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Optimal Work Effort, Income and Wage  [PDF]
Tamara Todorova
Advances in Management and Applied Economics , 2012,
Abstract: We study work effort with its various determinants such as the educational level of the worker, the minimum or start-up salary as well as the initial endowment of the worker. By means of optimization we find that optimal work effort depends directly on the initial income available to the worker, with a higher income reducing the effort of the worker. We also find that a higher initial wage and a reward parameter per work effort discourage workers to exert more effort on the job. Firms set optimal wages disregarding reward for work effort with more productive workers receiving higher wages and exerting more effort at the optimum.
The autobiographical effort: in search of the person within The autobiographical effort: in search of the person within
Dilvo Ilvo Ristoff
Ilha do Desterro , 2008,
Abstract: Two major and contradictory forces are at work in what critic William Andrews (1992) once called “self-life-writing,” his literal translation for “auto/bio/ graphy”: (1) the attempt to register with accuracy, with fidelity to life or “intellectual and emotional veracity,” as Ellen Glasgow (1954) puts it, the so-called “facts” of the past, and (2) the need to place hese “facts” within the frame of purposeful narrative—an effort which invariably leads to the organization of utobiographies around one major question: “What have I lived for?” In the answer to this question, autobiographies seem to find their justification, so that the emphasis upon a few facts out of a world of possibilities may be regarded as support material for the construction of a self intended to be preserved, a self which, to use Nathalie Sarraute’s words, is very often no more than “a cardboard model that reproduces on a small scale what the buildings, houses, temples, streets, squares and gardens of a submerged town must have been like” (quoted in Leibowitz, p. xvii). Two major and contradictory forces are at work in what critic William Andrews (1992) once called “self-life-writing,” his literal translation for “auto/bio/ graphy”: (1) the attempt to register with accuracy, with fidelity to life or “intellectual and emotional veracity,” as Ellen Glasgow (1954) puts it, the so-called “facts” of the past, and (2) the need to place hese “facts” within the frame of purposeful narrative—an effort which invariably leads to the organization of utobiographies around one major question: “What have I lived for?” In the answer to this question, autobiographies seem to find their justification, so that the emphasis upon a few facts out of a world of possibilities may be regarded as support material for the construction of a self intended to be preserved, a self which, to use Nathalie Sarraute’s words, is very often no more than “a cardboard model that reproduces on a small scale what the buildings, houses, temples, streets, squares and gardens of a submerged town must have been like” (quoted in Leibowitz, p. xvii).
Monopoly and Economic Efficiency: Perspective from an Efficiency Wage Model  [PDF]
Bo Zhao
Modern Economy (ME) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/me.2011.25092
Abstract: The objective of this paper is to analyze the efficiency consequences of monopoly from the perspective of an efficiency-wage model based on Shapiro and Stiglitz (1984). An important innovation of our model is that a firm can raise the probability that a shirking worker is detected by increasing its effort or investment in the monitoring of workers. By comparing with the competitive equilibrium we find that monopoly is associated with higher unemployment rate and less monitoring. Surprisingly, however, monopoly is not necessarily dominated by perfect competition in terms of economic efficiency.
Models of Wage Determination and the Industry Wage Structure in Uruguay Models of Wage Determination and the Industry Wage Structure in Uruguay
Mario Abuhadba
Revista de Análisis Económico (RAE) , 1991,
Abstract: This paper examines the wage structure in Uruguayan manufacturing during the period 1968 to 1987. It analyzes the size and stability of intire industry wage differentials, and compares these differentials across occupations, establishment sizes, and across countries. The paper also relates industry wage levels to industry characteristics. The analyses are used to test the competitive and the efficiency models of wage determination. The results confirm the predictions of the efficiency wage model, as wage differentials are substantial, they persist over time, they are strongly correlated between whlte- and blue-collar workers, and to a lesser extent, across establishment sizes. In addition, some industry characteristics are positively correlated to wages. Models of Wage Determination and the Industry Wage Structure in Uruguay
农民工内部工资差异研究
Wage differentials within rural migrant workers
 [PDF]

褚清华
- , 2016, DOI: 10.11835/j.issn.1008-5831.2016.06.002
Abstract: 文章运用均值分解和分位数回归分解方法考察了受雇型农民工内部因所有制、行业和区域等分割因素所导致的市场分层和工资差异。研究发现,所有制、行业和区域等分割性因素解释农民工内部工资歧视的占比超过人力资本等特征因素所解释的工资差异占比。分位数回归分解显示,农民工基于所有制和行业分层的收入差异存在“天花板效应”,基于区域分层的收入差异存在“粘地板效应”。前者与经济结构调整导致行业间的工资分化有关,后者与区域经济发展差距、区域间最低工资标准差异以及就业区域选择的累积效应等因素密不可分。而且,同一所有制或行业内部的农民工存在明显的区域收入差距,呈现东高西低特征。农民工内部“工资歧视”只是城市社会对农民工群体歧视的另一种表现形式。
