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Interplay between Cell Migration and Neurite Outgrowth Determines SH2B1β-Enhanced Neurite Regeneration of Differentiated PC12 Cells  [PDF]
Chia-Ling Wu, Yu-Han Chou, Yu-Jung Chang, Nan-Yuan Teng, Hsin-Ling Hsu, Linyi Chen
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0034999
Abstract: The regulation of neurite outgrowth is crucial in developing strategies to promote neurite regeneration after nerve injury and in degenerative diseases. In this study, we demonstrate that overexpression of an adaptor/scaffolding protein SH2B1β promotes neurite re-growth of differentiated PC12 cells, an established neuronal model, using wound healing (scraping) assays. Cell migration and the subsequent remodeling are crucial determinants during neurite regeneration. We provide evidence suggesting that overexpressing SH2B1β enhances protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent cell migration and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT-, mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK)-ERK-dependent neurite re-growth. Our results further reveal a cross-talk between pathways involving PKC and ERK1/2 in regulating neurite re-growth and cell migration. We conclude that temporal regulation of cell migration and neurite outgrowth by SH2B1β contributes to the enhanced regeneration of differentiated PC12 cells.
Enhancing Effect of Aged Garlic Extract on Induction of Morphological Differentiation with Neurite Outgrowth in NGF-treated PC12 Cells  [PDF]
Kohfuku Kohda, Kei Itoh, Hitomi Goda, Keijiro Samejima, Tomoko Fukuuchi, Naoki Morihara, Kazuhiko Imamura, Yukihiro Kodera, Takami Oka
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2012.31006
Abstract: Background: We have been searching effective compounds that can stimulate the growth and differentiation of nerve cells. We found previously that fulleren derivatives enhanced induction of morphological differentiation with neurite outgrowth in nerve growth factor (NGF)-treated PC12 cells. In the course of our further search for other effective compounds, we found the aged garlic extract (AGE) has the activity similar to fulleren. Methods: PC12 cells were used to examine the effectiveness of test compound. Results: AGE enhanced the stimulating effect of NGF to induce morphological differentiation with neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. In order to examine the active constituents of AGE, it was fractionated into several components. The activity was mainly localized in the F1 fraction that contains low molecular weight polar compounds. S-Allymercaptocysteine (SAMC) is one of the sulfur components of AGE present in F1 fraction and found to exhibit the enhancing effect similar to AGE. Conclusion: AGE had the ability to induce morphological differentiation with neurite outgrowth in NGF-treated PC12 cell and SAMC was one of its active constituents.
Neurite Outgrowth of Mature Retinal Ganglion Cells and PC12 Cells Requires Activity of CK1δ and CK1ε  [PDF]
Joachim Bischof,Adrienne Müller,Miriam F?nder,Uwe Knippschild,Dietmar Fischer
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0020857
Abstract: Mature retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) do not normally regenerate severed axons after optic nerve injury and show only little neurite outgrowth in culture. However, RGCs can be transformed into an active regenerative state after lens injury (LI) enabling these neurons to regrow axons in vitro and in vivo. In the current study we investigated the role of CK1δ and CK1ε activity in neurite outgrowth of LI stimulated RGCs and nerve growth factor (NGF) stimulated PC12 cells, respectively. In both cell types CK1δ and ε were localized in granular particles aligned at microtubules in neurites and growth cones. Although LI treatment did not measurably affect the expression of CK1δ and ε, it significantly elevated the specific kinase activity in the retina. Similarly, CK1δ/ε specific kinase activity was also elevated in NGF treated PC12 cells compared with untreated controls. Neurite extension in PC12 cells was associated with a change in the activity of CK1δ C-terminal targeting kinases, suggesting that activity of these kinases might be necessary for neurite outgrowth. Pharmacological inactivation of CK1δ and ε markedly compromised neurite outgrowth of both, PC12 cells and LI stimulated RGCs in a concentration dependent manner. These data provide evidence for a so far unknown, but essential role of CK1 isoforms in neurite growth.
