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Modulation of Anxiolytic-Like and Antidepressant-Like Effects of Melatonin by Imipramine in Wistar Rats: Possible Interaction with Central Monoaminergic Systems  [PDF]
Sihame Ouakki, Oussama Zghari, Aboubaker El Hessni, Abdelhalem Mesfioui, Ali Ouichou
Neuroscience & Medicine (NM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/nm.2019.102008
Abstract: Our current study aims to explore the interaction of melatonin (MEL) with the monoaminergic system on the pathophysiology of affective disorders in Wistar rats. We mention here that, the role of monoaminergic transmission in the pathophysiology of affective disorders in humans is demonstrated in most recent reports. In this sense, our current work aims to explore the effect of melatonin (MEL) with or without imipramine (IMP) on levels of depression and anxiety in Wistar rats and would determine the role of MEL in modulating serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine neurotransmission. From this point, twenty-four female Wister rats were divided into 4 groups of 6 animals and received subcutaneously during 4 weeks different doses of MEL (4 mg/kg), IMP (2 mg/kg) or MEL (4 mg/kg) + IMP (2 mg/kg). Behavioral performance especially anxiety and depression is measured in the open field (OFT), elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swim test (FST). The anxiety-like and antidepressant-like effects were observed with MEL at 4 mg/Kg and IMP at 2 mg/Kg but the potentiating effect was more observed with the two combined molecules (MEL and IMP), since locomotors activity assessed by the OFT and EPM was not affected. These effects suggest that psychopharmacological actions of MEL are due, at least in part, to its ability to potentiate the central monoaminergic transmitter effects.
Antidepressant and Anxiolytic Effects of Cod Liver Oil in Rats
Tahira Perveen*, Faiza Razi, Saida Haider, Hina Qayyum and Darakhshaan J. Haleem
Pakistan Veterinary Journal , 2013,
Abstract: Cod-liver oil is a rich source of omega 3 fatty acids and has been widely used as omega 3 fatty acids supplementation. Regarding omega-3 fatty acid beneficial effects in humans, this study was designed to investigate the effect of repeated administration of cod-liver oil on the locomotion and behaviors of rats, including depression, anxiety and the 5-Hydroxy tryptamine (5-HT) metabolism. After four weeks oral administration of cod-liver oil, open field test was used to measure the locomotor and exploratory activity. Elevated plus maze test was used to measure anxiety. Cod-liver oil significantly increased locomotion and produced anxiolytic effects in rats. Antidepressant effect of cod-liver oil was monitored by forced swim test (FST) in which struggling time of test animals was increased significantly. 5-HT turnover also increased significantly following the oral repeated administration of cod liver oil in test animals. The results suggest that cod-liver oil has antidepressant and anti-anxiety effects.
Anxiolytic and antidepressant effect of zinc on rats and its impact on general behavioural parameters  [PDF]
Samard?i? Janko,Savi? Kristina,Stefanovi? Nemanja,Matunovi? Radomir
Vojnosanitetski Pregled , 2013, DOI: 10.2298/vsp111129036s
Abstract: Background/Aim. Zinc is an essential element which has considerable interaction with gamma-aminobutyric acid A type receptors (GABAA) and glutamate receptors in the central nervous system (CNS). It is believed that zinc acts as a potent inhibitor of glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, and binding to structurally specific site on the GABAA receptor leads to inhibition of GABA dependent Cl-pass. The aim of our research was to test the anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of zinc after single application and its influence on general behavioural parameters after repeated administration. Methods. Male Wistar rats were treated with increasing doses of zinc histidine dehydrate (10, 20, 30 mg/kg, i.p.). To determine anxiolytic and antidepressant properties of zinc two models were used: elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swim test (FST). Behavioural parameters (stillness and mobility) were, also, recorded after single and repeated administration of active substance. Results. Testing animals in the EPM showed a statistically significant difference as follows: dose of 20 mg/kg significantly increased the time animals spent in open arms, indicating an acute anxiolytic effect, while doses of 30 mg/kg significantly reduced the time in the open arms, indicating a potentially anxiogenic effect. Testing the animals by FST showed a statistically significant difference in immobility time of animals treated with the lowest applied (10 mg/kg) and highest applied (30 mg/kg) doses of zinc, compared to the control group. The first day of testing behavioral parameters showed the tendency to increase locomotor activity of the animals with the lowest dose of zinc (10 mg/kg), while the following day revealed a reduced activity with the highest dose applied (30 mg/kg). Conclusion. Zinc has important effects on the CNS: After single application, in all doses zinc showed antidepressant effects. The effects of zinc on anxiety and locomotor activity showed dose-dependent bidirectional effects. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175076]
