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Peer-to-Peer Multimedia Sharing based on Social Norms  [PDF]
Yu Zhang,Mihaela van der Schaar
Computer Science , 2011,
Abstract: Empirical data shows that in the absence of incentives, a peer participating in a Peer-to-Peer (P2P) network wishes to free-riding. Most solutions for providing incentives in P2P networks are based on direct reciprocity, which are not appropriate for most P2P multimedia sharing networks due to the unique features exhibited by such networks: large populations of anonymous agents interacting infrequently, asymmetric interests of peers, network errors, and multiple concurrent transactions. In this paper, we design and rigorously analyze a new family of incentive protocols that utilizes indirect reciprocity which is based on the design of efficient social norms. In the proposed P2P protocols, the social norms consist of a social strategy, which represents the rule prescribing to the peers when they should or should not provide content to other peers, and a reputation scheme, which rewards or punishes peers depending on whether they comply or not with the social strategy. We first define the concept of a sustainable social norm, under which no peer has an incentive to deviate. We then formulate the problem of designing optimal social norms, which selects the social norm that maximizes the network performance among all sustainable social norms. Hence, we prove that it becomes in the self-interest of peers to contribute their content to the network rather than to free-ride. We also investigate the impact of various punishment schemes on the social welfare as well as how should the optimal social norms be designed if altruistic and malicious peers are active in the network. Our results show that optimal social norms are capable of providing significant improvements in the sharing efficiency of multimedia P2P networks.
The construction of different classroom norms during Peer Instruction: Students perceive differences
Chandra Turpen,Noah D. Finkelstein
Physical Review Special Topics. Physics Education Research , 2010,
Abstract: This paper summarizes variations in instructors’ implementation practices during Peer Instruction (PI) and shows how these differences in practices shape different norms of classroom interaction. We describe variations in classroom norms along three dimensions of classroom culture that are integral to Peer Instruction, emphasis on: (1) faculty-student collaboration, (2) student-student collaboration, and (3) sense-making vs answer-making. Based on interpretations by an observing researcher, we place three different PI classrooms along a continuum representing a set of possible norms. We then check these interpretations against students’ perceptions of these environments from surveys collected at the end of the term. We find significant correspondence between the researchers’ interpretations and students’ perceptions of Peer Instruction in these environments. We find that variation in faculty practices can set up what students perceive as discernibly different norms. For interested instructors, concrete classroom practices are described that appear to encourage or discourage these norms.
Overseas Internet poker and problem gambling in Finland 2007: A secondary data analysis of a Finnish population survey
Jukka T. Halme
Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs , 2011, DOI: 10.2478/v10199-011-0005-4
Abstract: AIMS - Internet gambling has been associated with increased risk of problem gambling. In this study different clusters of gambling activities and behavioral measures of gambling were used in analyses, which aimed at investigating prevalence of problem gambling in Internet poker gamblers and in other gamblers. DATA AND METHODS - The study consisted of secondary analyses of a Finnish population data set collected in 2007 (telephone survey, reaching 5,008 Finns aged 15 years and over). Bivariate statistics and logistic regression models were used in the analyses. RESULTS - When only age and sex were added to logistic regressions, overseas Internet poker (IP) gamblers were almost three times more likely to be problem gamblers than other gamblers. However, when also behavioral measures of gambling were added to equations, no difference in problem gambling between IP and other gambling was found. In the slot machine (SM) cluster an opposite phenomena occurred: when behavioral variables were added to analyses, subjects in SM cluster were more likely to be problem gamblers than other gamblers. When IP and SM were compared in the same multivariate analysis, subjects in both of these gambling clusters were more likely to be problem gamblers than other gamblers. CONCLUSIONS - The present study shows the importance of behavioral measures in gambling research. The level of involvement in gambling should be one of the primary interests in studies and interventions.
Local Consequences of Applying International Norms: Differences in the Application of Forest Certification in Northern Sweden, Northern Finland, and Northwest Russia
E. Carina H. Keskitalo,Camilla Sandstr?m,Maria Tysiachniouk,Johanna Johansson
Ecology and Society , 2009,
Abstract: Forest certification, developed in the early 1990s, is a process in which independent assessors grant use of the certification label to producers who meet certain environmental and social criteria set for their forest products. This label was quickly seen to offer a market advantage and to signal corporate social and environmental responsibility. This paper focuses on international norms pertaining to environmental and indigenous rights, as manifested in cases of Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)- and Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC)-compatible certification, and how these norms have been applied domestically and perceived locally in different states. Case studies are drawn from northern Sweden, northern Finland, and three regions in northwest Russia. The studies illustrate that the choice and implementation of certification type depend considerably on national infrastructure and market characteristics and result in substantial differences in the impact that international norms have at the local level.
Quantum Gambling  [PDF]
Lior Goldenberg,Lev Vaidman,Stephen Wiesner
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.82.3356
Abstract: We present a two-party protocol for quantum gambling, a new task closely related to coin tossing. The protocol allows two remote parties to play a gambling game, such that in a certain limit it becomes a fair game. No unconditionally secure classical method is known to accomplish this task.
The “Peer” in “Peer Review”  [PDF]
Gad Perry,Jaime Bertoluci,Bruce Bury,Robert W. Hansen
Phyllomedusa : Journal of Herpetology , 2011,
Abstract: EditorialThe “Peer” in “Peer Review”