Phosphorylation of the Zebrafish M6Ab at Serine 263 Contributes to Filopodium Formation in PC12 Cells and Neurite Outgrowth in Zebrafish Embryos  [PDF]
Kai-Yun Huang, Gen-Der Chen, Chia-Hsiung Cheng, Kuan-Ya Liao, Chin-Chun Hung, Geen-Dong Chang, Pung-Pung Hwang, Shu-Yu Lin, Ming-Chieh Tsai, Kay-Hooi Khoo, Ming-Ting Lee, Chang-Jen Huang
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0026461
Abstract: Background Mammalian M6A, a member of the proteolipid protein (PLP/DM20) family expressed in neurons, was first isolated by expression cloning with a monoclonal antibody. Overexpression of M6A was shown to induce filopodium formation in neuronal cells; however, the underlying mechanism of is largely unknown. Possibly due to gene duplication, there are two M6A paralogs, M6Aa and M6Ab, in the zebrafish genome. In the present study, we used the zebrafish as a model system to investigate the role of zebrafish M6Ab in filopodium formation in PC12 cells and neurite outgrowth in zebrafish embryos. Methodology/Principal Findings We demonstrated that zebrafish M6Ab promoted extensive filopodium formation in NGF-treated PC12 cells, which is similar to the function of mammalian M6A. Phosphorylation at serine 263 of zebrafish M6Ab contributed to this induction. Transfection of the S263A mutant protein greatly reduced filopodium formation in PC12 cells. In zebrafish embryos, only S263D could induce neurite outgrowth. Conclusions/Significance Our results reveal that the phosphorylation status of zebrafish M6Ab at serine 263 is critical for its role in regulating filopodium formation and neurite outgrowth.
Light-Mediated Kinetic Control Reveals the Temporal Effect of the Raf/MEK/ERK Pathway in PC12 Cell Neurite Outgrowth  [PDF]
Kai Zhang, Liting Duan, Qunxiang Ong, Ziliang Lin, Pooja Mahendra Varman, Kijung Sung, Bianxiao Cui
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0092917
Abstract: It has been proposed that differential activation kinetics allows cells to use a common set of signaling pathways to specify distinct cellular outcomes. For example, nerve growth factor (NGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) induce different activation kinetics of the Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway and result in differentiation and proliferation, respectively. However, a direct and quantitative linkage between the temporal profile of Raf/MEK/ERK activation and the cellular outputs has not been established due to a lack of means to precisely perturb its signaling kinetics. Here, we construct a light-gated protein-protein interaction system to regulate the activation pattern of the Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway. Light-induced activation of the Raf/MEK/ERK cascade leads to significant neurite outgrowth in rat PC12 pheochromocytoma cell lines in the absence of growth factors. Compared with NGF stimulation, light stimulation induces longer but fewer neurites. Intermittent on/off illumination reveals that cells achieve maximum neurite outgrowth if the off-time duration per cycle is shorter than 45 min. Overall, light-mediated kinetic control enables precise dissection of the temporal dimension within the intracellular signal transduction network.
