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 Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1007/s11207-013-0360-2 Abstract: Some studies have shown that our knowledge on solar activity in the years 1640, 1652, and 1741 can be improved. In this contribution, we revise the annual group sunspot numbers for these years from original observations. For the years 1640, 1652 and 1741, we have obtained the corrected values 15.2, 1.8, and 27.3, respectively (instead of the original values 15.0, 4.0, and 57.7).
 Fernanda Fioravante Diálogos , 2010, DOI: 10.4025/dialogos.v13i3.436 Abstract: O presente artigo tem por objetivo discutir a receita e as despesas da camara de S o Jo o del Rei entre os anos de 1719 e 1750. Para tanto, procurei realizar uma análise comparativa com outras camaras em diferentes partes do Império Português, focando principalmente a camara de Vila Rica entre os anos de 1721 e 1734. Assim sendo, foram pesquisadas as “rela es de receita e despesa” das respectivas vilas. The present article aims to discuss the revenue and expenses of the S o Jo o del Rei municipal council between the years 1719 and 1750. To that end, I sought to make a comparative analysis with other municipal councils in different parts of the Portuguese Empire, focusing primarily on the Vila Rica council between the years 1721 and 1734. The “revenue and expense relationships” of the respective villages were analyzed. Este artículo tiene por objetivo discutir los ingresos y egresos de la Cámara de S o Jo o del Rei, entre 1719 y 1750. Para ello, busqué realizar un análisis comparativo con otras cámaras municipales de diferentes partes del Imperio Portugués, especialmente, con la Cámara municipal de Vila Rica entre los a os 1721 y 1734. Por lo tanto, fueron investigadas las “relaciones de rendimientos y gastos” de ambas localidades.
 Climate of the Past Discussions , 2013, DOI: 10.5194/cpd-9-1013-2013 Abstract: This paper advances the current debate on causes and effects of famines. Since Sen's food entitlement decline theory emerged in the 1980's, climate and environmental factors are widely excluded in famine analysis. Studying the causation and the processes of famines as well as the adaptations to it before the 20th century will enhance modern famine theories and lead to a rethinking of the role of climate/environmental aspects in current research. In our case study, the "Famine Vulnerability Analysis Model" (FVAM) serves as an explanatory model and will open up new perspectives on famines. Special emphasis will be put on the Europe-wide crises of 1740–1741, with a focus on the famine of the "great frost" in Ireland. The interaction of demographic, political, economic and environmental aspects is characteristic in this famine.
 Physics , 2015, Abstract: We present the results of two Chandra X-ray Observatory ( CXO) observations of TeV gamma-ray source HESS J1741-302A/B. Our analysis also includes GeV gamma-ray and radio data. We investigate whether there is any connection between HESS~J1741-302A/B and the sources seen at lower energies. One of the brightest X-ray sources in the HESS J1741-302B field, CXOU~J174112.1-302908, appears to be associated with a low-mass star (possibly representing a quiescent LMXB or CV), hence, it is unlikely to be a source of TeV gamma-rays. In the same field we detected X-rays from WR 98a, which is likely to be a colliding wind binary with massive stars, however, no TeV emission has been reported so far from such systems although a predictions have been made. Finally, Suzaku source J1740.5-3014 (which is not covered by the CXO observations) appears to be a hard X-ray source detected by INTERGAL ISGRI which supports the magnetized CV classification and also makes its association with the TeV emission unlikely. The young pulsar, undetected in X-rays and located near the CV, may be the contributor of relativistic particles responsible for the TeV emission. Alternatively, HESS J1741-302 could be a new type of accelerator, which is dark at lower energies.
 J.P. van Dijk Tijdschrift voor de Geschiedenis der Geneeskunde, Natuurwetenschappen, Wiskunde en Techniek , 1982, Abstract: Classifications of death causes from 1750 till 1900 The systematic registration of the causes of death takes place in the Netherlands and other European countries in the middle of the nineteenth century. This is preceded by a period in which the registration of causes of death is a local matter, in other words the lists of causes of death differ per town. So the registration in the Netherlands begins in The Hague in the year 1755, and does not become national until 1865 when the Medical Inspectorate of Public Health comes into being. Complete centralization takes place after the Central Bureau of Statistics has taken over the registration in 1900.
 Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1086/308779 Abstract: (Abridged) We report multi-epoch VLBI observations of the source PKS 1741-038 as it underwent an extreme scattering event. Observations at four epochs were obtained, and images were produced at three of these. During the event the source consisted of a dominant, compact component, essentially identical to the structure seen outside the event. However, the source's diameter increased slightly at 13 cm during the ESE. An increase in the source's diameter is inconsistent with a simple refractive model. We also see no evidence for ESE-induced substructure within the source or the formation of multiple images, as would occur in a strongly refractive lens. However, a model in which the decrease in flux density during the ESE occurs solely because of stochastic broadening within the lens requires a larger broadening diameter during the ESE than is observed. Thus, the ESE toward 1741-038 involved both stochastic broadening and refractive defocussing within the lens. If the structure responsible for the ESE has a size of order 1 AU, the level of scattering within an ESE lens may be a factor of 10^7 larger than that in the ambient medium. A filamentary structure could reduce the difference between the strength of scattering in the lens and ambient medium, but we conclude that, if ESEs arise from filamentary structures, they occur when the filamentary structures are seen lengthwise. We predict the amount of pulse broadening that would result from a comparable lens passing in front of a pulsar. The pulse broadening would be no more than 1.1 microseconds, consistent with the lack of pulse broadening detected during ESEs toward the pulsars PSR B1937+21 and PSR J1643-1224.
