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Social function in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: Associations with personality, symptoms and neurocognition
Paul H Lysaker, Louanne W Davis
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-2-15
Abstract: A self-report measure of the five factor model of personality was gathered along with ratings of social function, symptoms and assessments of neurocognition for 65 participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.Univariate correlations and stepwise multiple regression indicated that frequency of social interaction was predicted by higher levels of the trait of Agreeableness, fewer negative symptoms, better verbal memory and at the trend level, lesser Neuroticism (R2 = .42, p < .0001). In contrast, capacity for intimacy was predicted by fewer negative symptoms, higher levels of Agreeableness, Openness, and Conscientiousness and at the trend level, fewer positive symptoms (R2 = .67, p < .0001).Taken together, the findings of this study suggest that person-centered variables such as personality, may account for some of the broad differences seen in outcome in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, including social outcomes. One interpretation of the results of this study is that differences in personality combine with symptoms and neurocognitive deficits to affect how persons with schizophrenia are able to form and sustain social connections with others.Interest has increasingly grown in understanding how differences in personality may affect outcome in schizophrenia [1,2]. Just as in a wide range of other severe and debilitating medical conditions [3-7], the manner in which people interpret and respond to a life touched by schizophrenia may deeply impact upon the recovery process [8-11].To date, one model of personality that has shown some promise in helping to systematically document the types of individual differences that help or hinder outcome in schizophrenia, is the "Five factor" model [12]. This model posits five endogenous traits [13] along which all persons vary, regardless of their socioeconomic status or culture and which exert an enduring impact on behavior, affect and cognition across the lifespan [14]. These five dimensions are Neuroticism, or vul
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and glial integrity: an exploration of associations of cytokines and kynurenine metabolites with symptoms and attention
Robert D Oades, Aye-Mu Myint, Maria R Dauvermann, Benno G Schimmelmann, Markus J Schwarz
Behavioral and Brain Functions , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1744-9081-6-32
Abstract: We explored systematically associations of 8 cytokines (indicators of pro/anti-inflammatory function) and 5 tryptophan metabolites with symptom ratings (e.g. anxiety, opposition, inattention) and continuous performance test (CPT) measures (e.g. movement, response time (RT), variability) in 35 ADHD (14 on medication) and 21 control children. Predictions from linear regressions (controlled by the false discovery rate) confirmed or disconfirmed partial correlations accounting for age, body mass and socio-economic status.(1) Total symptom ratings were associated with increases of the interleukins IL-16 and IL-13, where relations of IL-16 (along with decreased S100B) with hyperactivity, and IL-13 with inattention were notable. Opposition ratings were predicted by increased IL-2 in ADHD and IL-6 in control children. (2) In the CPT, IL-16 related to motor measures and errors of commission, while IL-13 was associated with errors of omission. Increased RT variability related to lower TNF-α, but to higher IFN-γ levels. (3) Tryptophan metabolites were not significantly related to symptoms. But increased tryptophan predicted errors of omission, its breakdown predicted errors of commission and kynurenine levels related to faster RTs.Many associations were found across diagnostic groups even though they were more marked in one group. This confirms the quantitative trait nature of these features. Conceptually the relationships of the pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines distinguished between behaviours associated more with cognitive or more with motor control respectively. Further study should extend the number of immunological and metabolic markers to confirm or refute the trends reported here and examine their stability from childhood to adolescence in a longitudinal design.Essential components of the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder of the combined type (ADHD) are clinical impairments of attention, impulsivity and hyperactivity.Further, the variability of th
Relationships among neurocognition, symptoms and functioning in patients with schizophrenia: a path-analytic approach for associations at baseline and following 24 weeks of antipsychotic drug therapy
Ilya A Lipkovich, Walter Deberdt, John G Csernansky, Bernard Sabbe, Richard SE Keefe, Sara Kollack-Walker
BMC Psychiatry , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-244x-9-44