Inhibition of Nerve Growth Factor-Induced Neurite Outgrowth from PC12 Cells by Dexamethasone: Signaling Pathways through the Glucocorticoid Receptor and Phosphorylated Akt and ERK1/2  [PDF]
Kazuki Terada, Yoshitsugu Kojima, Takayuki Watanabe, Nobuo Izumo, Koji Chiba, Yoshiharu Karube
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0093223
Abstract: Glucocorticoids are important mediators of the stress response and are commonly employed as drugs for the suppression of immune rejection after organ transplantation. Previous investigations uncovered the possibility of mood depression in patients undergoing long-term treatment with synthetic glucocorticoids, including dexamethasone (DEX). Exogenous glucocorticoids and their synthetic derivatives can also adversely affect the development of the central nervous system. Although neurite extension from rat pheochromocytoma-derived PC12 cells and a variety of primary neurons is stimulated by nerve growth factor (NGF), and signaling pathways triggered by the binding of NGF to tyrosine kinase receptor type 1 (TrkA) function in both neurite outgrowth and neuronal survival, the effect of DEX on the activation of regulatory proteins and pathways downstream of TrkA has not been well characterized. To analyze the influence of DEX on NGF-induced neurite outgrowth and signaling, PC12 cells, a widely utilized model of neuronal differentiation, were pretreated with the glucocorticoid prior to NGF induction. NGF-induced neurite outgrowth was attenuated by pretreatment with DEX, even in the absence of DEX after the addition of NGF. Moreover, DEX suppressed the phosphorylation of Akt and extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in the neurite outgrowth signaling cascade initiated by NGF. Finally, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist, RU38486, counteracted the inhibitory effect of DEX pretreatment, not only on the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2, but also on neurite extension from PC12 cells. These results suggest that DEX binding to the GR impairs NGF-promoted neurite outgrowth by interfering with the activation/phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2. These novel findings are likely to be useful for elucidating the central nervous system depressive mechanism(s) of action of DEX and other glucocorticoids.
Potentiation of Nerve Growth Factor-Induced Neurite Outgrowth in PC12 Cells by Ifenprodil: The Role of Sigma-1 and IP3 Receptors  [PDF]
Tamaki Ishima, Kenji Hashimoto
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037989
Abstract: In addition to both the α1 adrenergic receptor and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists, ifenprodil binds to the sigma receptor subtypes 1 and 2. In this study, we examined the effects of ifenprodil on nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. Ifenprodil significantly potentiated NGF-induced neurite outgrowth, in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, the α1 adrenergic receptor antagonist, prazosin and the NMDA receptor NR2B antagonist, Ro 25-6981 did not alter NGF-induced neurite outgrowth. Potentiation of NGF-induced neurite outgrowth mediated by ifenprodil was significantly antagonized by co-administration of the selective sigma-1 receptor antagonist, NE-100, but not the sigma-2 receptor antagonist, SM-21. Similarly, ifenprodil enhanced NGF-induced neurite outgrowth was again significantly reduced by the inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) receptor antagonists, xestospongin C and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) treatment. Furthermore, BAPTA-AM, a chelator of intracellular Ca2+, blocked the effects of ifenprodil on NGF-induced neurite outgrowth, indicating the role of intracellular Ca2+ in the neurite outgrowth. These findings suggest that activation at sigma-1 receptors and subsequent interaction with IP3 receptors may mediate the pharmacological effects of ifenprodil on neurite outgrowth.
The Adaptor Protein SH2B3 (Lnk) Negatively Regulates Neurite Outgrowth of PC12 Cells and Cortical Neurons  [PDF]
Tien-Cheng Wang, Hsun Chiu, Yu-Jung Chang, Tai-Yu Hsu, Ing-Ming Chiu, Linyi Chen
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0026433
Abstract: SH2B adaptor protein family members (SH2B1-3) regulate various physiological responses through affecting signaling, gene expression, and cell adhesion. SH2B1 and SH2B2 were reported to enhance nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced neuronal differentiation in PC12 cells, a well-established neuronal model system. In contrast, SH2B3 was reported to inhibit cell proliferation during the development of immune system. No study so far addresses the role of SH2B3 in the nervous system. In this study, we provide evidence suggesting that SH2B3 is expressed in the cortex of embryonic rat brain. Overexpression of SH2B3 not only inhibits NGF-induced differentiation of PC12 cells but also reduces neurite outgrowth of primary cortical neurons. SH2B3 does so by repressing NGF-induced activation of PLCγ, MEK-ERK1/2 and PI3K-AKT pathways and the expression of Egr-1. SH2B3 is capable of binding to phosphorylated NGF receptor, TrkA, as well as SH2B1β. Our data further demonstrate that overexpression of SH2B3 reduces the interaction between SH2B1β and TrkA. Consistent with this finding, overexpressing the SH2 domain of SH2B3 is sufficient to inhibit NGF-induced neurite outgrowth. Together, our data demonstrate that SH2B3, unlike the other two family members, inhibits neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells and primary cortical neurons. Its inhibitory mechanism is likely through the competition of TrkA binding with the positive-acting SH2B1 and SH2B2.
