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Endogenous Timing in Contests with Group-Specific Public-Goods Prizes  [PDF]
Jong Hwa Lee
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2017.76112
Abstract: I analyze the two-group contest with the group-specific public-goods prize when each player decides on the timing of their moves endogenously and individually. Unlike the previous papers, I show that free riders suffer a damage in the endogenous-timing framework because the decision on the endogenous timing adversely affects the behavior of free riders, by making them more egotistical.
Why it has become more difficult to predict Nobel Prize winners: a bibliometric analysis of Nominees and Winners of the Chemistry and Physics Prizes (1901-2007)  [PDF]
Yves Gingras,Matthew L. Wallace
Physics , 2008,
Abstract: We propose a comprehensive bibliometric study of the profile of Nobel prizewinners in chemistry and physics from 1901 to 2007, based on citation data available over the same period. The data allows us to observe the evolution of the profiles of winners in the years leading up to (and following) nominations and awarding of the Nobel Prize. The degree centrality and citation rankings in these fields confirm that the Prize is awarded at the peak of the winners' careers, despite brief a Halo Effect observable in the years following the attribution of the Prize. Changes in the size and organization of the two fields result in a rapid decline of predictive power of bibliometric data over the century. This can be explained not only by the growing size and fragmentation of the two disciplines, but also, at least in the case of physics, by an implicit hierarchy in the most legitimate topics within the discipline, as well as among the scientists selected for the Prize. Furthermore, the lack of readily-identifiable dominant contemporary physicists suggests that there are few new paradigm shifts within the field, as perceived by the scientific community as a whole.
Prizes and Heroes: Lagging and leading indicators
Kuan-Teh Jeang
Retrovirology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1742-4690-7-87
Abstract: Every October there is a flurry of Nobel prize announcements (see e.g. [1]). In reflecting on Nobel and other prizes, one can ponder a couple of questions. Why are prizes given? And why are certain recipients chosen preferentially?From a common sense perspective, prizes seem to be disbursed for two categories of purposes. In the first category, a prize is given to recognize past achievements of high significance. Here, many prize-givers benefit from "gilt by association". By choosing big-name winners, the luster of the awardee adds to the prestige of the prize. Thus, the selection for these prize recipients may subscribe to a sociological "halo" or "Matthew" effect [2] whereby prominent scientists tend to be more favorably evaluated, and these individuals gather more and more peer recognition while less prominent peers tend not to be accorded similar credit for what they do. Not uncommonly, a pattern emerges whereby only a small circle of names garner the lion's share of prizes.In the second category, prizes are awarded with the intention to motivate future achievements. CNN's Hero of the Year http://www.cnn.com/heroes webcite is an example of this prize category. For example, Efren Pe?aflorida of the Philippines was recognized as a 2009 Hero for creating mobile pushcart classrooms. By receiving this recognition, Penaflorida was able to leverage the award to create more visibility and more pushcarts for his program. Thus, this category of prizes rather than being a lagging indicator of past achievement serves a leading predictor of hope for future progress. While most Nobel prizes do highlight past work, the Nobel Peace Prize is frequently given with the intention of galvanizing change, as was the case for last year's award to President Obama.Retrovirology has discussed that equitable means for highlighting scientific achievements are difficult to achieve [3,4]. Each year, Retrovirology awards a Prize to recognize a worthy mid-career scientist (e.g. [5,6]). The inte
Romanians and the Nobel Prizes for Science and Literature
Vasilica Sirbu
Revista Romana de Studii Baltice si Nordice , 2012,
Abstract: There is much to be said about the Nobel Prizes. Numerous pages are written each year to promote, describe, analyze and criticize the prizes, their initiator and their evolution since 1901. The purpose of this study is to bring back to light from the dust of the archives information about those Romanians who were ahead of their times through their outstanding thinking and understanding of the world. Little has been written about those nominated, since it has been considered more relevant to focus on the winners. There were plentiful creative minds who only needed an opportunity to be known to the world. Famous Romanian names show up from the archives and the nomination database provided by the Nobel Institution and enable us to get a broad perspective of the nominators and the nominees. Ironically, as in the case of the Nobel Peace Prize, most of those who genuinely had a chance to win were never nominated.
Words for Nobel prizes  [PDF]
J. M. Moran-Mirabal,H. C. Rosu
Physics , 2002,
Abstract: We present the statistics of the significant nouns and adjectives of social impact figuring in the nominations of the Nobel prizes in Physics and Chemistry over the period of the awards from 1901 to 2001
NEUROSCIENCE AND CENTENARY NOBEL PRIZES
神经科学与百年诺贝尔奖