Lei Li,

心理学报 , 2004,
Abstract: This study applies the social context model within which to examine the relations of antisocial and aggressive and social withdrawn behaviors to peer victimization as functions of the classroom norms of these behaviors. Based on a large sample of 4650 middle school students, the results support the hypotheses that the classroom norm of aggression and social withdrawal, respectively, attenuates the negative associations between these two behaviors at the student level and peer victimization.
Protocol for a Respondent-Driven Sampling Study Exploring the Roles of Peer Norms in HIV-Related Practices of Gay Men  [PDF]
Iryna Zablotska, John de Wit, Graham Brown, Bruce Maycock, Christopher Fairley, Michelle McKechnie, Garrett Prestage
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2013.34041

Introduction: Sexual behaviour among gay and other men who have sex with men (GMSM) is influenced by the shared understanding of HIV/STI risk and peer norms regarding sexual behaviour. However, there is little research evidence to support this relationship. The unique geographic spread of Australian communities, the history of Australian HIV epidemic and the different patterns in risky sexual practices and HIV diagnoses across Australia present an opportunity to explore the role of social norms and GMSM behaviours in shaping different patterns of HIV epidemics. We describe the protocol of the study of contemporary norms in networks and communities of GMSM (CONNECT) which investigates gay community behavioural norms and practices. Methods: CONNECT is aimed to 1) identify the patterns of connections between individuals in GMSM communities and assess how they shape HIV-related behaviours; 2) describe the relationship between social norms and sexual practices; and 3) compare the norms and patterns of behaviour in geographically and epidemiologically distinct GMSM populations in three Australian states New South Wales, Victoria and Western Australia, in order to identify local community norms and barriers to effective HIV prevention. This quantitative cross-sectional study uses respondent-driven sampling (RDS) for recruitment. Results: Analyses will be carried out on individual and community level and will investigate the relationship between community-level behavioural norms and associated practices of individuals. Conclusion: CONNECT

Misperceptions in the Trajectories of Objects undergoing Curvilinear Motion  [PDF]
Ozgur Yilmaz, Srimant P. Tripathy, Haluk Ogmen
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0036511
Abstract: Trajectory perception is crucial in scene understanding and action. A variety of trajectory misperceptions have been reported in the literature. In this study, we quantify earlier observations that reported distortions in the perceived shape of bilinear trajectories and in the perceived positions of their deviation. Our results show that bilinear trajectories with deviation angles smaller than 90 deg are perceived smoothed while those with deviation angles larger than 90 degrees are perceived sharpened. The sharpening effect is weaker in magnitude than the smoothing effect. We also found a correlation between the distortion of perceived trajectories and the perceived shift of their deviation point. Finally, using a dual-task paradigm, we found that reducing attentional resources allocated to the moving target causes an increase in the perceived shift of the deviation point of the trajectory. We interpret these results in the context of interactions between motion and position systems.
Paul Tench
International Journal of English Studies (IJES) , 2001, DOI: 10.6018/ijes.1.1.47791
Abstract: The aim of the experiment described here was to attempt to measure adult learners' percetual interlanguage in phonology. The implementation of a methodology involving context-less lists of English words selected for their potential phonological problems is described, and the way in which learners process words they are listening to is discussed. The results of 13 Korean adults' perceptions and misperceptions are analysed: the most misperceived vowels were ID:/ and the short vowels /u, A, I, E, D, z/;c onsonants were mainly misperceived in word-final position, but 18, v, b, p, rl were misperceived to some extent in any position, and /S, j/ before the vowel /i:/; consonant clusters involving /f, 1, r/ were particularly subject to misperception. These findings have implications for the design of English pronunciation teaching materials for Koreans.
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