Neurotrophic Effect of Citrus 5-Hydroxy-3,6,7,8,3′,4′-Hexamethoxyflavone: Promotion of Neurite Outgrowth via cAMP/PKA/CREB Pathway in PC12 Cells  [PDF]
Hui-Chi Lai, Ming-Jiuan Wu, Pei-Yi Chen, Ting-Ting Sheu, Szu-Ping Chiu, Meng-Han Lin, Chi-Tang Ho, Jui-Hung Yen
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028280
Abstract: 5-Hydroxy-3,6,7,8,3′,4′-hexamethoxyflavo?ne(5-OH-HxMF), a hydroxylated polymethoxyflavone, is found exclusively in the Citrus genus, particularly in the peels of sweet orange. In this research, we report the first investigation of the neurotrophic effects and mechanism of 5-OH-HxMF in PC12 pheochromocytoma cells. We found that 5-OH-HxMF can effectively induce PC12 neurite outgrowth accompanied with the expression of neuronal differentiation marker protein growth-associated protein-43(GAP-43). 5-OH-HxMF caused the enhancement of cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation, c-fos gene expression and CRE-mediated transcription, which was inhibited by 2-naphthol AS-E phosphate (KG-501), a specific antagonist for the CREB-CBP complex formation. Moreover, 5-OH-HxMF-induced both CRE transcription activity and neurite outgrowth were inhibited by adenylate cyclase and protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, but not MEK1/2, protein kinase C (PKC), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) or calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) inhibitor. Consistently, 5-OH-HxMF treatment increased the intracellular cAMP level and downstream component, PKA activity. We also found that addition of K252a, a TrKA antagonist, significantly inhibited NGF- but not 5-OH-HxMF-induced neurite outgrowth. These results reveal for the first time that 5-OH-HxMF is an effective neurotrophic agent and its effect is mainly through a cAMP/PKA-dependent, but TrKA-independent, signaling pathway coupling with CRE-mediated gene transcription. A PKC-dependent and CREB-independent pathway was also involved in its neurotrophic action.
Neurite Outgrowth of PC12 Mutant Cells Induced by Orange Oil and d-Limonene via the p38 MAPK Pathway
Acta Medica Okayama , 2012,
Abstract: We studied the effects of natural essential oil on neurite outgrowth in PC12m3 neuronal cells to elucidate the mechanism underlying the action of the oils used in aromatherapy. Neurite outgrowth can be induced by nerve growth factor (NGF), where ERK and p38 MAPK among MAPK pathways play important roles in activating intracellular signal transduction. In this study, we investigated whether d-limonene, the major component of essential oils from oranges, can promote neurite outgrowth in PC12m3 cells, in which neurite outgrowth can be induced by various physical stimulations. We also examined by which pathways, the ERK, p38 MAPK or JNK pathway, d-limonene acts on PC12m3 cells. Our results showed that neurite outgrowth can be induced when the cells are treated with d-limonene. After treatment with d-limonene, we observed that p38 MAPK is strongly activated in PC12m3 cells, while ERK is weakly activated. In contrast, JNK shows little activity. A study using an inhibitor of p38 MAPK revealed that neurite outgrowth in PC12m3 cells is induced via the activation of p38 MAPK by d-limonene. The results thus indicate that d-limonene may promote neural cell differentiation mainly via activation of the p38 MAPK pathway.
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