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Microglia in Close Vicinity of Glioma Cells: Correlation Between Phenotype and Metabolic Alterations  [PDF]
Pierre Voisin,Véronique Bouchaud,Michel Merle,Philippe Diolez,Laura Duffy,Kristian Flint,Jean-Michel Franconi,Anne-Karine Bouzier-Sore
Frontiers in Neuroenergetics , 2010, DOI: 10.3389/fnene.2010.00131
Abstract: Microglia are immune cells within the central nervous system. In brain-developing tumors, gliomas are able to silence the defense and immune functions of microglia, a phenomenon which strongly contributes to tumor progression and treatment resistance. Being activated and highly motile, microglia infiltrate tumors and secrete macrophagic chemoattractant factors. Thereafter, the tumor cells shut down their immune properties and stimulate the microglia to release tumor growth-promoting factors. The result of such modulation is that a kind of symbiosis occurs between microglia and tumor cells, in favor of tumor growth. However, little is known about microglial phenotype and metabolic modifications in a tumoral environment. Co-cultures were performed using CHME5 microglia cells grown on collagen beads or on coverslips and placed on monolayer of C6 cells, limiting cell/cell contacts. Phagocytic behavior and expression of macrophagic and cytoskeleton markers were monitored. Respiratory properties and energetic metabolism were also studied with regard to the activated phenotype of microglia. In co-cultures, transitory modifications of microglial morphology and metabolism were observed linked to a concomitant transitory increase of phagocytic properties. Therefore, after 1 h of co-culture, microglia were activated but when longer in contact with tumor cells, phagocytic properties appear silenced. Like the behavior of the phenotype, microglial respiration showed a transitory readjustment although the mitochondria maintained their perinuclear relocation. Nevertheless, the energetic metabolism of the microglia was altered, suggesting a new energetic steady state. The results clearly indicate that like the depressed immune properties, the macrophagic and metabolic status of the microglia is quickly driven by the glioma environment, despite short initial phagocytic activation. Such findings question the possible contribution of diffusible tumor factors to the microglial metabolism.
Hypothesis: are neoplastic macrophages/microglia present in glioblastoma multiforme?  [cached]
Leanne C Huysentruyt,Zeynep Akgoc,Thomas N Seyfried
ASN Neuro , 2011, DOI: 10.1042/an20110011
Abstract: Most malignant brain tumours contain various numbers of cells with characteristics of activated or dysmorphic macrophages/microglia. These cells are generally considered part of the tumour stroma and are often described as TAM (tumour-associated macrophages). These types of cells are thought to either enhance or inhibit brain tumour progression. Recent evidence indicates that neoplastic cells with macrophage characteristics are found in numerous metastatic cancers of non-CNS (central nervous system) origin. Evidence is presented here suggesting that subpopulations of cells within human gliomas, specifically GBM (glioblastoma multiforme), are neoplastic macrophages/microglia. These cells are thought to arise following mitochondrial damage in fusion hybrids between neoplastic stem cells and macrophages/microglia.
The Prevalence and Phenotype of Activated Microglia/Macrophages within the Spinal Cord of the Hyperostotic Mouse (twy/twy) Changes in Response to Chronic Progressive Spinal Cord Compression: Implications for Human Cervical Compressive Myelopathy  [PDF]
Takayuki Hirai, Kenzo Uchida, Hideaki Nakajima, Alexander Rodriguez Guerrero, Naoto Takeura, Shuji Watanabe, Daisuke Sugita, Ai Yoshida, William E. B. Johnson, Hisatoshi Baba
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0064528
Abstract: Background Cervical compressive myelopathy, e.g. due to spondylosis or ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament is a common cause of spinal cord dysfunction. Although human pathological studies have reported neuronal loss and demyelination in the chronically compressed spinal cord, little is known about the mechanisms involved. In particular, the neuroinflammatory processes that are thought to underlie the condition are poorly understood. The present study assessed the localized prevalence of activated M1 and M2 microglia/macrophages in twy/twy mice that develop spontaneous cervical spinal cord compression, as a model of human disease. Methods Inflammatory cells and cytokines were assessed in compressed lesions of the spinal cords in 12-, 18- and 24-weeks old twy/twy mice by immunohistochemical, immunoblot and flow cytometric analysis. Computed tomography and standard histology confirmed a progressive spinal cord compression through the spontaneously development of an impinging calcified mass. Results The prevalence of CD11b-positive cells, in the compressed spinal cord increased over time with a concurrent decrease in neurons. The CD11b-positive cell population was initially formed of arginase-1- and CD206-positive M2 microglia/macrophages, which later shifted towards iNOS- and CD16/32-positive M1 microglia/macrophages. There was a transient increase in levels of T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines at 18 weeks, whereas levels of Th1 cytokines as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF) and macrophage antigen (Mac) ?2 progressively increased. Conclusions Spinal cord compression was associated with a temporal M2 microglia/macrophage response, which may act as a possible repair or neuroprotective mechanism. However, the persistence of the neural insult also associated with persistent expression of Th1 cytokines and increased prevalence of activated M1 microglia/macrophages, which may lead to neuronal loss and demyelination despite the presence of neurotrophic factors. This understanding of the aetiopathology of chronic spinal cord compression is of importance in the development of new treatment targets in human disease.
