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Chemical Properties of Chicken Muscles and Skin as Affected by Gamma Irradiation and Refrigerated Storage
Hesham M. Badr
Journal of Food Technology , 2013,
Abstract: This investigation aims to ascertain the effects of gamma irradiation at doses of 1.5 and 3.0 kGy, which approved for microbial decontamination of poultry, followed by refrigerated storage on the chemical properties of chicken muscles and skin. Non-irradiated and irradiated breast muscle, leg muscle, breast skin and leg skin were analyzed for proximate composition, amino acids and water & salt soluble proteins, whereas their lipids were analyzed for lipid characteristics, stability at 100 C and fatty acid profiles. Gamma irradiation had no remarkable effects on proximate composition, amino acids and protein solubility of muscles and skin, however, slightly decreased the total unsaturated fatty acids of lipids. Moreover, irradiation treatments slightly increased the acid value of lipids, while markedly increased their peroxide value and reduced their stability as determined by rancimat. Refrigerated storage induced no appreciable changes in macronutrients and protein solubility, while increased the acid value and peroxide value of lipids which were within the acceptable levels. Irradiation and storage did not appreciably affect the iodine value of lipids.
Microbial and Sensory Characteristics of Camel Meat During Refrigerated Storage as Affected by Gamma Irradiation  [PDF]
Aziz A . Fallah,Hossein Tajik,Seyed Mehdi Razavi Rohani,Mohammad Rahnama
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: The present study was undertaken to assess the microbiological profile of fresh camel meat and the possibility of improving microbial quality and extending the refrigerated storage life of meat by using low-dose gamma irradiation. Camel meat samples were subjected to 0 (control), 1.5 and 3 kGy doses and stored at 3 ± 1 ° C. the microbial and sensory attributes were evaluated. Exposure to 1.5 kGy dose significantly reduced the initial counts of Aerobic Plate Counts (APCs), psychrophilic bacteria, Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB), molds and yeasts, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Enterococci. Moreover, Pseudomonas, coliforms and Escherichia coli were below the detection levels. Irradiation at 3 kGy significantly reduced the initial counts of APCs, LAB and Enterococci by 99.5, 93.5 and 93.9%, respectively. Pseudomonas, coliforms, S. aureus, L. monocytogenes and E. coli were not found at dose of 3 kGy during entire storage period, also psychrophilic bacteria and molds and yeasts were below the detection levels during 6 days of storage. This study shows that irradiation had no significant effects on the sensory attributes of camel meat. Refrigerated shelf-life of the meat irradiated at 1.5 and 3 kGy were 15 and 21 days, respectively, compared to 7 days for non-irradiated controls.
Starch levels in refrigerated and frozen chicken based meat products
Labanca, Renata A.;Silva, Cristiane M. G.;Glória, M. Beatriz A.;
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology , 1999, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-89131999000200008
Abstract: the levels of starch were determined in chicken based meat products commercialized in belo horizonte, mg, brazil, from december 1996 to march 1997. samples were analyzed for moisture and starch contents. starch was acid hydrolyzed and the resulting glucose was determined at 620 nm after reaction with anthrone. the method was observed to be accurate (92.7% recovery), precise (cv = 3.0%), sensitive (quantification limit = 1.25 g/100 g) and simple in the determination of starch in meat products. among products analyzed, starch was detected in 100% of meat balls and nuggets samples, in 60% of the sausage, 50% of the bologna and 30% of the frankfurter. starch was not detected in hamburger samples analyzed. higher mean starch levels were found in nuggets (14.85 g/100 g) followed by meat balls (4.45 g/100 g), sausage (1.73 g/100 g), bologna (1.14 g/100 g) and frankfurter (0.57 g/100 g). mean moisture content varied from 35.68 in sausage to 46.24 g/100 g in nuggets. no significant correlation was observed between moisture and starch contents. every sample of bologna and 90% of the frankfurter contained starch levels according to the brazilian legislation. starch levels varied considerably within brands as well as within lots of the same brand.
