enamel taken from two of the type 3I-1 and one of the type 2F remains revealed that all three individuals had probably spent their formative years in the Winchester area. Previously, type 2F has been implicated as the precursor strain that migrated from the Middle East to India and South-East Asia, subsequently evolving to type 1 strains. Thus we show that type 2F had also spread westwards to Britain by the early medieval period.
Sex and Gender Related Health Status Differences in Ancient and Contemporary Skeletal Populations
Velissaria Vanna
Papers from the Institute of Archaeology , 2007, DOI: 10.5334/pia.306
Abstract: Human skeletal and dental remains are an invaluable source of information for interpreting the way of life of past people and also provide the only direct evidence of non-living populations’ health status. This research paper discusses the sex-related health differences observed in two skeletal populations from Greece, an ancient and a modern, by employing multiple health indicators, and aims at determining the biological and possible social factors that contribute to this variation. Particular emphasis is given to the importance of hypotheses-driven, population-based studies of human remains as the most effective means of reconstructing life in the past. The results showed that fracture (ancient: females 0.08%, males 0.12%; modern: females 0.38%, males 0.19%) and osteoarthritis (ancient: females 0.7%, males: 3.0%; modern: females 4.4%, males 3.2%) frequencies were higher for male individuals than females in the ancient population, which can be explained by greater engagement in strenuous and risky activity. Dental caries (ancient: females 1.2%, males 1.8%; modern: females 23.6%, males 17.4%) and ante-mortem tooth loss (ancient: females 12.3%, males 7.7%; modern: females 69.5%, males 49.5%) rates were higher for females than males (with the exception of the almost equal caries rates for the ancient population), most likely due to hormonal fluctuations, saliva content and flow, because female teeth erupt earlier and also perhaps as a result of differences in dietary habits. Periodontitis levels were more elevated in males (ancient: females 9.6%, males 30.1%; modern: females 29.1%, males 38.3%), possibly due to poor oral hygiene practices and excessive masticatory loading. Dental enamel defects rates showed that in the ancient population, males had more chances of surviving childhood stress than females (females 19.5%, males 20.0%), whereas, in the modern population, the exact opposite was the case (females 6.1%, males 22.7%).
Elimination of Leprosy as a public health problem by 2000 AD: an epidemiological perspective
DS Nsagha, EA Bamgboye, JCN Assob, AL Njunda, HLF Kamga, AC Zoung-Kanyi Bissek, EN Tabah, ABOO Oyediran, AK Njamnshi
Pan African Medical Journal , 2011,
Abstract: Introduction: Leprosy is caused by Mycobacterium leprae and manifests as damage to the skin and peripheral nerves. The disease is dreaded because it causes deformities, blindness and disfigurement. Worldwide, 2 million people are estimated to be disabled by leprosy. Multidrug therapy is highly effective in curing leprosy, but treating the nerve damage is much more difficult. The World Health Assembly targeted to eliminate leprosy as a public health problem from the world by 2000. The objective of the review was to assess the successes of the leprosy elimination strategy, elimination hurdles and the way forward for leprosy eradication. Methods: A structured search was used to identify publications on the elimination strategy. The keywords used were leprosy, elimination and 2000. To identify potential publications, we included papers on leprosy elimination monitoring, special action projects for the elimination of leprosy, modified leprosy elimination campaigns, and the Global Alliance to eliminate leprosy from the following principal data bases: Cochrane data base of systematic reviews, PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, and the Leprosy data base. We also scanned reference lists for important citations. Key leprosy journals including WHO publications were also reviewed. Results: The search identified 63 journal publications on leprosy-related terms that included a form of elimination of which 19 comprehensively tackled the keywords including a book on leprosy elimination. In 1991, the 44th World Health Assembly called for the elimination of leprosy as a public health problem in the world by 2000. Elimination was defined as less than one case of leprosy per 10000-population. Elimination has been made possible by a confluence of several orders of opportunities: the scientific (the natural history of leprosy at the present state of knowledge), technological (multi-drug therapy and the blister pack); political (commitment of governments) and financial (support from NGOs for example the Nippon Foundation that supplies free multi-drug therapy) opportunities. Elimination created the unrealistic expectation that the leprosy problem could be solved by 2000. First, the elimination goal was not feasible in several areas which had high incidence of leprosy. Even if elimination was to be attained, significant numbers of new cases of leprosy would continue to occur and many people with physical imperfections, severe psychological, economic and social problems caused by leprosy would need continuous assistance. Extra-human reservoirs of Mycobacterium leprae, the relationship between leprosy and poverty, prevention of disabilities, lack of a reliable laboratory test to detect subclinical infection and a vaccine are also challenging issues. Conclusion: The evidence base available to inform on leprosy elimination is highly positive with the availability of multi-drug therapy blister packs. There are concerns that leprosy was not the right disease to be targeted for eliminati
