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A Quantum Cosmology: No Dark Matter, Dark Energy nor Accelerating Universe  [PDF]
Reginald T Cahill
Physics , 2007,
Abstract: We show that modelling the universe as a pre-geometric system with emergent quantum modes, and then constructing the classical limit, we obtain a new account of space and gravity that goes beyond Newtonian gravity even in the non-relativistic limit. This account does not require dark matter to explain the spiral galaxy rotation curves, and explains as well the observed systematics of black hole masses in spherical star systems, the bore hole $g$ anomalies, gravitational lensing and so on. As well the dynamics has a Hubble expanding universe solution that gives an excellent parameter-free account of the supernovae and gamma-ray-burst red-shift data, without dark energy or dark matter. The Friedmann-Lema\^{i}tre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) metric is derived from this dynamics, but is shown not satisfy the General Relativity based Friedmann equations. It is noted that General Relativity dynamics only permits an expanding flat 3-space solution if the energy density in the pressure-less dust approximation is non-zero. As a consequence dark energy and dark matter are required in this cosmological model, and as well the prediction of a future exponential accelerating Hubble expansion. The FLRW $\Lambda$CDM model data-based parameter values, $\Omega_\Lambda=0.73$, $\Omega_{DM}=0.27$, are derived within the quantum cosmology model, but are shown to be merely artifacts of using the Friedmann equations in fitting the red-shift data.
Cosmology from cross correlation of CMB lensing and galaxy surveys  [PDF]
Ruth Pearson,Oliver Zahn
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.89.043516
Abstract: In recent years cross correlation of lensing of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) with other large scale structure (LSS) tracers has been used as a method to detect CMB lensing. Current experiments are also becoming sensitive enough to measure CMB lensing without the help of auxiliary tracers. As data quality improves rapidly, it has been suggested that the CMB lensing-LSS cross correlation may provide new insights into parameters describing cosmological structure growth. In this work we perform forecasts that combine the lensing potential auto power spectrum from various future CMB experiments, the galaxy power spectrum from galaxy surveys, as well as the cross power spectrum between the two, marginalizing over a number galactic and non-galactic cosmological parameters. We find that the CMB lensing-LSS cross correlation contains significant information on parameters such as the redshift distribution and bias of LSS tracers. We also find that the cross correlation information will lead to independent probes of cosmological parameters such as neutrino mass and the reionization optical depth.
A Correlation between Galaxy Light Concentration and Supermassive Black Hole Mass  [PDF]
Alister W. Graham,Peter Erwin,Nicola Caon,Ignacio Trujillo
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1086/338500
Abstract: We present evidence for a strong correlation between the concentration of bulges and the mass of their central supermassive black hole (M_bh) -- more concentrated bulges have more massive black holes. Using C_{r_e}(1/3) from Trujillo, Graham & Caon (2001b) as a measure of bulge concentration, we find that log (M_bh/M_sun) = 6.81(+/-0.95)C_{r_e}(1/3) + 5.03(+/-0.41). This correlation is shown to be marginally stronger (Spearman's r_s=0.91) than the relationship between the logarithm of the stellar velocity dispersion and log M_bh (Spearman's r_s=0.86), and has comparable, or less, scatter (0.31 dex in log M_bh), which decreases to 0.19 dex when we use only those galaxies whose supermassive black hole's radius of influence is resolved and remove one well understood outlying data point).
The correlation between black hole mass and bulge velocity dispersion in hierarchical galaxy formation models  [PDF]
Martin G. Haehnelt,Guinevere Kauffmann
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2000.03989.x
Abstract: Recent work has demonstrated that there is a tight correlation between the mass of a black hole and the velocity dispersion of the bulge of its host galaxy. We show that the model of Kauffmann & Haehnelt, in which bulges and supermassive black holes both form during major mergers, produces a correlation between M_bh and sigma with slope and scatter comparable to the observed relation. In the model, the M_bh - sigma relation is significantly tighter than the correlation between black hole mass and bulge luminosity or the correlation between bulge luminosity and velocity dispersion. There are two reasons for this: i) the gas masses of bulge progenitors depend on the velocity dispersion but not on the formation epoch of the bulge, whereas the stellar masses of the progenitors depend on both; ii) mergers between galaxies move black holes along the observed M_bh - sigma relation, even at late times when the galaxies are gas-poor and black holes grow mainly by merging of pre-existing black holes. We conclude that the small scatter in the observed M_bh - sigma relation is consistent with a picture in which bulges and black holes form over a wide range in redshift.