Correlation between acid, TBA, peroxide and iodine values, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities of chicken, cattle and camel meat during refrigerated storage
Hamid Reza Gheisari
Veterinary World , 2011,
Abstract: The aim of this study was correlation determination between fat putrefaction indices and antioxidative enzymes in chicken, cattle and camel meat during refrigerated storage. Longissimus dorsi muscle of three Iranian dromedary one humped camel and three Holstein cattle and breast muscle of three broiler breeder chicken were obtained from the carcasses 3 days postmortem. The samples were ground and stored at 4 °C for 0, 2, or 4 days. Peroxide, TBA, acid and iodine values, catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities of the muscles were performed in each storage time. Catalase and GSH-Px activities were much higher in camel than in chicken and cattle and higher in cattle than in chicken. TBA value was lower in chicken than in camel. Camel had higher acid value than cattle. Chicken showed the highest and camel had the lowest iodine values. Catalase and GSH-Px activities and iodine values were quite stable during refrigerated storage. Acid values increased significantly over storage days in cattle. During the 4-day storage period, TBA and peroxide values increased. GSH-Px activity showed negative correlation with acid and TBA values in chicken and cattle. Acid value (for chicken and cattle) and peroxide value (for 3 animal species) showed positive correlation with TBA content. Iodine value had positive correlation with catalase activity in cattle and negative correlation with peroxide and TBA values in camel. In conclusion, our results indicate that peroxide and TBA values can be used as lipid quality indices in chicken, cattle and camel meat during 4 day storage in refrigerator. [Vet. World 2011; 4(4.000): 153-157]
Microbiological Quality of Chicken Sold in Accra and Determination of D10-Value of E. coli  [PDF]
Abraham Adu-Gyamfi, Wellington Torgby-Tetteh, Victoria Appiah
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.35094
Abstract: Chicken is an excellent source of good quality protein, but it is highly susceptible to microbial contamination and often implicated in food borne disease. The microbiological quality of chicken at different retail outlets (supermarkets, local markets and farms) in Accra was investigated, and D10-values of E. coli in refrigerated and frozen retailed chicken was determined. The microbiological quality of chicken was studied by analyzing 27 chicken thigh samples collected from the retail outlets. D10-value of Escherichia coli was determined by using a linear regression model after gamma irradiation of inoculated chicken samples with doses of 0, 150, 300, 450, 600, 750 and 900 Gy. Mean total viable counts for the supermarkets, local markets and farms were 6.46, 6.91 and 6.57 log10 cfu/g respectively. Mean total coliform counts for the supermarkets, local markets and farms were 3.80, 3.46 and 3.14 log10 cfu/g respectively and the mean S. aureus counts were also 2.32, 2.28 and 2.70 log10 cfu/g respectively. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the mean total viable count, total coliform counts and S. aureus count for the supermarkets, local markets and the farms. Mean counts of E. coli detected at the supermarket, local markets and farms were 1.27, 2.59 and 2.74 log10 cfu/g respectively. Salmonella spp. was detected in 2 out of the 27 samples. Fifty-two percent and 70% of samples respec-tively had total viable counts and total coliform counts within the microbial safety standards. Mean D10E. coli were 0.22 and 0.32 kGy in refrigerated and frozen chicken respectively. Presence of pathogenic bacteria in fresh chicken sold in some retail outlets in Accra was confirmed. Low D10-values of E. coli especially under refrigerated conditions suggest susceptibility to low dose irradiation and possibility of controlling spoilage and pathogenic microflora of fresh poultry.
MICROBIOTA AND BIOGENIC AMINES VARIATION OF CHICKEN MEAT; COMPARISON BETWEEN WHITE AND RED MEAT  [PDF]
Octavian Baston,Octavian Barna,Aida Vasile
Annals : Food Science and Technology , 2010,
Abstract: Chicken meat freshness is in permanent attention for all partners involved in food chain. In this paper we want to highlight the variation of microbiota (psychrotrophic and total viable count) and the variation of biogenic amines in chicken red and white meat. We compared the two anatomical parts of chicken because they have different metabolism, and after cutting from the carcasses they can suffer microbial contamination in the process. The purpose of the study is the evaluation of refrigerated white and red chicken meat (breast and legs) quality using biogenic amines and microbiota. The psychrotrophic microorganisms were initially around a value of 4 log CFU/cm2 in both anatomical parts, when total viable count were determined around a value of 5 log CFU/cm2. The microbial load growth until the seventh day, predominant for chicken breast being the psychrotrophic microorganisms, and for chicken legs remaining the total viable count. We studied the most five well-known biogenic amines: histamine, cadaverine, putrescin, spermine and spermidine. Theirs variation during storage was as follows: histamine increased slowly, spermine decreased, spermidine decreased, cadaverine and putrescin increased. Cadaverine was not detected until the fifth day for both chicken legs and breasts and putrescin was not detected until third day and only for chicken legs.