Abstract: Data were obtained from a clinical trial assessing the cognitive effects of selected antipsychotic drugs in patients with schizophrenia. Patients were randomly assigned to 24 weeks of treatment with olanzapine (n = 159), risperidone (n = 158), or haloperidol (n = 97). Psychosocial functioning was assessed with the Heinrichs-Carpenter Quality of Life Scale [QLS], cognition with a standard battery of neurocognitive tests; and psychiatric symptoms with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale [PANSS]. A path-analytic approach was used to evaluate the effects of changes in cognitive functioning on subdomains of quality of life, and to determine whether such effects were direct or mediated via changes in psychiatric symptoms.At baseline, processing speed affected functioning mainly indirectly via negative symptoms. Positive symptoms also affected functioning at baseline although independent of cognition. At 24 weeks, changes in processing speed affected changes in functioning both directly and indirectly via PANSS negative subscale scores. Positive symptoms no longer contributed to the path-analytic models. Although a consistent relationship was observed between processing speed and the 3 functional domains, variation existed as to whether the paths were direct and/or indirect. Working memory and verbal memory did not significantly contribute to any of the path-analytic models studied.Processing speed demonstrated direct and indirect effects via negative symptoms on three domains of functioning as measured by the QLS at baseline and following 24 weeks of antipsychotic treatment.Neurocognitive impairment has been found to be strongly correlated with deficits in psychosocial and occupational functioning in patients with schizophrenia [1,2]. These earlier reviews of the literature (including a meta-analysis) were focused on identifying specific neurocognitive deficits that restrict the functioning of schizophrenia patients, as opposed to the use of more global measures of n
Homeostatic Imbalance of Purine Catabolism in First-Episode Neuroleptic-Na?ve Patients with Schizophrenia  [PDF]
Jeffrey K. Yao,George G. Dougherty Jr.,Ravinder D. Reddy,Matcheri S. Keshavan,Debra M. Montrose,Wayne R. Matson,Joseph McEvoy,Rima Kaddurah-Daouk
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009508
Abstract: Purine catabolism may be an unappreciated, but important component of the homeostatic response of mitochondria to oxidant stress. Accumulating evidence suggests a pivotal role of oxidative stress in schizophrenia pathology.
Temperament and personal character relationship with symptoms of schizophrenia disorder  [PDF]
Abbas Abolghasemi,Mohammad Bahari,Mohammad Narimani,Adel Zahed
Behbood , 2011,
Abstract: Background: Knowledge is limited concerning the role of temperament and character factors on schizophrenia. Recent studies suggest that dimensions of temperament and character influence symptoms and functions in schizophrenia. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between temperament and character with positive and negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia.Methods: The research sample consisted of 100 men which were randomly selected from schizophrenia patients with positive and negative symptoms at Razi hospital in Tabriz. Temperament and character inventory and positive and negative symptoms scale were used for data collection. Data was analyzed using t-test and discriminate analyses. Results: The research findings showed that patients with schizophrenia with negative symptoms had higher levels of self– transcendence and harm avoidance. However, patients with schizophrenia with positive symptoms had higher levels of cooperativeness. The results of discriminate analysis showed that explained 37 percent of variance of self– transcendence, harm avoidance and cooperativeness for only function between groups of schizophrenia with positive and negative symptoms. Discriminate function obtained was classified correctly by stepwise method 68.3 percent schizophrenia with positive and negative symptoms.Conclusion: It can be concluded that self– transcendence, harm avoidance and cooperativeness discriminated the patients with schizophrenia with positive and negative symptoms. The study confirmed important implications about intensity of symptomology and early intervention for patients with schizophrenia.
Purine nucleotides and their metabolites in patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus  [PDF]
Wioleta Dudzinska
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2014.71006
Abstract: We measured the erythrocyte levels of principal nucleotides (ATP, ADP, AMP, GTP, GDP, GMP, IMP), nucleosides (Ado, Guo, Ino) and Hyp with HPLC. Purine concentrations were determined in the erythrocytes of 36 type 1 and 40 type 2 diabetic patients. The increased dephosphorylation of adenine and guanine nucleotides, indicated by increased Ado, Ino, Guo and Hyp concentrations as the products of purine nucleotide degradation, suggests serious energy metabolism disruptions in diabetes. An increase in AMP, GMP, IMP concentrations, as well as a decrease in AEC and GEC values, points to significant alterations in erythrocyte purine nucleotide concentration.
Are Lay People Good at Recognising the Symptoms of Schizophrenia?  [PDF]
Philip Erritty, Taeko N. Wydell
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0052913
Abstract: Aim The aim of this study was to explore the general public’s perception of schizophrenia symptoms and the need to seek-help for symptoms. The recognition (or ‘labelling’) of schizophrenia symptoms, help-seeking behaviours and public awareness of schizophrenia have been suggested as potentially important factors relating to untreated psychosis. Method Participants were asked to rate to what extent they believe vignettes describing classic symptoms (positive and negative) of schizophrenia indicate mental illness. They were also asked if the individuals depicted in the vignettes required help or treatment and asked to suggest what kind of help or treatment. Results Only three positive symptoms (i.e., Hallucinatory behaviour, Unusual thought content and Suspiciousness) of schizophrenia were reasonably well perceived (above 70%) as indicating mental illness more than the other positive or negative symptoms. Even when the participants recognised that the symptoms indicated mental illness, not everyone recommended professional help. Conclusion There may be a need to improve public awareness of schizophrenia and psychosis symptoms, particularly regarding an awareness of the importance of early intervention for psychosis.