Differential Modulation of TREM2 Protein during Postnatal Brain Development in Mice  [PDF]
Mariela Chertoff, Kalpana Shrivastava, Berta Gonzalez, Laia Acarin, Lydia Giménez-Llort
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0072083
Abstract: During postnatal development, microglia, the resident innate immune cells of the central nervous system are constantly monitoring the brain parenchyma, cleaning the cell debris, the synaptic contacts overproduced and also maintaining the brain homeostasis. In this context, the postnatal microglia need some control over the innate immune response. One such molecule recently described to be involved in modulation of immune response is TREM2 (triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2). Although some studies have observed TREM2 mRNA in postnatal brain, the regional pattern of the TREM2 protein has not been described. We therefore characterized the distribution of TREM2 protein in mice brain from Postnatal day (P) 1 to 14 by immunostaining. In our study, TREM2 protein was expressed only in microglia/macrophages and is developmentally downregulated in a region-dependent manner. Its expression persisted in white matter, mainly in caudal corpus callosum, and the neurogenic subventricular zone for a longer time than in grey matter. Additionally, the phenotypes of the TREM2+ microglia also differ; expressing CD16/32, MHCII and CD86 (antigen presentation markers) and CD68 (phagocytic marker) in different regions as well as with different intensity till P7. The mannose receptor (CD206) colocalized with TREM2 only at P1–P3 in the subventricular zone and cingulum, while others persisted at low intensities till P7. Furthermore, the spatiotemporal expression pattern and characterization of TREM2 indicate towards its other plausible roles in phagocytosis, progenitor’s fate determination or microglia phenotype modulation during postnatal development. Hence, the increase of TREM2 observed in pathologies may recapitulate their function during postnatal development, as a better understanding of this period may open new pathway for future therapies.
Temporal pattern of expression and colocalization of microglia/macrophage phenotype markers following brain ischemic injury in mice
Carlo Perego, Stefano Fumagalli, Maria-Grazia De Simoni
Journal of Neuroinflammation , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1742-2094-8-174
Abstract: Volume of ischemic lesion, neuronal counts and TUNEL staining were assessed in C57Bl/6 mice at 6-12-24-48 h and 7d after permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. At the same time points, the expression, distribution in the lesioned area, association with a definite morphology and coexpression of the microglia/macrophage markers CD11b, CD45, CD68, Ym1, CD206 were assessed by immunostaining and confocal microscopy.The results show that: 1) the ischemic lesion induces the expression of selected microglia/macrophage markers that develop over time, each with a specific pattern; 2) each marker has a given localization in the lesioned area with no apparent changes during time, with the exception of CD68 that is confined in the border zone of the lesion at early times but it greatly increases and invades the ischemic core at 7d; 3) while CD68 is expressed in both ramified and globular CD11b cells, Ym1 and CD206 are exclusively expressed by globular CD11b cells.These data show that the ischemic lesion is accompanied by activation of specific microglia/macrophage phenotype that presents distinctive spatial and temporal features. These different states of microglia/macrophages reflect the complexity of these cells and their ability to differentiate towards a multitude of phenotypes depending on the surrounding micro-environmental signals that can change over time. The data presented in this study provide a basis for understanding this complex response and for developing strategies resulting in promotion of a protective inflammatory phenotype.Microglia, the major cellular contributors to post-injury inflammation, have the potential to act as markers of disease onset and progression and to contribute to neurological outcome of acute brain injury. They are normally present in the healthy brain where they actively survey their surrounding parenchyma by protracting and retracting their processes and they are endowed with the capacity to rapidly respond to injury or altera
Aberrant Expression of Interleukin-1β and Inflammasome Activation in Human Malignant Gliomas  [PDF]
Leonid Tarassishin, Diana Casper, Sunhee C. Lee
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0103432