Utilizing mean decomposition and quantile regression decomposition methods, this paper analyzes the market stratification and wage differentials among employed rural migrant workers, which are caused by some segmentation factors such as ownership, industry and region. Study found that proportion of wage discrimination revealed by above-mentioned factors within rural migrant workers exceeded more than these indicated by characteristics differentials such as human capital. Quantile regression decomposition shows that "glass ceiling effect" exists when wage differentials is caused by ownership or industry stratification, while regional wage disparities bring about "sticky floor effect". The former is related closely to inter-industry wage differentials as adjusting the economic structure, while the latter are inseparable with regional economic development gap, inter-regional differences in the minimum wage and the cumulative effects as selecting the employment area so on. Moreover, there is significant regional income gap for rural migrant workers working in the same ownership or industry, and the wages in the eastern is higher than these in the western. "Wage discrimination" within rural migrant workers only is another form in which urban society discriminates against the rural migrant workers.
An Efficiency Wage—Imperfect Information Model of the Phillips Curve  [PDF]
Carl M. Campbell III
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.52004
Abstract: This study develops an efficiency wage model in which workers have imperfect information about wages elsewhere. Firms’ profit-maximizing behavior results in a Phillips curve relationship. Three types of Phillips curves are derived: a wage-wage Phillips curve, a wage-price Phillips curve, and a price-price Phillips curve. The wage-wage Phillips curve is a reduced form relationship with the coefficient on lagged wage inflation equaling 1. To obtain the wage-price and the price-price Phillips curves, stochastic shocks to the growth rate of demand are modeled, yielding expressions over time for wage inflation, price inflation, and unemployment. These expressions are used in a regression of current wage or price inflation on unemployment and lagged price inflation, and it is demonstrated that the coefficient on lagged inflation asymptotically approaches 1. In addition, the model predicts that real wages are strictly procyclical in response to technology shocks, but can be either procyclical, acyclical, or countercyclical in response to demand shocks. Thus, this study can explain why economists have reached different conclusions about the cyclical behavior of real wages.
Identifying research priorities for health care priority setting: a collaborative effort between managers and researchers
Neale Smith, Craig Mitton, Stuart Peacock, Evelyn Cornelissen, Stuart MacLeod
BMC Health Services Research , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-9-165
Abstract: The researchers enlisted decision-maker partners from each of British Columbia's six health authorities. Three forums were held, at which researchers and decision-makers from various levels in the health authorities considered possible research areas related to three key focus areas: (1) generation and use of decision criteria and measurement of 'benefit' against such criteria; (2) identification of so-called 'disinvestment' opportunities; and (3) evaluation of the effectiveness of priority setting procedures. Detailed notes were taken from each forum and synthesized into a set of qualitative themes.Forum participants suggested that future research into healthcare priority setting would benefit from studies that were longitudinal, comparative, and/or interdisciplinary. As well, participants identified two broad theme areas in which specific research projects were deemed desirable. First, future research might usefully consider how formal priority setting and resource allocation projects are situated within a larger organizational and political context. Second, additional research efforts should be devoted to better understanding and improving the actual implementation of priority setting frameworks, particularly with respect to issues of change management and the resolution of impediments to action on recommendations for resource allocation.We were able to validate the importance of initial areas posed to the group and observed emergence of additional concerns and directions of critical importance to these decision-makers at this time. It is likely that the results are broadly applicable to other healthcare contexts. The implementation of this research agenda in British Columbia will depend upon the ability of the researchers and decision-makers to develop particular projects that fit within the constraints of existing funding opportunities. The process of engagement itself had benefits in terms of connecting decision-makers with their peers and sparking increased i
Multiple losses of sex within a single genus of Microsporidia
Joseph E Ironside
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-7-48