Surgery before common era (B.C.E.)  [PDF]
Dobanova?ki Du?anka,Milovanovi? Ljiljana,Slavkovi? An?elka,Tati? Milanka
Archive of Oncology , 2012, DOI: 10.2298/aoo1202028d
Abstract: Based on skeleton examination, cave-paintings and mummies the study of prehistoric medicine tells that the surgical experience dated with skull trepanning, male circumcision and warfare wound healing. In prehistoric tribes, medicine was a mixture of magic, herbal remedy, and superstitious beliefs practiced by witch doctors. The practice of surgery was first recorded in clay tablets discovered in ancient rests of Mesopotamia, translation of which has nowadays been published in Diagnoses in Assyrian and Babylonian Medicine. Some simple surgical procedures were performed like puncture and drainage, scraping and wound treatment. The liability of physicians who performed surgery was noted in a collection of legal decisions made by Hammurabi about the principles of relationship between doctors and patients. Other ancient cultures had also had surgical knowledge including India, China and countries in the Middle East. The part of ancient Indian ayurvedic system of medicine devoted to surgery Sushruta Samhita is a systematized experience of ancient surgical practice, recorded by Sushruta in 500 B.C.E. Ancient Indian surgeons were highly skilled and familiar with a lot of surgical procedures and had pioneered plastic surgery. In the ancient Egyptian Empire medicine and surgery developed mostly in temples: priests were also doctors or surgeons, well specialized and educated. The Edwin Smith Papyrus, the world’s oldest surviving surgical text, was written in the 17th century B.C.E., probably based on material from a thousand years earlier. This papyrus is actually a textbook on trauma surgery, and describes anatomical observation and examination, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of numerous injuries in detail. Excavated mummies reveal some of the surgical procedures performed in the ancient Egypt: excision of the tumors, puncture and drainage pus abscesses, dentistry, amputation and even skull trepanation, always followed by magic and spiritual procedures. Various types of instruments were innovated, in the beginning made of stone and bronze, later of iron. Under the Egyptian influence, surgery was developed in ancient Greece and in Roman Empire. Prosperity of surgery was mostly due to practice in treating numerous battlefield injuries. Records from the pre-Hippocrates period are poor, but after him, according to many writings, medicine and surgery became a science, medical schools were formed all over the Mediterranean, and surgeons were well-trained professionals. Ancient surgery closed a chapter when Roman Empire declined, standing-by up to the 18th century
Indian Streams Research Journal , 2013,
Abstract: Agriculture in India is not of recent origin but has a long history dating back to Neolithic age of 7500 – 6500 B.C. It changed the life style of early man from nomadic hunter of wild berries and roots to cultivator of land. Agriculture is benefited from the wisdom and teachings of great saints. The wisdom gained and practices adopted have been passed down through generations. The traditional farmers have developed the nature friendly farming systems and practices such as mixed farming, mixed cropping, crop rotation etc. The great epics of ancient India convey the depth of knowledge possessed by the older generations of the farmers of India. The modern society to a proves of refinement through generations of experience. The ecological considerations shown by the traditional farmers in their farming activities are now a day is reflected in the resurgence of organic agriculture.
On the Age of Leprosy  [PDF]
Xiang Y. Han ,Francisco J. Silva
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002544
Abstract: Leprosy is a chronic infection of the skin and nerves caused by Mycobacterium leprae and the newly discovered Mycobacterium lepromatosis. Human leprosy has been documented for millennia in ancient cultures. Recent genomic studies of worldwide M. leprae strains have further traced it along global human dispersals during the past ~100,000 years. Because leprosy bacilli are strictly intracellular, we wonder how long humans have been affected by this disease-causing parasite. Based on recently published data on M. leprae genomes, M. lepromatosis discovery, leprosy bacilli evolution, and human evolution, it is most likely that the leprosy bacilli started parasitic evolution in humans or early hominids millions of years ago. This makes leprosy the oldest human-specific infection. The unique adaptive evolution has likely molded the indolent growth and evasion from human immune defense that may explain leprosy pathogenesis. Accordingly, leprosy can be viewed as a natural consequence of a long parasitism. The burden of leprosy may have affected minor selection on human genetic polymorphisms.
