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A nomenclator for the frailejones (Espeletiinae Cuatrec., Asteraceae)
Mauricio Diazgranados
PhytoKeys , 2012, DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.16.3186
Abstract: The páramos and high Andean forests of the tropical Andes are largely dominated by frailejones (Espeletiinae Cuatrec., Asteraceae). These plants are ecologically and culturally essential for both ecosystems and local inhabitants. The frailejones have been studied for over two centuries, but the taxonomic knowledge is still sparse and incomplete. The inedited monograph by Cuatrecasas contains only ca. 70% of the species known today, and publications in the last decade disagree regarding the number of taxa within the group, with estimates ranging from 3 genera and 90 species to 8 genera and 154 species. Moreover the literature contains inexact information about their distribution. As part of a study of the phylogenetic and biogeographic relationships of the group, a thorough revision of the nomenclature was needed as a first step. Currently the subtribe has 8 recognized genera, 141 species, 17 subspecies, 22 varieties, 8 forms, 33 recognized hybrids, 142 synonyms and 5 invalid names, for a total of 368 names (autonyms not counted). The most current list of taxa is presented here, along with some notes and Spanish names. Tamananthus crinitus V.M.Badillo is not included within the subtribe. Various previous species or infraspecific taxa (i.e. Carramboa tachirensis (Aristeg.) Cuatrec., Espeletia algodonosa Aristeg., E. aurantia Aristeg., E. brassicoidea var. macroclada, E. brassicoidea var. pedunculata, E. garcibarrigae Cuatrec. and Espeletiopsis cristalinensis (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec.) are proposed or confirmed as hybrids. Two new records for Colombia are mentioned: Ruilopezia cardonae (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec., which is the first report of Ruilopezia for that country, and Espeletia steyermarkii Cuatrec. Observations regarding the frequency of hybrids in the subtribe are also given.
Distribución geográfica y clave de las especies del género oritrophium (kunth) cuatrec.(asteraceae) Geographical distribution and species key of the genus Oritrophium (Kunth) Cuatrec. (Asteraceae)
Anairamiz ARANGUREN B,Gilberto MORILLO,Mario FARI?AS
Acta Botánica Venezuelica , 2008,
Abstract: Oritrophium es un género de Asteraceae originario de monta as tropicales y subtropicales entre Bolivia y México. Se suministra una lista actualizada de las especies del género (21) y una clave. Se incluyen ilustraciones de 13 especies. Se realizó un análisis de agrupamiento con la distribución de especies por países. Las 21 especies conocidas se distribuyen entre 1500 y 5400 m snm. En conclusión el género presenta distribución disyunta entre Norteamérica y Sudamérica, con mayor cantidad de especies y endemismos en Ecuador, Perú y Venezuela. The genus Oritrophium (Asteraceae) is native of tropical and subtropical mountains from Bolivia to Mexico. An updated list and a species key are provided. Illustrations of 13 species are included. A cluster analysis of the distribution by countries of the genus is presented. The 21 currently known species of the genus are found between 1500 and 5400 m asl. As a conclusion Oritrophium has a disjunct distribution between North America and South America, with higher number of species and a higher endemism in Ecuador, Perú and Venezuela.
Distribución geográfica y clave de las especies del género oritrophium (kunth) cuatrec.(asteraceae)
ARANGUREN B,Anairamiz; MORILLO,Gilberto; FARI?AS,Mario;
Acta Botánica Venezuelica , 2008,
Abstract: the genus oritrophium (asteraceae) is native of tropical and subtropical mountains from bolivia to mexico. an updated list and a species key are provided. illustrations of 13 species are included. a cluster analysis of the distribution by countries of the genus is presented. the 21 currently known species of the genus are found between 1500 and 5400 m asl. as a conclusion oritrophium has a disjunct distribution between north america and south america, with higher number of species and a higher endemism in ecuador, perú and venezuela.