Abstract: The hypothesis of a single, ancient loss of sex within the Nosema/Vairimorpha group of microsporidia was tested using phylogenetic analyses based on alignments of rRNA and RPB1 gene sequences from sexual and asexual species. Neither set of gene trees supported ancient asexuality, instead indicating at least two, recent losses of sex.Sex has been lost on multiple, independent occasions within the Nosema/Vairimorpha group of microsporidia and there is no evidence for ancient asexual lineages. It appears therefore that sex confers important long-term advantages even upon highly simplified eukaryotes such as microsporidia. The rapid evolution of microsporidian life cycles indicated by this study also suggests that even closely related microsporidia cannot be assumed to have similar life cycles and the life cycle of each newly discovered species must therefore be completely described. These findings are relevant to the use of microsporidia as biological control agents, since several species under consideration as potential agents have life cycles that have been incompletely described.Unravelling the interplay of forces that underlie the evolution of sex in eukaryotes remains one of the most elusive goals of evolutionary biology. Sexual reproduction entails considerable short-term costs in comparison with asexual reproduction, yet most eukaryotic organisms remain capable of sex. A large number of competing hypotheses have been proposed to explain this phenomenon (see [1-5] for reviews), all of which postulate long-term selective advantage of sex over asex. The hypothesis that sex has long-term benefits coupled with short-term costs has also been used to explain the observation that most asexual eukaryotic lineages are of recent origin and contain relatively few species [6]. This general pattern has been observed so frequently among animals and plants that ancient asexual lineages containing ecologically diverse species are regarded as highly exceptional [7].Unlike plants
FORECASTING WAGE INEQUALITY
Ruiz-Tagle V,Jaime;
Estudios de economía , 2007, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-52862007000200002
Abstract: wage inequality in chile has remained high for decades and it is currently at the center of the political agenda. increasing education of workers is expected to contribute to reduce wage inequality. based on historical trends of age, education, and returns to education, this paper attempts to forecast wage inequality. despite an increase in average earnings due to higher levels of education of workers, high levels of wage inequality within age groups and within education groups produce that forecasted wage inequality remains high for the next 10-year period. the structure of the chilean labor market appears to imply that there is a high level of underlying wage inequality. nevertheless, the good news are that the labor market structure seems to prevent further deteriorations of wage inequality
The emotional well-being of the nurse within the multi-skill setting
Heleen French,Emmerentia Du Plessis,Belinda Scrooby
Health SA Gesondheid , 2011, DOI: 10.4102/hsag.v16i1.553
Abstract: The emotional well-being of nurses working in a multi-skill setting may be negatively influenced by their challenging work environment. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual study was conducted to investigate this phenomenon. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the experience, as well as perceptions of coping mechanisms, of nurses working in the multi-skill setting, and to formulate recommendations to promote their emotional wellbeing. The population consisted of nurses working in a multi-skill setting (a Level-2 hospital)and included professional nurses, enrolled nurses and nurse assistants. An all-inclusive sample was used. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with three professional nurses,six enrolled nurses and one nurse assistant. These interviews were analysed according to the method described by Creswell (2003:192). The findings indicated that nurses have positive as well as negative experiences of the multi-skill setup. They cope by means of prioritising tasks, faith, self-motivation and mutual support. They also made suggestions for the promotion of their emotional well-being, on personal as well as managerial levels. Recommendations for further research, nurse education and practice were formulated. Recommendations for practice include ‘on-the-spot’ in-service training, appropriate task allocation, clearly defined scope of practice, time for rest and debriefing, strengthened relationships with management, promotion of strengths and creating a support system. Opsomming Die emosionele welstand van verpleegkundiges werksaam in ‘n multivaardigheidsopset kan moontlik negatief be nvloed word deur die uitdagende werksomgewing. ‘n Kwalitatiewe, verkennende, beskrywende en kontekstuele studie is uitgevoer om hierdie verskynsel te ondersoek. Die doel van hierdie studie was om die ervaring van verpleegkundiges, asook hul persepsies van hanteringsmeganismes, in ‘n multi-vaardigheidsopset te verken en beskryf, sowel as om aanbevelings vir die bevordering van hulle emosionele welstand te formuleer. Die populasie het bestaan uit verpleegkundiges werksaam in ‘n multivaardigheidsopset (‘n Vlak-2 hospitaal) en het professionele verpleegkundiges, ingeskrewe verpleegkundiges en verpleegassistente ingesluit. ‘n Alles-insluitende steekproef is gebruik. Semi-gestruktureerde onderhoude is met drie professionele verpleegkundiges, ses ingeskrewe verpleegkundiges en een verpleegassistent gevoer. Hierdie onderhoude is volgens die metode deur Creswell(2003:192) beskryf, geanaliseer. Die bevindinge het getoon dat verpleegkundiges pos
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