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The Wound Healing Effects of Some Topical Antiseptic Creams in Dogs
Simon A. Yila,D.A.Y. Adawa,A.Z. Hassan,B.M. Jahun,A.B. Ogunkoya,K.A. Ihejirika
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: The wound healing effects of five broad-spectrum topical antiseptic creams namely TCP (Pfizer), Dettol (Reckitt and Colman), Savlon (Novartis), Drapolene (Warner Lambert) and Bacidin (Xepa-soul Pattison) were evaluated on experimentally infect wounds in Nigerian local dogs. Wounds treated with sterile physiological saline solution 0.9% (Aestus Pharmaceuticals Corp) served as controls. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of five broad-spectrum topical antiseptics creams on wound contraction, epithelization and reduction in wound bacterial load in dogs and also to advocate their suitability for Clinical application in Veterinary practice. Six wounds measuring 2 3 cm were created bilaterally (6 identical pairs of wounds/dog) on the dorsolateral aspect of the trunk of the dogs. A pure culture of beta-hemolytic coagulase positive Staphylococcus aureus of dog skin origin at concentration of 109 organisms mL 1 was used for the wound infection A total of seventy-two wounds were evaluated and treatment was carried out in a random fashion. All treatments were carried out 2 h after wound creation on day 0 and subsequently to day 28. The mean rate of wound contraction, epithelization and wound bacterial colony count (105 organism mL 1) of the various topical antiseptic cream treated wounds were assessed and compared statistically using the Duncan s multiple range tests. Dettol antiseptic treated wounds, has shown a statistically significant (0.004±0.01; 8.0±0.0, *p<0.05) greater rate of wound contraction, epithelization and reduction in wound bacterial colony count, which was below 105 organism mL 1 by day 21, as compared to Drapolene (0.08±0.11; 8.0±0.0), TCP (0.14±0.13; 8.0±0.0), Savlon (0.16±0.16; 8.0±0.0) and Bacidin (0.21±0.17; 7.8±0.18) (*p<0.05). However the physiological saline treated control wounds has a more statistical significant values (1.0±0.28; 5.5±0.45, *p<0.05) and the wound continued to discharge exudates till day 28, as compared with the topical antiseptic creams used in the study. The results indicate that, there are beneficial effects in the use of topical antiseptic creams for wound management in dogs.
Bacterial Inactivation Kinetics of Dialdehyde Starch Aqueous Suspension  [PDF]
Le Song,Samuel R. Farrah,Ronald H. Baney
Polymers , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/polym3041902
Abstract: The bacterial inactivation kinetics of dialdehyde starch (DAS) aqueous suspension was studied by the relationship between the minimal lethal concentration (MLC) and the inactivation time at four different temperatures. The relationship between MLC and exposure time was found to follow the first-order Chick-Watson law. This first-order inactivation kinetics was modeled by pseudo-first order chemical reaction. This model was validated by the successful predication of the bacterial inactivation response at room temperature.
Wound healing activity of the leaves of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Moraceae) on ex-vivo porcine skin wound healing model
K Periyanayagam,V Karthikeyan
Innovare Journal of Life Science , 2013,
Abstract: ABSTRACT Objective: To prescreen the ex- vivo wound healing activity of flavonoid rich fraction of ethyl acetate extract of the leaves of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. Family Moraceae using porcine skin wound healing model (PSWHM) along with phytochemical, XRF, HPTLC analysis. The aim of this present study is to provide pharmacological validation to the traditional claim for wound healing activity of Artocarpus heterophyllus leaves. Method: Total phenolic content by UV spectral methods and ursolic acid content by HPTLC, trace elements by X-ray fluorescence were determined. The wound healing effect of the ethyl acetate extract of the leaves of A.heterophyllus (EAAH) was evaluated using ex- vivo porcine skin wound healing model - a novel organ culture model system for evaluation of drugs in cell-cell junction in the wound healing process. Results: Total phenolic content by UV method, HPTLC determination of ursolic acid content of EAAH was found to be 376.5mg/g GAE, 134mg/g respectively. XRF study showed the presence of calcium (39.4%), potassium (29.6%), magnesium (2.06%), Iron (0.99%), sulphur (1.83%), zinc (0.083%), strontium (0.23%), manganese (0.13%) and aluminium (0.005%). Histopathological evaluation showed all treated wounds were sound with no signs of apoptosis, necrosis or bacterial contamination and no toxicity of the tested concentrations of EAAH of the leaves. Morphology of the wound margins, epidermis and dermis layer were found to be normal. Epidermal migration or keratinocyte migration distances from the edges of each wound were measured, normalized with the PBS control group and expressed as mean%. The result clearly showed EAAH (1.5%) promoted statistically significant wound healing effect is comparable to the standard drug Mupirocin. Conclusion: This study indicates that the ethyl acetate extract of the leaves of A.heterophyllus possesses potential wound healing activity on ex-vivo porcine skin wound healing model. Wound healing activity of EAAH (leaves) may be due to its phenolic content (flavonoids), triterpenoids constituents especially ursolic acid. Both of them known to have astringent property which is responsible for wound contraction and increased rate of epithelialisation along with the supportive anti-microbial activity. More over trace elements like Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Manganese (Mn), Iron (Fe) supports wound healing property as essential trace mineral are required for cellular growth and replication. This present investigation provides scientific evidence to ethnomedical use of A.heterophyllus leaves in wound healing
