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Double Clubs  [PDF]
Richard Garner
Mathematics , 2006,
Abstract: We develop a theory of double clubs which extends Kelly's theory of clubs to the pseudo double categories of Pare and Grandis. We then show that the club for symmetric strict monoidal categories on Cat extends to a `double club' on the pseudo double category of `categories, functors, profunctors and transformations'.
The Financial Performance of the Greek Football Clubs
Panagiotis Dimitropoulos
Choregia , 2010,
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyze the financial performance of the football clubs participating within the first division of the Greek football league for a period of 14 years (1993-2006) and to propose specific actions that need to be taken by both managers and regulators in order to improve the financial stability of the clubs. We perform financial analysis of key accounting ratios extracted from the football club’s annual financial statements in order to explain the particular causes of the recent financial crisis which characterizes the Greek professional football league. The analysis of the clubs’ annual financial statements revealed that the Greek football clubs are highly leveraged, have intense liquidity and profitability problems and face an increased danger of financial distress, despite the increased amounts that football clubs invested during 2005. The above mentioned crisis can be attributed to aggregate financial mismanagement and political inefficiencies during the last fifteen years. The paper proposes specific actions that need to be taken by both managers and regulators in order to improve the financial stability of the clubs and the overall competitiveness of the Greek football league.
Internet Clubs in Cultural Centers and Public Libraries
Kamal Batouch
Cybrarians Journal , 2005,
Abstract: A Study about the internet clubs in Cultural Centers and Public Libraries in Algeria, it defines the concept of culture and its relation to internet, then deals the internet clubs and its cultural role and its negatives. Finally, talks about the electronic space and culture in Algeria.
Oleinikov P.P. / Олейников Петр Петрович
Internet-Vestnik VolgGASU , 2006,
Abstract: Questions of restructuring and adjustment of religious buildings by cinemas, libraries and clubs are reviewed in the 1925-1930 years. For the first time reconstruction projects, made architects and engineers of Stalingrad, are published. Relating to spatial planning and design feature of buildings clubs and cinemas of pre-war Stalingrad are indicated. / Рассмотрены вопросы переустройства и приспособления в 1925-1930 гг. культовых зданий под кинотеатры, библиотеки и клубы. Впервые публикуются проекты переустройства, выполненные Сталинградскими архитекторами и инженерами. Приводятся объемно-планировочные и конструктивные особенности зданий клубов и кинотеатров довоенного Сталинграда.
Marketing and Fundraising Practices Involved in the Sport Clubs  [PDF]
Hossein Allahyari,Seyed Hossein Mousavi,Shahriar Salehi
International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: The aim of this study to identify the marketing and fundraising practices involved in the sport. The data were gathered from a researcher-made questionnaire and interviews. Results showed that coaches believed the best sources of income creation for sports clubs include ticket sales and broadcasting license, private sector participation as clubs sponsors, athletic goods sales to fans and athletes and establishment of sporting schools and, finally, private clubs.
Managing brazilian football clubs: Alternative sources of income.
Cláudio Vicente Di Gioia Ferreira Silva,Luiz Alberto Nascimento Campos Filho
Sistemas & Gest?o , 2006,
Abstract: Football as a business is a chance of socio economic leverage. Football organizations need to become modern since the Brazilian society is unhappy with the quality of service provide and clubs, mostly emerged on debts, end up devaluating their brands associated with an inefficient administration. In 1998, a new factor came to influence this scenario: it was sanctioned the Law no. 9.615, know as “Lei Pelé”, which extinguished the pass of football players. Before that, football clubs have as their major income source the transfer of players. After this regulatory change, clubs were obligated to develop alternative sources of income. The current article intends to analyze this new scenario and to propose options to the clubs not only related to the players transfer market. To do that, it will be shown a comparative study between the Brazilian football and the European Football, identifying the strategies and the results. In this context, public support and the relation between clubs and their clients appeared as the major items.
Clubs-based Particle Swarm Optimization  [PDF]
Wesam Elshamy,Hassan M Emara,Ahmed Bahgat
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: This paper introduces a new dynamic neighborhood network for particle swarm optimization. In the proposed Clubs-based Particle Swarm Optimization (C-PSO) algorithm, each particle initially joins a default number of what we call 'clubs'. Each particle is affected by its own experience and the experience of the best performing member of the clubs it is a member of. Clubs membership is dynamic, where the worst performing particles socialize more by joining more clubs to learn from other particles and the best performing particles are made to socialize less by leaving clubs to reduce their strong influence on other members. Particles return gradually to default membership level when they stop showing extreme performance. Inertia weights of swarm members are made random within a predefined range. This proposed dynamic neighborhood algorithm is compared with other two algorithms having static neighborhood topologies on a set of classic benchmark problems. The results showed superior performance for C-PSO regarding escaping local optima and convergence speed.
The communications model of using social network by sports clubs
S. Kowalski
Marketing ì Mened?ment Innovacìj , 2012,
Abstract: This article presents a model of marketing communications using social network by sports clubs. It presents the links between the sports club and its environment and uses of the Internet to promote it. The model of communication is composed of the elements responsible for the success of marketing in the web. Article also includes recommendations for using the model in practice.
The accounting and tax legislation of the Greek football clubs
Choregia , 2006,
Abstract: The year 1979 was a cornerstone for the football in Greece, since it practically meant the transformation of the sport’s organization from amateurism to professionalism, establishing new rules and conditions to the management of football clubs. The increased popularity of this sport and the evolutions that took place in Europe and worldwide, forced the Greek government to establish a legislative framework for the successful management of football clubs. These interventions lead to changes in many aspects of football management such as organizational and financial. The new legal environment of football management, required the organization of this sport into a more stable and professional base, following the financial standards of other corporations operating within the Greek state. By these means the government wanted to create a fair economic framework under which the football clubs would operate with common organizational, financial and tax administration rules. The aim of this paper is to present the characteristics of the new capital form establishment of the football clubs (Societe Anonyme), the main financial frame under which the new establishment has to operate and the tax obligations that originate from the aforementioned legal form.
Detecting the Convergence Clubs and Catch Up in Growth
Poh Choo Song,Siok Kun Sek,Wai Mun Har
Asian Economic and Financial Review , 2013,
Abstract: We conduct empirical panel data analysis to detect the catching- up effect in growth and the possibility to form different convergence clubs in selected Europe and Asian economies. In particular, we seek to investigate if the selected countries are able to catch- up to the growth level of developed economy of the United Kingdom (U.K.). The control variables used to test for conditional convergence include inflation, trade, net inflow of foreign direct investment, total population and government consumption expenditure. Our results reveal that all economies except Turkey and India are able to catch- up with U.K. economy. The economies in both regions of Europe and Asia are able to form their convergence clubs.
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