EFECTO DEL GRADIENTE ALTITUDINAL SOBRE ASPECTOS AUTOECOLóGICOS DE ESPELETIA PYCNOPHYLLA ssp. ANGELENSIS CUATREC. (ASTERACEAE) EN EL PáRAMO EL INFIERNILLO (NARI O-COLOMBIA) THE EFFECT OF THE ALTITUDINAL GRADIENT ON AUTOECOLOGICAL FEATURES OF ESPELETIA PYCNOPHYLLA ssp. ANGELENSIS CUATREC. (ASTERACEAE) IN THE PARAMO 'EL INFIERNILLO' (NARI O-COLOMBIA)
Iván F. Benavides-Martínez,Diana L. Burbano-Martínez,Sandra M. Urbano-Apráez,María E. Solarte-Cruz
Actualidades Biológicas , 2007,
Abstract: Se estudió el efecto de la elevación sobre algunos aspectos autoecológicos de la especie Espeletia pycnophylla ssp. angelensis Cuatrec. (Asteraceae), tales como su estructura demográfica, densidad poblacional, patrón de distribución espacial, producción de estructuras reproductivas, morfometría de adultos y supervivencia, en un páramo seco del departamento de Nari o (Colombia). Las hipótesis propuestas por otros autores acerca del efecto lineal que la elevación produce sobre estas variables, fueron completamente rechazadas. La elevación induce un efecto coenoclínico sobre la densidad poblacional y ésta a su vez, se correlaciona negativamente con la producción de estructuras reproductivas y el tama o de los adultos, evidenciándose un efecto inequívoco del fenómeno de la densodependencia sobre el potencial biótico de la población. En la zona intermedia del gradiente, la densidad poblacional es máxima, pero los tama os corporales son reducidos, la producción de estructuras reproductivas es mínima y la probabilidad de que un juvenil alcance edades avanzadas es baja. Evidentemente, esta elevación intermedia estaría presentando condiciones ecológicas favorables para el establecimiento y supervivencia de plántulas, lo que a largo plazo conlleva a un aumento de la densidad poblacional. Se propone que las generalizaciones de otros autores acerca de la influencia de la elevación sobre la autoecología de estas plantas son inverosímiles y limitadas, ya que la historia particular de vida y disturbio del páramo y los aislamientos espaciales, ecológicos y genéticos, son factores explicativos que no pueden aislarse del contexto. Paralelamente, la población se ajustó al modelo demográfico logarítmico, revelando su temprano estado de regeneración frente a la última quema ocurrida en el 2003, y la similitud de las curvas de supervivencia entre todas las elevaciones, probó una alta estabilidad demográfica. Some autoecological features of Espeletia pycnophylla ssp. angelensis Cuatrec. such as its demographic structure, population density, spatial pattern of dispersion, production of reproductive structures, adult morphometry and survivorship, were studied in an altitudinal gradient on a dry paramo of Nari o (Colombia). Hypothesis proposed by other authors about a linear effect caused by the elevation on these variables were completely rejected. The elevation induces an ecoclinal effect on population density, and this density correlates negatively with both production of reproductive structures and adult sizes. These results elucidate an unequivocal effect of density-dependen
Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Artemisia echegarayi Hieron. (Asteraceae) Actividad antibacteriana y antioxidante del aceite esencial extraído de Artemisia echegarayi Hieron. (Asteraceae)  [cached]
A. Laciar,M. L. Vaca Ruiz,R. Carrizo Flores,J. R. Saad
Revista argentina de microbiolog?-a , 2009,
Abstract: Artemisia echegarayi Hieron. (Asteraceae) is commonly known in Argentina as “ajenjo”. Many studies report high efficacy of essential oils against food-borne pathogenic bacteria. The antimicrobial activity and minimal inhibitory concentration of A. echegarayi essential oil were evaluated against seven bacterial species of significant importance in food hygiene, by using the disc diffusion assay and the micro-well dilution method, respectively. Volatile components of the extract were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and major components were determined. Furthermore, the essential oil was tested for its antioxidant activity. The essential oil inhibited the growth of gram-positive and gram-negative tested bacteria, with the exception of Proteus mirabilis. A. echegarayi essential oil presented the lowest minimal inhibitory concentration against Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus. Two terpenes, thujone and camphor, were identified from this essential oil as the principal constituents responsible for antibacterial activity. The oil showed a free radical scavenging activity equivalent to 50% of the reference compound. These preliminary studies showed promising results since this essential oil may provide an alternative to promote its use as a natural food additive. Artemisia echegarayi Hieron. (Asteraceae), conocida como “ajenjo”, es una planta típica de la región de Cuyo (Argentina). En este trabajo se evaluó la actividad antimicrobiana in vitro y la concentración inhibitoria mínima del aceite esencial extraído de sus partes aéreas frente a especies bacterianas que con frecuencia contaminan los alimentos. Se utilizaron las técnicas de difusión con discos en agar y microdilución en placa respectivamente. Además, se determinó la actividad antioxidante de este aceite esencial in vitro por espectrofotometría. En general, tanto las bacterias gram-positivas como las gram-negativas fueron inhibidas por este aceite, con excepción de Proteus mirabilis. Listeria monocytogenes y Bacillus cereus resultaron ser las bacterias más sensibles. El análisis por croma-tografía en fase gaseosa y espectrometría de masa permitió la identificación cualitativa y cuantitativa de los componentes mayoritarios del aceite esencial del ajenjo. Entre ellos, la tuyona y el alcanfor se destacaron como los principales responsables de la actividad antibacteriana observada. Los datos preliminares obtenidos en el presente estudio sugieren que el aceite esencial de Artemisia echegarayi representa una alternativa para promover su empleo como aditivo natural en alimentos.