 Alexandros M. Goulielmos Modern Economy (ME) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/me.2017.82022 Abstract: The theory of “long waves”, due to Russian economist Kondratieff, which appeared in the 1920s, is presented, and a search whether a similar pattern exists in shipping economy since 1741 is made. Kondratieff believed in the existence —inherent in capitalistic system—of at least 21/2 long cycles of a non-random duration of 54 years on average since 1780—with 27 years up and 27 years down. As we showed—using mainly a diagrammatic analysis—economic history verified—till end-2008—Kondratieff’s theories, though it rejected his claimed harmony in their duration. Given that history may be repeated, and only for this is useful, we tried a nonlinear dynamic forecasting model for dry cargo shipping market for 20 years ahead using “Rescaled Range Analysis” and “Kernel Density estimation method” and found that cycles are here to stay. Presented also is the merger-waves in capitalistic economies since 1893— a factor ignored by Joan Robinson in her macroeconomic analysis for the trade cycle in the 1960s. Further we confirm/reject previous analysts, including Schumpeter, who claimed: 1) that technology has created the long shipping cycles (since 1741); 2) that the impact of major wars since 1740 on freight markets was another cyclical cause; 3) that economies of scale play the significant role and 4) that the impact of risk emerged at a certain time though this outcome was too ignored by macroeconomists. The paper “discovered” the secular shipping cycles of a total duration of 139 years using the proper extra-long time data. This means that the discovery of unknown cycles is a matter of data’s longevity. We have also verified Kondratieff’s cycles—when data were divided in 3 separate technological periods: 1741-1871; 1872-1947 and 1947-today, but lasting longer i.e. 58 years on average. We saw that the great gift of capitalism, which is the “free will”, is to be accompanied by “rationality”, and by a deep knowledge of how capitalistic system functions—a warning placed by Kondratieff a century ago—so that to avoid crises like that at end-2008; also globalization has to be used for the benefit of all nations. This paper indicated new tools: the “Joseph effect”—for cycles and the “Hurst exponent” for
 Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1086/318262 Abstract: We report multi-epoch VLA H I absorption observations of the source 1741-038 (OT-068) before and during an extreme scattering event (ESE). Observations at four epochs, three during the ESE, were obtained. We find no changes in the equivalent width, maximum optical depth, or velocity of maximum optical depth during the ESE, but we do find a secular trend of decreasing maximum optical depth between our observations and ones by other observers a decade prior. The resulting limit on the H I column density change during the ESE for a structure with a spin temperature T_s is 6.4 x 10^{17} cm^{-2} (T_s/10 K). Tiny-scale atomic structures (TSAS), with a column density N_H ~ 3 x 10^{18} cm^{-2}, are ruled out marginally by this limit, though geometric arguments may allow this limit to be relaxed. Galactic halo molecular clouds, that are opaque in the H I line, cannot be excluded because the observed velocity range covers only 25% of their allowed velocity range.
 Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1086/378851 Abstract: We report Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of the transient neutron star low-mass X-ray binary GRS 1741.9-2853. Chandra detected the source in outburst on 2000 October 26 at an X-ray luminosity of ~10^{36} erg/s (2--8 keV; 8 kpc), and in quiescence on 2001 July 18 at ~10^{32} erg/s. The latter observation is the first detection of GRS 1741.9-2853 in quiescence. We obtain an accurate position for the source of 17h 45m 2.33s, -28o 54' 49.7" (J2000), with an uncertainty of 0.7". GRS 1741.9-2853 was not detected significantly in three other Chandra observations, nor in three XMM-Newton observations, indicating that the luminosity of the source in quiescence varies by at least a factor of 5 between (< 0.9 - 5.0) \times 10^{32} erg/s (2--8 keV). A weak X-ray burst with a peak luminosity of 5 \times 10^{36} erg/s above the persistent level was observed with Chandra during the outburst on 2000 October 26. The energy of this burst, 10^{38} erg, is unexpectedly low, and may suggest that the accreted material is confined to the polar caps of the neutron star. A search of the literature reveals that GRS 1741.9-2853 was observed in outburst with ASCA in Fall 1996 as well, when the BeppoSAX WFC detected the three previous X-ray bursts from this source. The lack of X-ray bursts from GRS 1741.9-2853 at other epochs suggests that it produces bursts only during transient outbursts when the accretion rate onto the surface of the neutron star is about 10^{-10} M_sun/yr. A similar situation may hold for other low-luminosity bursters recently identified from WFC data.
 Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1086/341333 Abstract: Hickson Compact Group (HCG) 31, consisting of the Wolf-Rayet galaxy NGC 1741 and its irregular dwarf companions, was observed using the Infrared Space Observatory. The deconvolved ISOCAM maps of the galaxies using the 7.7 micron and 14.3 micron (LW6 and LW3) filters are presented, along with ISOPHOT spectrometry of the central starburst region of NGC 1741 and the nucleus of galaxy HCG 31A. Strong mid-IR emission was detected from the central burst in NGC 1741, along with strong PAH features and a blend of features including [S IV] at 10.5 micron. The 14.3/6.75 micron flux ratio, where the 6.75 micron flux was synthesized from the PHT-S spectrum, and 14.3/7.7 micron flux ratios suggest that the central burst within NGC 1741 may be moving towards the post-starburst phase. Diagnostic tools including the ratio of the integrated PAH luminosity to the 40 to 120 micron infrared luminosity and the far-infrared colours reveal that despite the high surface brightness of the nucleus, the properties of NGC 1741 can be explained in terms of a starburst and do not require the presence of an AGN. The Tycho catalogue star TYC 04758-466-1, with m$_{V}$ = 11.3 and spectral type F6, was detected at 7.7 and 14.3 microns.
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