NEUROPHARMACOLOGICAL SCREENING OF THE IYENGARIA STELLATA REVEALED ITS MEMORY BOOSTING, ANXIOLYTIC AND ANTIDEPRESSANT EFFECTS  [PDF]
Riaz Bushra,Najam Rahila,Azhar Iqbal,Gul Somia
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: Seaweeds are known to possess enormous biological activities. They contain variety of active constituents which have pharmacological significance. The objective of this study is to explore neuropharmacological activities of the brown seaweed Iyengaria stellata. Various CNS screening tests have been performed on mice and rats for 30 days. Ethanolic extract of seaweed was suspended in distilled water and administered orally at 10mg/200g body weight. The results showed decline in the elapsed time taken by animal to reach the platform in Stationary rod and water maze model, significantly enhanced struggling time in FST, decreased number of peripheral square crosses and central square crosses in open field test and increased time spent in light box in Passive avoidance test. Thus it is concluded that Iyengaria stellata possess pronounced antidepressant and an anxiolytic property as well as it has memory boosting effects and mild antinociceptive activity.
In vitro evaluation of antioxidant, anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects of the Bellis perennis extract
Marques, Thiago Henrique Costa;Melo, Cássio Herbert Santos de;Freitas, Rivelilson Mendes de;
Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-695X2012005000082
Abstract: acute toxicity, antioxidant activity in vitro and general pharmacological effects of the flower crude ethanolic extract of bellis perennis l., asteraceae, a popular medicine used in south america, were investigated in mice. the oral route ld50 value was found 2.31 g/kg. oral administration at doses 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg of the extract neither caused significant changes in general behavior nor led to toxic symptoms. anxiolytic-like properties were studied in the open field test and the possible antidepressant-like actions were evaluated in the forced swimming test (fst). there is a significant decrease in the number of crossings at all dosages mentioned above, but no sedative effects at any dosages when compared to controls. in the fst, the extract dosage of 150 mg/kg was effective in reducing immobility, along with a significant increase in swimming time. the ethanolic extract showed strong antioxidant potential in vitro, through the removal capacity against hydroxyl radicals and nitric oxide as well as prevented the formation of reactive substances to thiobarbituric acid (tbars). together, these results indicate that the ethanolic extract has effect on central nervous system, which might due to its antioxidant property, as demonstrated in vitro methods used. these results suggest that some of the components in ethanolic extract of b. perennis, such as alkaloids, phenolic compounds and flavonoids may have antioxidant, anxiolytic and antidepressant-like properties. additional investigations are in progress.
In vitro evaluation of antioxidant, anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects of the Bellis perennis extract  [cached]
Thiago Henrique Costa Marques,Cássio Herbert Santos de Melo,Rivelilson Mendes de Freitas
Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia , 2012,
Abstract: Acute toxicity, antioxidant activity in vitro and general pharmacological effects of the flower crude ethanolic extract of Bellis perennis L., Asteraceae, a popular medicine used in South America, were investigated in mice. The oral route LD50 value was found 2.31 g/kg. Oral administration at doses 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg of the extract neither caused significant changes in general behavior nor led to toxic symptoms. Anxiolytic-like properties were studied in the open field test and the possible antidepressant-like actions were evaluated in the forced swimming test (FST). There is a significant decrease in the number of crossings at all dosages mentioned above, but no sedative effects at any dosages when compared to controls. In the FST, the extract dosage of 150 mg/kg was effective in reducing immobility, along with a significant increase in swimming time. The ethanolic extract showed strong antioxidant potential in vitro, through the removal capacity against hydroxyl radicals and nitric oxide as well as prevented the formation of reactive substances to thiobarbituric acid (TBARS). Together, these results indicate that the ethanolic extract has effect on central nervous system, which might due to its antioxidant property, as demonstrated in vitro methods used. These results suggest that some of the components in ethanolic extract of B. perennis, such as alkaloids, phenolic compounds and flavonoids may have antioxidant, anxiolytic and antidepressant-like properties. Additional investigations are in progress.