Study of negatives symptoms in first episode schizophrenia  [PDF]
Vivek Bambole, Nilesh Shah, Shushma Sonavane, Megan Johnston, Amresh Shrivastava
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2013.33033
Abstract:

Background: Prevalence of negative symptoms in the early phase of schizophrenia remains uncertain. Negative symptoms are the primary cause of long term disability and poor functional outcome. The purpose of this study is to examine the presence of negative symptoms in patients with fist episode psychosis in schizophrenia who were hospitalized. Methods: Negative symptoms were measured in 72 patients presenting with FEP using the scale for assessment of negative symptoms (SANS) and ascertained diagnosis using DSM-IV. Prevalence of SANS items and subscales were examined for both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Results: This study shows that a significant number of patients with first episode schizophrenia had negative symptoms 66 (87.5%). All five subtypes of negative symptoms were present in 47% of patients suggesting primary negative symptoms, and about 40% have secondary negative symptoms. Independently, each subtype of negative symptoms was seen in 48% - 76% of patients. The most prevalent negative symptom in first-episode schizophrenia was found to be blunting (72%). 46% of patients had significant level of depression, overall psychopathology was severe and level of functioning was poor. We found that 45.8% patients were prescribed anticholinergic medications which indicated that at least 45% subjects had extra-pyramidal symptoms (EPS). Conclusion: Primary negative symptoms are prevalent in about half of First episode Psychosis (FEP) schizophrenia patients. These findings have implications for identification, early treatment, and reduced treatment resistance for negative symptoms in order to increase social and clinical outcome of schizophrenia. Further research is required in this area.

The enigmatic phenotype: Relevant signs and symptoms in schizophrenia
Wijers,F.W.H.M.; Verhoeven,W.M.A.; Tuinier,S.;
The European Journal of Psychiatry , 2005, DOI: 10.4321/S0213-61632005000400003
Abstract: ever since schizophrenia was conceptualized by kraepelin and bleuler, attempts have been made to rearrange signs and symptoms in order to achieve an useful disease concept with consequences for outcome, prognosis, treatment response and etiology. several procedures were used to describe relevant phenotypes of the disease. in the beginning, famous psychiatrists conceptualized definitions of schizophrenia which was followed by a consensus about the operational criteria of schizophrenia. later, more emphasis was placed on the statistical analyses of symptoms present in patients with psychotic disorders which resulted in a great variety of symptom clusters. in another approach, investigators try to deconstruct psychiatric diagnoses in search for so called endophenotypes of which covert symptoms like cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, are an example. the value of all these endeavours ultimately depends on the external validity which means that a relationship has to be established with the etiology, treatment response and outcome. the premises of all these research efforts is, however, the idea that the pathogenic agent of schizophrenia or a subtype will be found. in this paper an outline of the literature about the ordening of overt and covert symptoms in schizophrenia is presented. it is concluded that the different approaches are essential analogue and that research into the delineation of cognitive deficits and their treatment is at present most promising.
The enigmatic phenotype: Relevant signs and symptoms in schizophrenia  [cached]
F.W.H.M. Wijers,W.M.A. Verhoeven,S. Tuinier
The European Journal of Psychiatry , 2005,
Abstract: Ever since schizophrenia was conceptualized by Kraepelin and Bleuler, attempts have been made to rearrange signs and symptoms in order to achieve an useful disease concept with consequences for outcome, prognosis, treatment response and etiology. Several procedures were used to describe relevant phenotypes of the disease. In the beginning, famous psychiatrists conceptualized definitions of schizophrenia which was followed by a consensus about the operational criteria of schizophrenia. Later, more emphasis was placed on the statistical analyses of symptoms present in patients with psychotic disorders which resulted in a great variety of symptom clusters. In another approach, investigators try to deconstruct psychiatric diagnoses in search for so called endophenotypes of which covert symptoms like cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, are an example. The value of all these endeavours ultimately depends on the external validity which means that a relationship has to be established with the etiology, treatment response and outcome. The premises of all these research efforts is, however, the idea that the pathogenic agent of schizophrenia or a subtype will be found. In this paper an outline of the literature about the ordening of overt and covert symptoms in schizophrenia is presented. It is concluded that the different approaches are essential analogue and that research into the delineation of cognitive deficits and their treatment is at present most promising.
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