Ancient DNA Analysis of 8000 B.C. Near Eastern Farmers Supports an Early Neolithic Pioneer Maritime Colonization of Mainland Europe through Cyprus and the Aegean Islands  [PDF]
Eva Fernández ,Alejandro Pérez-Pérez,Cristina Gamba,Eva Prats,Pedro Cuesta,Josep Anfruns,Miquel Molist,Eduardo Arroyo-Pardo,Daniel Turbón
PLOS Genetics , 2014, DOI: doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004401
Abstract: The genetic impact associated to the Neolithic spread in Europe has been widely debated over the last 20 years. Within this context, ancient DNA studies have provided a more reliable picture by directly analyzing the protagonist populations at different regions in Europe. However, the lack of available data from the original Near Eastern farmers has limited the achieved conclusions, preventing the formulation of continental models of Neolithic expansion. Here we address this issue by presenting mitochondrial DNA data of the original Near-Eastern Neolithic communities with the aim of providing the adequate background for the interpretation of Neolithic genetic data from European samples. Sixty-three skeletons from the Pre Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) sites of Tell Halula, Tell Ramad and Dja'de El Mughara dating between 8,700–6,600 cal. B.C. were analyzed, and 15 validated mitochondrial DNA profiles were recovered. In order to estimate the demographic contribution of the first farmers to both Central European and Western Mediterranean Neolithic cultures, haplotype and haplogroup diversities in the PPNB sample were compared using phylogeographic and population genetic analyses to available ancient DNA data from human remains belonging to the Linearbandkeramik-Alf?ldi Vonaldiszes Kerámia and Cardial/Epicardial cultures. We also searched for possible signatures of the original Neolithic expansion over the modern Near Eastern and South European genetic pools, and tried to infer possible routes of expansion by comparing the obtained results to a database of 60 modern populations from both regions. Comparisons performed among the 3 ancient datasets allowed us to identify K and N-derived mitochondrial DNA haplogroups as potential markers of the Neolithic expansion, whose genetic signature would have reached both the Iberian coasts and the Central European plain. Moreover, the observed genetic affinities between the PPNB samples and the modern populations of Cyprus and Crete seem to suggest that the Neolithic was first introduced into Europe through pioneer seafaring colonization.
Bona fide colour: DNA prediction of human eye and hair colour from ancient and contemporary skeletal remains  [cached]
Draus-Barini Jolanta,Walsh Susan,Po?piech Ewelina,Kupiec Tomasz
Investigative Genetics , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/2041-2223-4-3
Abstract: Background DNA analysis of ancient skeletal remains is invaluable in evolutionary biology for exploring the history of species, including humans. Contemporary human bones and teeth, however, are relevant in forensic DNA analyses that deal with the identification of perpetrators, missing persons, disaster victims or family relationships. They may also provide useful information towards unravelling controversies that surround famous historical individuals. Retrieving information about a deceased person’s externally visible characteristics can be informative in both types of DNA analyses. Recently, we demonstrated that human eye and hair colour can be reliably predicted from DNA using the HIrisPlex system. Here we test the feasibility of the novel HIrisPlex system at establishing eye and hair colour of deceased individuals from skeletal remains of various post-mortem time ranges and storage conditions. Methods Twenty-one teeth between 1 and approximately 800 years of age and 5 contemporary bones were subjected to DNA extraction using standard organic protocol followed by analysis using the HIrisPlex system. Results Twenty-three out of 26 bone DNA extracts yielded the full 24 SNP HIrisPlex profile, therefore successfully allowing model-based eye and hair colour prediction. HIrisPlex analysis of a tooth from the Polish general W adys aw Sikorski (1881 to 1943) revealed blue eye colour and blond hair colour, which was positively verified from reliable documentation. The partial profiles collected in the remaining three cases (two contemporary samples and a 14th century sample) were sufficient for eye colour prediction. Conclusions Overall, we demonstrate that the HIrisPlex system is suitable, sufficiently sensitive and robust to successfully predict eye and hair colour from ancient and contemporary skeletal remains. Our findings, therefore, highlight the HIrisPlex system as a promising tool in future routine forensic casework involving skeletal remains, including ancient DNA studies, for the prediction of eye and hair colour of deceased individuals.
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