EFECTO DEL GRADIENTE ALTITUDINAL SOBRE ASPECTOS AUTOECOLóGICOS DE ESPELETIA PYCNOPHYLLA ssp. ANGELENSIS CUATREC. (ASTERACEAE) EN EL PáRAMO EL INFIERNILLO (NARI?O-COLOMBIA)
Benavides-Martínez,Iván F.; Burbano-Martínez,Diana L.; Urbano-Apráez,Sandra M.; Solarte-Cruz,María E.;
Actualidades Biológicas , 2007,
Abstract: some autoecological features of espeletia pycnophylla ssp. angelensis cuatrec. such as its demographic structure, population density, spatial pattern of dispersion, production of reproductive structures, adult morphometry and survivorship, were studied in an altitudinal gradient on a dry paramo of nari?o (colombia). hypothesis proposed by other authors about a linear effect caused by the elevation on these variables were completely rejected. the elevation induces an ecoclinal effect on population density, and this density correlates negatively with both production of reproductive structures and adult sizes. these results elucidate an unequivocal effect of density-dependence phenomena on population fitness. the intermediate zone of the altitudinal gradient exhibits a high population density, but on the other hand show reduced corporal adult sizes, minimal production of reproductive structures and the probability of juveniles reaching advanced ages is low. evidently, this intermediate elevation can have favorable ecological conditions for the seedling establishment, wich increments population densities at long term. we propose that other author's generalizations about the influence of elevation on the autoecology of these plants are limited, because the particular life and disturbance stories of paramos and the spatial, ecological and genetic isolating are explicative factors impossible to take away from the context. the demographic structure of the population fitted the logarithmic model, revealing its early regeneration state from the last fire event on 2003 and the similarity of the survivorship curves among every elevation, probed a high demographic stability.
BENZODIHYDROFURANS IN THE RESINOUS EXUDATE FROM DIPLOSTEPHIUM CINEREUM
URZúA,ALEJANDRO; TORRES,RENé; ANDRADE,LUZ; DELLE MONACHE,GIULIANO; DELLE MONACHE,FRANCO; BRIANSó,JOSé LUIS; SANCHEZ-FERRANDO,FRANCISCO; PARELLA,TEODOR;
Boletín de la Sociedad Chilena de Química , 2001, DOI: 10.4067/S0366-16442001000100012
Abstract: two new benzodihydrofurans have been isolated from the resinous exudate of diplostephium cinereum. their structures were elucidated by high-resolution spectroscopic methods as 13-(2-methylpropanoyloxy)toxol (2) and 13-[(r)-3-hydroxy-3-phenylpropanoyloxy]toxol (3)
BENZODIHYDROFURANS IN THE RESINOUS EXUDATE FROM DIPLOSTEPHIUM CINEREUM  [cached]
ALEJANDRO URZúA,RENé TORRES,LUZ ANDRADE,GIULIANO DELLE MONACHE
Boletín de la Sociedad Chilena de Química , 2001,
Abstract: Two new benzodihydrofurans have been isolated from the resinous exudate of Diplostephium cinereum. Their structures were elucidated by high-resolution spectroscopic methods as 13-(2-methylpropanoyloxy)toxol (2) and 13-[(R)-3-hydroxy-3-phenylpropanoyloxy]toxol (3) Del exudado resinoso de Diplostephium cinereum, se han aislado dos benzodihidrofuranos. Sus estructuras fueron determinadas por espectroscopía de alta resolución como: 13-(2-metilpropanoiloxi)toxol (2) y 13[(R)-3-hidroxi-3-fenilpropanoiloxi]toxol (3)
Atividade antibacteriana in vitro de inflorescências de Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC. - Asteraceae ("macela", "marcela") sobre agentes bacterianos de interesse em alimentos
Mota, F.M;Carvalho, H.H.C;Wiest, J.M;
Revista Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-05722011000300008
Abstract: dilution test in multiple tube system was used to determine the in vitro antibacterial activity in inflorescences of achyrocline satureioides (lam.) dc. - asteraceae ("macela", "marcela"), expressed as intensity of bacterial inhibition activity (iinib/bacteriostasis) and intensity of bacterial inactivation activity (iinab/bactericidie), from ethanol (hydroalcoholic) and water (decoction) extraction forms on standardized inocula of enterococcus faecalis (atcc 19433), staphylococcus aureus (atcc 25923), escherichia coli (atcc 11229) and salmonella enteritidis (atcc 11076). e. faecalis had the highest sensitivity, followed by s. aureus, while s. enteritidis and e. coli were more resistant. of the extraction forms, the hydroalcoholic one showed intense and selective inhibition and/or inactivation capacity against four bacterial inocula. decoctions were completely ineffective against the gram-negative bacteria, whereas gram-positive bacteria showed only bacteriostasis/inhibition.
Estructura primaria del sistema radical de Coespeletia Cuatrec.
Luque Arias,Rebeca;
Interciencia , 2004,
Abstract: the morphology and primary root structure of the species coespeletia cuatrec. that grow in the mountains of piedras blancas and sierra nevada, mérida, venezuela, are shown. the species are coespeletia alba, c. lutesecens, c. moritziana, c. spicata and c. timotensis. the presence of common characters such as monostratified epidermis that is rapidly replaced by the exodermis, presence of secretory cavities associated to the endodermis and the secretory nature of endodermis, were detected. differential characters were detected as well, such as cortex structure, number of primary xylem arcs, and number of cavities occurring opposite the phloem.
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