Anxiolytic and Antidepressant Effects of a Leaf Extract of Palisota hirsuta K. Schum. (Commelinaceae) in Mice  [PDF]
E. Woode,E. Boakye-Gyasi,N. Amidu,C. Ansah
International Journal of Pharmacology , 2010,
Abstract: The effect of a 70% (v/v) ethanolic leaf extract of Palisota hirsuta, a traditional West African plant used for CNS disorders and pain, in animal models of anxiety and depression-the open field test, the light/dark box, the Elevated plus Maze (EPM), the Forced Swimming Test (FST) and Tail Suspension Test (TST) has been reported. P. hirsuta (30-300 mg kg-1) treated mice exhibited anxiolytic activity in all the anxiety models used by significantly increasing the percentage of center entries and the percentage time spent in the center of the open field. P. hirsuta also significantly increased the time spent in the lit area in comparison to the time spent in the dark area of the light/dark box. In the EPM, it significantly increased open arm activity which was completely reversed by flumazenil (3 mg kg-1), a specific antagonist of the GABAA benzodiazepine receptor complex. In the antidepressant test, the extract also dose-dependently reduced the duration of immobility in both the FST (ED50: 114.55±72.69 mg kg-1) and TST (70.42±0.06 mg kg-1). Pretreatment with α-methydopa (400 mg kg-1; 3 h; p.o.), reserpine (1 mg kg-1; 24 h; s.c.) or a combination of the two drugs attenuated the anti-immobility effects of both imipramime and the extract but not fluoxetine. Neither the extract nor the standard drugs used modified motor performance on the rotarod test at all doses tested. These results suggest that the extract has anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects in the models employed possibly by GABAergic activation and/or effect on monoamine levels in the CNS.
Design, Synthesis and Characterization of Novel 6,7-dimethoxy-N2-(substituted benzyl)-N2-propylquinazoline-2,4-diamine Derivatives as Anxiolytic and Antidepressant Agents
American Journal of Chemistry , 2013, DOI: 10.5923/j.chemistry.20130301.04
Abstract: In order to produce new lead for anxiolytic and antidepressant drug, a new series of quinazoline analogues was designed to mimic ATC-0175 structural features and fitted with functional groups believed to enhance anxiolytic and antidepressant activity. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for anxiolytic and antidepressant activity by elevated plus-maze and tail-suspension method. The targeted compounds (SKF 1-15) were synthesized from 2-chloro-6,7-dimethoxy quinazolin-4-amine and N-(substituted benzyl) propan-1-amines in isoamyl alcohol medium under reflux for 24 h. All the targeted compounds are new chemical entities and obtained in satisfactory yields (Table 1). The structures of synthesized compounds are in good agreement with their corresponding spectral data.