Abstract: Objective Glioblastoma is the most frequent and malignant form of primary brain tumor with grave prognosis. Mounting evidence supports that chronic inflammation (such as chronic overactivation of IL-1 system) is a crucial event in carcinogenesis and tumor progression. IL-1 also is an important cytokine with species-dependent regulations and roles in CNS cell activation. While much attention is paid to specific anti-tumor immunity, little is known about the role of chronic inflammation/innate immunity in glioma pathogenesis. In this study, we examined whether human astrocytic cells (including malignant gliomas) can produce IL-1 and its role in glioma progression. Methods We used a combination of cell culture, real-time PCR, ELISA, western blot, immunocytochemistry, siRNA and plasmid transfection, micro-RNA analysis, angiogenesis (tube formation) assay, and neurotoxicity assay. Results Glioblastoma cells produced large quantities of IL-1 when activated, resembling macrophages/microglia. The activation signal was provided by IL-1 but not the pathogenic components LPS or poly IC. Glioblastoma cells were highly sensitive to IL-1 stimulation, suggesting its relevance in vivo. In human astrocytes, IL-1β mRNA was not translated to protein. Plasmid transfection also failed to produce IL-1 protein, suggesting active repression. Suppression of microRNAs that can target IL-1α/β did not induce IL-1 protein. Glioblastoma IL-1β processing occurred by the NLRP3 inflammasome, and ATP and nigericin increased IL-1β processing by upregulating NLRP3 expression, similar to macrophages. RNAi of annexin A2, a protein strongly implicated in glioma progression, prevented IL-1 induction, demonstrating its new role in innate immune activation. IL-1 also activated Stat3, a transcription factor crucial in glioma progression. IL-1 activated glioblastoma-conditioned media enhanced angiogenesis and neurotoxicity. Conclusions Our results demonstrate unique, species-dependent immune activation mechanisms involving human astrocytes and astrogliomas. Specifically, the ability to produce IL-1 by glioblastoma cells may confer them a mesenchymal phenotype including increased migratory capacity, unique gene signature and proinflammatory signaling.
Factors regulating microglia activation  [PDF]
Katrin Kierdorf,Marco Prinz
Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fncel.2013.00044
Abstract: Microglia are resident macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS) that display high functional similarities to other tissue macrophages. However, it is especially important to create and maintain an intact tissue homeostasis to support the neuronal cells, which are very sensitive even to minor changes in their environment. The transition from the “resting” but surveying microglial phenotype to an activated stage is tightly regulated by several intrinsic (e.g., Runx-1, Irf8, and Pu.1) and extrinsic factors (e.g., CD200, CX3CR1, and TREM2). Under physiological conditions, minor changes of those factors are sufficient to cause fatal dysregulation of microglial cell homeostasis and result in severe CNS pathologies. In this review, we discuss recent achievements that gave new insights into mechanisms that ensure microglia quiescence.
Reduced Inflammatory Phenotype in Microglia Derived from Neonatal Rat Spinal Cord versus Brain  [PDF]
Sam Joshva Baskar Jesudasan, Kathryn G. Todd, Ian R. Winship
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0099443
Abstract: Microglia are the primary immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS). Membrane bound sensors on their processes monitor the extracellular environment and respond to perturbations of the CNS such as injury or infection. Once activated, microglia play a crucial role in determining neuronal survival. Recent studies suggest that microglial functional response properties vary across different regions of the CNS. However, the activation profiles of microglia derived from the spinal cord have not been evaluated against brain microglia in vitro. Here, we studied the morphological properties and secretion of inflammatory and trophic effectors by microglia derived from the brain or spinal cord of neonatal rats under basal culture conditions and after activation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Our results demonstrate that spinal microglia assume a less inflammatory phenotype after LPS activation, with reduced release of the inflammatory effectors tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1 beta, and nitric oxide, a less amoeboid morphology, and reduced phagocytosis relative to brain-derived microglia. Phenotypic differences between brain and spinal microglia are an important consideration when evaluating anti-inflammatory or immunomodulatory therapies for brain versus spinal injury.