Physico-chemical, sensory and microbial quality of chicken meat chips  [cached]
N. Devalakshmi,K. Prabhakaran Reddy,E. Naga Mallika
Veterinary World , 2010,
Abstract: Chicken meat chips with different extenders (Bengal gram flour, Black gram flour and cooked mashed potato each at 15% level) and control were prepared and stored up to 8 weeks both at ambient (37+2°C) and refrigerated (7+ 1°C) temperature. The samples were analyzed for physical, chemical, microbiological and sensory quality characteristics. [Vet World 2010; 3(4.000): 182-184]
Combined effect of modified atmosphere packaging and gamma radiation on microbiology and sensory acceptance of refrigerated chicken breast fillets
Samira Pirola Santos Mantilla,érica Barbosa Santos,Sérgio Borges Mano,M?nica Queiroz de Freitas
Biotemas , 2010,
Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effect of modified atmosphere packaging and irradiation on increase of the shelf-life and sensory acceptance of refrigerated chicken breast fillets. The combination of the mixture 80% CO2/20% N2 and the irradiation (3kGy) increased the shelf-life from 5 to 16 days. The lactic acid bacteria and Aeromonas spp. were the most resistant to radiation and high concentration of CO2, while the enterobacteria, coliforms and Listeria spp. showed the greatest sensitivity. The combined technology provides chicken breast fillets with longer shelf-life and safety to the consumer, without changing the flavor and aroma of food and it may be suggested as an alternative in the food industry.
Effect of Growth Enhancers on Quality of Chicken Meat During Cold Storage
Fatma H. Ali,D.A. Zahran
Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology , 2010,
Abstract: This study was conducted to assess the effect of some growth enhancers as dietary onion & garlic (Allium sativum) and vitamin E supplementation with water on the meat quality parameters of broiler chicken. A total of 150 chicks were divided into 3 groups, 50 birds per treatment. The first group was fed control diet, the second group fed control diet supplemented with onion 2% and garlic 2% and the third group fed on control diet with vitamin E mixed with water. Birds were slaughtered at the end of the trial to evaluate pH , moisture content, cooking loss, shear force, instrumental color and fatty acids composition of refrigerated (5±1oC for 6 days) and frozen (3 and 6 months) samples. There was a significant decrease in the mean pH, shear force, a*- and b*- values and cooking loss in samples from chicken dietary supplemented with onion & garlic, and also in chicken (supplemented) with vitamin E mixed with water compared with the control. The mean moisture contents of chicken samples were not significantly influenced by the used growth enhancers. There was a numeric decrease in total saturated fatty acids (TSF %) and an increase in total unsaturated fatty acids (TUS %) in chicken samples (supplemented) with vitamin E mixed with water than control and which supplemented with onion & garlic. Palmitic was the predominant saturated fatty acid, while oleic was the predominant unsaturated fatty acid. It could be concluded that the supplementation of onion & garlic and vitamin E improved chicken meat quality during refrigerated and frozen storage.
Comparison of the Prevalence of Microbial Contamination in Packed and Unpacked Redmeat and Chicken Meat at Retail Outlets and Department Stores in Southern Tehran
MM Soltan Dallal,S Vahedi,H Zeraati,R Bakhtiari
Journal of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: Introduction:Despite advances in disease prevention and food materials technology, food – borne diseases are still a major problem in both developed and developing countries. Morever, meat plays a key role in transfer of bacteria, especially “Zoonotic” to humans. Therefore, we decided to investigate the outbreak of pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella,Campylobacter, Yersinia and Aeromonas in red meat and chicken offered as packed and unpacked in areas under the authority of Tehran university of medical sciences . Methods: 630 samples including 315 raw chicken meat and 315 raw red meat samples were collected and tested for a period of one year from July, 2004 to August,2005. Samples were collected from shops selling packed meat and chicken as well as shops selling unpacked meat and chicken in different parts of the south of Tehran The methods used for the laboratory investigation were based on Iranian National Standard Procedure No. 2394. Results: Of the 630 samples of chicken and meat, 183 samples (29 %) were contaminated. 49.2 percent of the contaminated samples were chicken meat and 8.9 percent were red meat. From the total, 71 samples were contaminated with salmonella (11.3 %), 68 samples with Campylobacter (10.8 %), 26 samples with Yersinia entrocolitica (4.1 %) and 18 samples with Aeromonas (2.9 %). In red meat samples, microbial contamination was observed in 4.9 % of packed and 10.3 percent of unpacked samples. Contamination rate of chicken samples was higher including 59.3 % of packed and 45.7 % of unpacked chicken samples. The observed difference between the remitting samples of packed and unpacked chicken was statistically significant. (P< 0.05) Conclusion: Our results indicated that although the centers selling packed and unpacked red meat from south of Teheran showed different microbial contamination rate, the differences were statistically insignificant. (P> 0.05)
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