Black Holes in Elliptical and Spiral Galaxies and in Globular Clusters  [PDF]
Cahill R. T.
Progress in Physics , 2005,
Abstract: Supermassive black holes have been discovered at the centers of galaxies, and also in globular clusters. The data shows correlations between the black hole mass and the elliptical galaxy mass or globular cluster mass. It is shown that this correlation is accurately predicted by a theory of gravity which includes the new dynamics of self-interacting space. In spiral galaxies this dynamics is shown to explain the so-called "dark matter" rotation-curve anomaly, and also explains the Earth based bore-hole g anomaly data. Together these effects imply that the strength of the self-interaction dynamics is determined by the fine structure constant. This has major implications for fundamental physics and cosmology.
Black Holes in Elliptical and Spiral Galaxies and in Globular Clusters  [PDF]
Reginald T. Cahill
Physics , 2005,
Abstract: Supermassive black holes have been discovered at the centers of galaxies, and also in globular clusters. The data shows correlations between the black hole mass and the elliptical galaxy mass or globular cluster mass. It is shown that this correlation is accurately predicted by a theory of gravity which includes the new dynamics of self-interacting space. In spiral galaxies this dynamics is shown to explain the so-called `dark matter' rotation-curve anomaly, and also explains the earth based bore-hole g anomaly data. Together these effects imply that the strength of the self-interaction dynamics is determined by the fine structure constant. This has major implications for fundamental physics and cosmology.
Evidence for Three Accreting Black Holes in a Galaxy at z~1.35: A Snapshot of Recently Formed Black Hole Seeds?  [PDF]
Kevin Schawinski,Meg Urry,Ezequiel Treister,Brooke Simmons,Priyamvada Natarajan,Eilat Glikman
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/743/2/L37
Abstract: One of the key open questions in cosmology today pertains to understanding when, where and how super massive black holes form, while it is clear that mergers likely play a significant role in the growth cycles of black holes, how supermassive black holes form, and how galaxies grow around them. Here, we present Hubble Space Telescope WFC3/IR grism observations of a clumpy galaxy at z=1.35, with evidence for 10^6 - 10^7 Msun rapidly growing black holes in separate sub-components of the host galaxy. These black holes could have been brought into close proximity as a consequence of a rare multiple galaxy merger or they could have formed in situ. Such holes would eventually merge into a central black hole as the stellar clumps/components presumably coalesce to form a galaxy bulge. If we are witnessing the in-situ formation of multiple black holes, their properties can inform seed formation models and raise the possibility that massive black holes can continue to emerge in star-forming galaxies as late as z=1.35 (4.8 Gyr after the Big Bang).
Accurate Black Hole Mass Measurements for Thermal AGNs and the Origin of the Correlations Between Black Hole Mass and Bulge Properties  [PDF]
C. Martin Gaskell
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: A simple refinement is proposed to the Dibai method for determining black hole masses in type-1 thermal AGNs. Comparisons with reverberation mapping black hole masses and host galaxy bulge properties suggest that the method is accurate to +/- 0.15 dex. Contrary to what was thought when the black hole mass - stellar velocity dispersion ("M - sigma") relationship was first discovered, it does not have a lower dispersion than the black hole mass - bulge luminosity ("M - L") relationship. The dispersion in the M - L relationship for AGNs decreases strongly with increasing black hole mass or bulge luminosity. This is naturally explained as a consequence of the black hole - bulge relationships being the result of averaging due to mergers. Simulations show that the decrease in dispersion in the M - L relationship with increasing mass is in qualitative agreement with being driven by mergers. The large scatter in AGN black hole masses at lower masses rules out significant AGN feedback. A non-causal origin of the correlations between black holes and bulges explains the frequent lack of supermassive black holes in late-type galaxies, and the lack of correlation of black hole mass with pseudo-bulges.