Anxiolytic and Antidepressant-Like Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Alafia multiflora Stem Barks in Rodents  [PDF]
Harquin Simplice Foyet,David Emery Tsala,Armand Abdou Bouba,Lucian Hritcu
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/912041
Abstract: The present study examined the anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of the aqueous extract of Alafia multiflora Stapf (AM) stem barks (150 and 300?mg/kg, 7 days administration) on rats and mice, using experimental paradigms of anxiety and depression. In the open field, the aqueous extract increased significantly the number of center square crossed and the time spent at the center of the field as well as the rearing time, while the grooming time was reduced significantly. In the elevated plus maze, the aqueous extract increased the time spent and the number of entries in the open arms. All these effects were also completely reversed by flumazenil, an antagonist of benzodiazepine receptors and pindolol a β-adrenoceptors blocker/5-HT 1A/1B receptor antagonist. The time spent in the light compartment, the latency time, and the number of the light-dark transitions increased significantly in the light/dark exploration test after the treatment with AM. The extract was able to reduce significantly the immobility time and increase swimming as well as climbing duration. Taken together, the present work evidenced anxiolytic effects of the aqueous extract of AM that might involve an action on benzodiazepine-type receptors and an antidepressant effect where noradrenergic mechanisms will probably play a role. 1. Introduction Anxiety and depressive disorders are frequent psychiatric conditions identified as the most common stress-related mood disorders causing disability and premature death. More than 20% of the adult population suffer from these conditions at some time during their life [1]. The World Health Organization envisaged that depression will become the second leading cause of premature death or disability worldwide by the year 2020 [2]. The complexity of daily life in modern society leads to various degrees of anxiety and depression. Mood, depression, and anxiety disorders have been found to be associated with chronic pain among medical patients in both developed and developing countries [3]. For many years, they were considered as two different mental diseases, with the benzodiazepines used as the drugs of choice for acute anxiety states and the amine uptake inhibitors and monoamine oxidase inhibitors to treat depression. However, in the clinical practices of the treatment of anxiety disorders, benzodiazepines are now slowly replaced by antidepressants, which are not only efficacious in depression but also in the acute and chronic treatment anxiety disorders [1]. The GABAergic system and the serotoninergic neurotransmission are involved in anxiety. In
Role of Monoaminergic System in the Etiology of Olive Oil Induced Antidepressant and Anxiolytic Effects in Rats  [PDF]
Tahira Perveen,Bilal Moiz Hashmi,Saida Haider,Saiqa Tabassum,Sadia Saleem,Munnawar Ahmed Siddiqui
ISRN Pharmacology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/615685
Abstract: Olive oil is the major component of the Mediterranean diet and has rich history of nutritional and medicinal uses. In the present study, the antidepressant and anxiolytic effects and their neurochemical basis following repeated administration of extravirgin olive oil were monitored. Male albino Wistar rats were used during study. Animals of test group were given olive oil orally at the dose of 0.25?mL/kg daily for 4 weeks. Control rats received equal volume of water. Elevated-plus maze (EPM) test and forced swim test (FST) were performed for the assessment of anxiety and depression like symptoms. An increase in time spent in open arm in EPM and increased struggling time in FST following long-term administration of olive oil indicate that olive oil has anxiolytic and antidepressant properties. Neurochemical results showed that repeated administration of olive oil decreased the levels of brain 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine), 5-HIAA (5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid), and levels of DA (dopamine); however, levels of DA metabolite HVA (homovalinic acid) were increased. Hence, present findings suggest that olive oil has neuroprotective effects. It reduces behavioral deficits via altering 5-HT and DA metabolism. So it could be used as a therapeutic substance for the treatment of depression and anxiety. 1. Introduction Olive (Olea europaea) is in the family Oleaceae that is used throughout the world especially in the Mediterranean region. It is full of nutrients and vitamins. Extravirgin olive oil is derived from the first pressing of the olives. It has the most delicate flavor and antioxidant benefits [1]. Olive oil is rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and has excellent health benefits [2]. Olive oil is composed mainly of mixed triglyceride esters of oleic acid, palmitic acid, and other fatty acids, along with the traces of squalene (up to 0.7%) and sterols (about 0.2%; phytosterol & tocosterols). It also contains group of antioxidants that are esters of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosols, including oleocanthal, oleuropein, vitamin E, and carotenoids. Oleuropein is a chemical that prevents the oxidation of LDL (low density lipoproteins) particles [3]. Evidence from epidemiological studies suggests that a higher proportion of monounsaturated fats in the diet are linked with a reduction in the risk of coronary heart disease [4]. It has been reported that olive oil consumption has favorable effects on cholesterol regulation and LDL cholesterol oxidation and it also exerts antiplatelet [5], anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, and antihypertensive as well as vasodilatory
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