Skin Structure and Wound Healing Phases
Mona Malekmohammadi,Hossein Abdol Tehrani,Nasser Aghdami
Dermatology and Cosmetic , 2011,
Abstract: Skin injury caused by burns, surgery and other traumas may result in unpleasant psychological experiences and be reflected in behaviors. Extracellular matrix (ECM) is the largest component of natural skin which is gel-like and is produced by skin cells. ECM synthesis is a key factor for filling up skin wounds such as burns, leishmaniasis, chicken pox, acne, etc. ECM is composed of a variety of polysaccharides, water, and collagen proteins. Considering its weight, natural skin strength and its expandability are like steel, while it has high elasticity and compaction capacities. These characteristics are due to dual effects of main ECM molecules, which are secreted by fibroblasts and epidermal cells: 1) structural fiber proteins like: elastin, fibronectin and laminin which give strength and flexibility to ECM, and 2) proteoglycans such as dermatan sulfate and hyaluronic acid which are consisted of few glycosaminoglycan chains that branch out from a linear protein core. Proteoglycans are large and hydrated molecules which are resistant to external forces and protect underneath cells. In general, understanding the skin structure and wound healing phases can help us to design useful experiments and to conduct proper researches in this area.
Positional differences in the wound transcriptome of skin and oral mucosa
Lin Chen, Zarema H Arbieva, Shujuan Guo, Phillip T Marucha, Thomas A Mustoe, Luisa A DiPietro
BMC Genomics , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-11-471
Abstract: Using microarray analysis, we explored the differences in gene expression in skin and oral mucosal wound healing in a murine model of paired equivalent sized wounds. Samples were examined from days 0 to 10 and spanned all stages of the wound healing process. Using unwounded matched tissue as a control, filtering identified 1,479 probe sets in skin wounds yet only 502 probe sets in mucosal wounds that were significantly differentially expressed over time. Clusters of genes that showed similar patterns of expression were also identified in each wound type. Analysis of functionally related gene expression demonstrated dramatically different reactions to injury between skin and mucosal wounds. To explore whether site-specific differences might be derived from intrinsic differences in cellular responses at each site, we compared the response of isolated epithelial cells from skin and oral mucosa to a defined in vitro stimulus. When cytokine levels were measured, epithelial cells from skin produced significantly higher amounts of proinflammatory cytokines than cells from oral mucosa.The results provide the first detailed molecular profile of the site-specific differences in the genetic response to injury in mucosa and skin, and suggest the divergent reactions to injury may derive from intrinsic differences in the cellular responses at each site.Wound healing is a complicated pathophysiological process orchestrated by a variety of known and unknown factors. Although cutaneous and mucosal wound healing proceed through the same stages of hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling, mucosal wounds demonstrate accelerated healing compared to cutaneous wounds [1-4]. Mucosal wounds also generally heal with minimal scar formation, and hypertrophic scars are rare in the oral cavity [5].Studies in at least three different models of oral mucosal wound healing now support the concept that rapid wound closure and reduced scar formation are near-universal features of the su
Effects of UV-, Visible-, Near-Infrared Beams in Three Therapy Resistance Case Studies of Fungal Skin infections  [PDF]
Rozhin Penjweini, Soheila Mokmeli, Klaus Becker, Hans-Ulrich Dodt, Saiedeh Saghafi
Optics and Photonics Journal (OPJ) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/opj.2013.37A001
Abstract:

Fungal and bacterial diseases, directly infecting various parts of body, have received much attention in recent years. Bacterial infections, such as Tinea Pedis, Pityriasis versicolor and Mycetoma can secondarily occur in superficial fungal damaged skin. They often occur in immune compromised individuals including diabetics and patients with peripheral arterial diseases. Mycetoma infections can travel through the bloodstream affecting different organs. In this paper, we investigate the photo-inactivation of the pathogens causing Tinea Pedis, Pityriasis versicolor, and Mycetoma infections in three therapy resistant patients without photosensitizing drugs. We have used a combination of visible to near-infrared (VIS/NIR) laser beams in association with blue (B), red (R) and ultra-violet (UV) light emitted diodes (LEDs) with incident doses of 0.63 - 21.43 J/cm2. These beams have minimum side effects on the normal part of the skin. According to the physicians’ assessments, all case study patients achieved an observable progress such as decreases in inflammatory lesions, rapid process of wound healing and scars improvements. Side effects such as inflammation, crusting, or hypopigmentation were not observed. The presented irradiation protocol may be a valuable complementary treatment for patients suffering from fungal and bacterial skin infections.