Quasar Formation and Energy Emission in Black Hole Universe  [PDF]
Zhang T.
Progress in Physics , 2012,
Abstract: Formation and energy emission of quasars are investigated in accord with the black hole universe, a new cosmological model recently developed by Zhang. According to this new cosmological model, the universe originated from a star-like black hole and grew through a supermassive black hole to the present universe by accreting ambient matter and merging with other black holes. The origin, structure, evolution, expansion, and cosmic microwave background radiation of the black hole universe have been fully explained in Paper I and II. This study as Paper III explains how a quasar forms, ignites and releases energy as an amount of that emitted by dozens of galaxies. A main sequence star, after its fuel supply runs out, will, in terms of its mass, form a dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole. A normal galaxy, after its most stars have run out of their fuels and formed dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes, will eventually shrink its size and collapse towards the center by gravity to form a supermassive black hole with billions of solar masses. This collapse leads to that extremely hot stellar black holes merge each other and further into the massive black hole at the center and meantime release a huge amount of radiation energy that can be as great as that of a quasar. Therefore, when the stellar black holes of a galaxy collapse and merge into a supermassive black hole, the galaxy is activated and a quasar is born. In the black hole universe, the observed distant quasars powered by supermassive black holes can be understood as donuts from the mother universe. They were actually formed in the mother universe and then swallowed into our universe. The nearby galaxies are still very young and thus quiet at the present time. They will be activated and further evolve into quasars after billions of years. At that time, they will enter the universe formed by the currently observed distant quasars as similar to the distant quasars entered our universe. The entire space evolves iteratively. When one universe expands out, a new similar universe is formed from its inside star-like or supermassive black holes.
Cross-Correlation of spectroscopic and photometric galaxy surveys: cosmology from lensing and redshift distortions  [PDF]
E. Gaztanaga,M. Eriksen,M. Crocce,F. Castander,P. Fosalba,P. Marti,R. Miquel,A. Cabre
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.20613.x
Abstract: Cosmological galaxy surveys aim at mapping the largest volumes to test models with techniques such as cluster abundance, cosmic shear correlations or baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO), which are designed to be independent of galaxy bias. Here we explore an alternative route to constrain cosmology: sampling more moderate volumes with the cross-correlation of photometric and spectroscopic surveys. We consider the angular galaxy-galaxy autocorrelation in narrow redshift bins and its combination with different probes of weak gravitational lensing (WL) and redshift space distortions (RSD). Including the cross-correlation of these surveys improves by factors of a few the constraints on both the dark energy equation of state w(z) and the cosmic growth history, parametrized by \gamma. The additional information comes from using many narrow redshift bins and from galaxy bias, which is measured both with WL probes and RSD, breaking degeneracies that are present when using each method separately. We show forecasts for a joint w(z) and \gamma figure of merit using linear scales over a deep (i<24) photometric survey and a brighter (i<22.5) spectroscopic or very accurate (0.3%) photometric redshift survey. Magnification or shear in the photometric sample produce FoM that are of the same order of magnitude of those of RSD or BAO over the spectroscopic sample. However, the cross-correlation of these probes over the same area yields a FoM that is up to a factor 100 times larger. Magnification alone, without shape measurements, can also be used for these cross-correlations and can produce better results than using shear alone. For a spectroscopic follow-up survey strategy, measuring the spectra of the foreground lenses to perform this cross-correlation provides 5 times better FoM than targeting the higher redshift tail of the galaxy distribution to study BAO over a 2.5 times larger volume.
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