Progressive changes in microglia and macrophages in spinal cord and peripheral nerve in the transgenic rat model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
David J Graber, William F Hickey, Brent T Harris
Journal of Neuroinflammation , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1742-2094-7-8
Abstract: Using immunohistochemistry, the extent and intensity of tissue CD11b expression in spinal cord, lumbar nerve roots, and sciatic nerve were evaluated in hmSOD1 rats that were pre-clinical, at clinical onset, and near disease end-stage. Changes in CD11b expression were compared to the detection of MHC class II and CD68 microglial activation markers in the ventral horn of the spinal cord, as well as to the changes in astrocytic GFAP expression.Our study reveals an accumulation of microglia/macrophages both in the spinal cord and peripheral nerve prior to clinical onset based on CD11b tissue expression. The microglia formed focal aggregates in the ventral horn and became more widespread as the disease progressed. Hypertrophic astrocytes were not prominent in the ventral horn until after clinical onset, and the enhancement of GFAP did not have a strong correlation to increased CD11b expression. Detection of MHC class II and CD68 expression was found in the ventral horn only after clinical onset. The macrophages in the ventral nerve root and sciatic nerve of hmSOD1 rats were observed encircling axons.These findings describe for the first time in the hmSOD1 rat transgenic model of ALS that enhancement of microglia/macrophage activity occurs pre-clinically both in the peripheral nerve and in the spinal cord. CD11b expression is shown to be a superior indicator for early immunological changes compared to other microglia activation markers and astrogliosis. Furthermore, we suggest that the early activity of microglia/macrophages is involved in the early phase of motor neuron degeneration and propose that studies involving immunomodulation in hmSOD1transgenic models need to consider effects on macrophages in peripheral nerves as well as to microglia in the spinal cord.In addition to motor neuron loss and paralysis, evidence of reactive microglia/macrophages and astrocytes is observed in motor regions of the CNS in sporadic and familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) [1,2]
Differential Modulation of Retinal Degeneration by Ccl2 and Cx3cr1 Chemokine Signalling  [PDF]
Ulrich F. O. Luhmann, Clemens A. Lange, Scott Robbie, Peter M. G. Munro, Jill A. Cowing, Hannah E. J. Armer, Vy Luong, Livia S. Carvalho, Robert E. MacLaren, Frederick W. Fitzke, James W. B. Bainbridge, Robin R. Ali
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0035551
Abstract: Microglia and macrophages are recruited to sites of retinal degeneration where local cytokines and chemokines determine protective or neurotoxic microglia responses. Defining the role of Ccl2-Ccr2 and Cx3cl1-Cx3cr1 signalling for retinal pathology is of particular interest because of its potential role in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Ccl2, Ccr2, and Cx3cr1 signalling defects impair macrophage trafficking, but have, in several conflicting studies, been reported to show different degrees of age-related retinal degeneration. Ccl2/Cx3cr1 double knockout (CCDKO) mice show an early onset retinal degeneration and have been suggested as a model for AMD. In order to understand phenotypic discrepancies in different chemokine knockout lines and to study how defects in Ccl2 and/or Cx3cr1 signalling contribute to the described early onset retinal degeneration, we defined primary and secondary pathological events in CCDKO mice. To control for genetic background variability, we compared the original phenotype with that of single Ccl2, Cx3cr1 and Ccl2/Cx3cr1 double knockout mice obtained from backcrosses of CCDKO with C57Bl/6 mice. We found that the primary pathological event in CCDKO mice develops in the inferior outer nuclear layer independently of light around postnatal day P14. RPE and vascular lesions develop secondarily with increasing penetrance with age and are clinically similar to retinal telangiectasia not to choroidal neovascularisation. Furthermore, we provide evidence that a third autosomal recessive gene causes the degeneration in CCDKO mice and in all affected re-derived lines and subsequently demonstrated co-segregation of the naturally occurring RD8 mutation in the Crb1 gene. By comparing CCDKO mice with re-derived CCl2?/?/Crb1Rd8/RD8, Cx3cr1?/?/Crb1Rd8/RD8 and CCl2?/?/Cx3cr1?/?/Crb1Rd8/RD8 mice, we observed a differential modulation of the retinal phenotype by genetic background and both chemokine signalling pathways. These findings indicate that CCDKO mice are not a model of AMD, but a model for an inherited retinal degeneration that is differentially modulated by Ccl2-Ccr2 and Cx3cl1-Cx3cr1 chemokine signalling.
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