Efficacy of frog skin lipids in wound healing
Venkat Raghavan K, Mary Babu, Rama Rajaram, Korrapati Sai
Lipids in Health and Disease , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1476-511x-9-74
Abstract: The current study envisages the role of frog skin lipids in the inflammatory phase of wound healing. The lipid moiety of the frog skin dominated by phospholipids exhibited a dose dependent acceleration of healing irrespective of the mode of application. The efficiency of the extract is attributed partially to the anti-inflammatory activity as observed by the histochemical and immunostimulatory together with plethysmographic studies.Thus, frog skin for the first time has been demonstrated to possess lipid components with pharmaceutical and therapeutic potential. The identification and characterization of such natural healing molecules and evaluating their mechanism of action would therefore provide basis for understanding the cues of Nature and hence can be used for application in medicine.Wound healing is a complex phenomenon involving a highly dynamic integrated series of cellular, physiological and biochemical processes. In our search for wound healing mechanisms, a Naga based technique of using frog (Hoplobatrachus sp.) skin was found to be very effective. Acceleration of wound healing by the application of several biological membranes is very common owing to their efficacy in preventing infection and sepsis. However, frog skin plays a complex role in addition to helping in the haemostasis and mechanical protection to wound site as described by Purna Sai et al., [1]. Hence the purification and characterization of the individual constituents of the frog skin and understanding the mechanism of biological activity has been attempted in a sequential manner. Four broad spectrum 11 and 12 residue novel antimicrobial peptides coined tigerinins have been already isolated by Purna Sai et al., [2] and Sitaram et al, [3] from the adrenalin stimulated skin secretions of the Indian frog Rana tigerina. The healing or repair process can be classified into three main overlapping and interrelating phases [4] viz., inflammatory phase involving alteration of capillary permeability,
STUDY OF SKIN STAPLES AND CONVENTIONAL SUTURE FOR ABDOMINAL SKIN WOUND CLOSURE
S. S. Karbhari,R . B. Patil,Avinash K. Bhavikatti
International Journal of Biomedical and Advance Research , 2012, DOI: 10.7439/ijbar.v3i7.595
Abstract: Introduction: The use of automatic stapling device for skin closure has become more popular due to its minimum disadvantages as compared to conventional suturing. Hence, this study was undertaken to compare the time required for abdominal skin closure and pain during suture removal, between skin staplers and conventional suture. Materials and Methods: The study includes 100 patients with age group of 45yrs-75yrs undergoing elective surgery, of which 50 patients underwent wound closure by staplers (Group-I) and 50 patients underwent closure using prolene suturing (Group-II), during June 2009 to June 2011 at Basaweshwar Teaching and General Hospital, Gulbarga. Patients were randomly selected for conventional suture and skin staple. Time duration for wound closure was recorded and pain scoring was given during suture removal, between both groups. Results and conclusion: In our study duration of wound closure was statistically significant (P<0.001) with staplers requiring lesser time than conventional prolene sutures, we also found that pain during suture removal between both groups was statistically significant (P<0.001). We believe the advantages of speed and convenience of skin staples outweigh the extra cost, provided the disposable instruments are reused until empty.
Bacterial adherence: the role of serum and wound fluid
SC Yah, T Haruna, IO Enabulele, EO Yusuf
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: Bacteria are known to initiate wound infections and have been found associated with wound infections. The purpose of this study was to investigate the bacterial adherence potential (BAP) wounds. The bacteria used were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds and assayed for their adherence ability using wound fluid and serum. The BAP were achieved by exposing the pathogens to freshly excised wounds. The adhered bacteria were then eluded and quantified using log (CFU/cm2) on Mueller Hinton Agar per cm2 of tissue. The results indicated that wound fluid and serum has a remarkable bacterial adherence potential (BAP) when exposed to freshly injured wounds as when compared to distilled water and no agent.
The Role of Iron in the Skin & Cutaneous Wound Healing  [PDF]
Josephine A. Wright,Surjit K. Srai
Frontiers in Pharmacology , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2014.00156
Abstract: In this review article we discuss current knowledge about iron in the skin and the cutaneous wound healing process. Iron plays a key role in both oxidative stress and photo-induced skin damage. The main causes of oxidative stress in the skin include reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated in the skin by ultraviolet (UVA) 320-400 nm portion of the ultraviolet spectrum and biologically available iron. We also discuss the relationships between iron deficiency, anaemia and cutaneous wound healing. Studies looking at this fall into two distinct groups. Early studies investigated the effect of anaemia on wound healing using a variety of experimental methodology to establish anaemia or iron deficiency and focused on wound-strength rather than effect on macroscopic healing or re-epithelialisation. More recent animal studies have investigated novel treatments aimed at correcting the effects of systemic iron deficiency and localised iron overload. Iron overload is associated with local cutaneous iron deposition, which has numerous deleterious effects in chronic venous disease and hereditary haemochromatosis. Iron plays a key role in chronic ulceration and conditions such as Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and Lupus Erythematosus are associated with both anaemia of chronic disease and dysregulation of local cutaneous iron haemostasis. Iron is a potential therapeutic target in the skin by application of topical iron chelators and novel pharmacological agents, and in delayed cutaneous wound healing by treatment of iron deficiency or underlying systemic inflammation.
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