ZHAO Jing,HE Rong-qiao,LI Dong-feng,
赵静
,赫荣乔,李东风

生物物理学报 , 2002,
Abstract: Neuroscience is one of the most important biological researches in this century. Nobel Prizes in medicine and physiology are awarded to the laureates who work most successfully. Now Nobel Prize is on her centenary birthday, nearly 20 prizes have been given to neuroscience with various contributions such as neuron, nervous activity, signals transferring, higher brain function, neurodevelopment, sense and perception. A perspective is foreseen on the tendency and new advancements of neuroscience in the future. Probably, China will make great progresses in neuroscience.
The roads to Stockholm: On the 2002 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
The roads to Stockholm:On the 2002 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

YUAN Junying,
YUANJunying

科学通报(英文版) , 2003,
Abstract: On November 27, 1895, Alfred Nobel signed his last will and testament in Paris that specified details of five prizes to "those who during the past year have done humanity the greatest service". For the past over 100 years, the Nobel Prizes have been forever linked to the supreme achievement of the modern world in science and literature. Winning the Nobel Prizes became dreams of many young and not so young people in science and literature. "How to win a Nobel Prize?" was an innocent question posed to Sydney Brenner recently by a Chinese student.
Optimal Crowdsourcing Contests  [PDF]
Shuchi Chawla,Jason D. Hartline,Balasubramanian Sivan
Computer Science , 2011,
Abstract: We study the design and approximation of optimal crowdsourcing contests. Crowdsourcing contests can be modeled as all-pay auctions because entrants must exert effort up-front to enter. Unlike all-pay auctions where a usual design objective would be to maximize revenue, in crowdsourcing contests, the principal only benefits from the submission with the highest quality. We give a theory for optimal crowdsourcing contests that mirrors the theory of optimal auction design: the optimal crowdsourcing contest is a virtual valuation optimizer (the virtual valuation function depends on the distribution of contestant skills and the number of contestants). We also compare crowdsourcing contests with more conventional means of procurement. In this comparison, crowdsourcing contests are relatively disadvantaged because the effort of losing contestants is wasted. Nonetheless, we show that crowdsourcing contests are 2-approximations to conventional methods for a large family of "regular" distributions, and 4-approximations, otherwise.
Two-Player Lopsided Contests under Different Timing Assumptions  [PDF]
Kyung Hwan Baik
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2013.35A2001
Abstract:

I study contests in which two asymmetric players compete with each other by expending irreversible efforts to win a prize. I consider three types of games, which are distinguished by their different timing assumptions: the simultaneous-move game, the sequential-move game, and the game with endogenous timing. I compare the outcomes obtained under the different timing assumptions.

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1999  [PDF]
R. M. Godbole
Physics , 2000,
Abstract: The last Nobel Prize of the Millenium in Physics has been awarded jointly to Professor Gerardus 't Hooft of the University of Utrecht in Holland and his thesis advisor Professor Emeritus Martinus J.G. Veltman of Holland. According to the Academy's citation, the Nobel Prize has been awarded for 'elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interaction in Physics'. It further goes on to say that they have placed particle physics theory on a firmer mathematical foundation. In this short note, we will try to understand both these aspects of the award. The work for which they have been awarded the Nobel Prize was done in 1971. However, the precise predictions of properties of particles that were made possible as a result of their work, were tested to a very high degree of accuracy only in this last decade. This was done in a series of measurements in the experiments in the accelerator laboratories at CERN (Geneva) and Fermilab. To understand the full significance of this Nobel Prize, we will have to summarise briefly the developement of our current theoretical framework about the basic constituents of matter and the forces which hold them together. In fact the path can be partially traced in a chain of Nobel prizes starting from one in 1965 to S. Tomonaga, J. Schwinger and R. Feynman, to the one to S.L. Glashow, A. Salam and S. Weinberg in 1979, and then to C. Rubia and Simon van der Meer in 1984 ending with the current one.
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