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Competition between Influenza A Virus Genome Segments  [PDF]
Ivy Widjaja,Erik de Vries,Peter J. M. Rottier,Cornelis A. M. de Haan
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047529
Abstract: Influenza A virus (IAV) contains a segmented negative-strand RNA genome. How IAV balances the replication and transcription of its multiple genome segments is not understood. We developed a dual competition assay based on the co-transfection of firefly or Gaussia luciferase-encoding genome segments together with plasmids encoding IAV polymerase subunits and nucleoprotein. At limiting amounts of polymerase subunits, expression of the firefly luciferase segment was negatively affected by the presence of its Gaussia luciferase counterpart, indicative of competition between reporter genome segments. This competition could be relieved by increasing or decreasing the relative amounts of firefly or Gaussia reporter segment, respectively. The balance between the luciferase expression levels was also affected by the identity of the untranslated regions (UTRs) as well as segment length. In general it appeared that genome segments displaying inherent higher expression levels were more efficient competitors of another segment. When natural genome segments were tested for their ability to suppress reporter gene expression, shorter genome segments generally reduced firefly luciferase expression to a larger extent, with the M and NS segments having the largest effect. The balance between different reporter segments was most dramatically affected by the introduction of UTR panhandle-stabilizing mutations. Furthermore, only reporter genome segments carrying these mutations were able to efficiently compete with the natural genome segments in infected cells. Our data indicate that IAV genome segments compete for available polymerases. Competition is affected by segment length, coding region, and UTRs. This competition is probably most apparent early during infection, when limiting amounts of polymerases are present, and may contribute to the regulation of segment-specific replication and transcription.
Recognition of altered segments in Brazilian Sign Language  [cached]
Ana Claudia M. Almeida Verdu,Janaína de Fatima Castro Caneguim,Júlio C. de Rose,Heloisa H. Motta Bandini
Psychology & Neuroscience , 2012,
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to verify discriminative control by segments of signs in adolescents with deafness who use Brazilian Sign Language (BSL). Four adolescent with bilateral deafness, with 3 years of BSL teaching, saw a video presenting a children’s tale in BSL. After showing accurate understanding of the story, participants saw another video of the same story with 12 signs altered in one of their segments (hand configuration, place of articulation, or movement). They apparently did not detect the alterations. However, when the signs were presented in isolation in a matching-to-sample test, they virtually always selected the picture corresponding to the unaltered signs. Three participants selected an unfamiliar picture in 50% or more trials with an altered sign as a sample, showing that they could detect the majority of the altered signs.
Competition and Globalization Brazilian Telecommunications Policy at Crossroads  [PDF]
Clelia Piragibe
Computer Science , 2001,
Abstract: The current pattern of competition in the Brazilian telecommunications market was defined by a regulatory reform implemented in the second half of the nineties. The telecommunications regulatory reform discussed in the paper promoted the privatization of Telebras System and fostered competition in the Brazilian market under the stricted supervision of the new regulator Anatel. Notwithstanding, the regulatory Brazilian scheme is at a crossroads. From 2002 on an open market approach will be implemented in telecom arena. We analyse the main aspects of those change, from the firms perspective and also in a broad scenario under influence of the World Trade Organization system
A influência da institui o na internacionaliza o das vinícolas no Brasil Institution’s influence in the internationalization of the wineries in Brazil
Cyntia Vilasboas Calixto,Jefferson Marlon Monticelli,Ivan Lapuente Garrido,Silvio Luis de Vasconcellos
Revista Eletr?nica de Estratégia e Negócios , 2012,
Abstract: O aumento da competi o internacional no mercado de vinhos do Brasil levou as vinícolas brasileiras a questionar sua estratégia e a buscar o mercado externo como alternativa para manter sua competitividade. Este artigo visou a compreender a influência das institui es no processo de internacionaliza o das vinícolas da Serra Gaúcha. Para tanto, realizou-se um estudo de caso com aplica o de entrevistas semiestruturadas junto aos representantes do Projeto Wines of Brasil e quatro vinícolas associadas ao projeto, além de pesquisa documental. O Projeto Setorial Integrado Wines of Brasil surgiu de uma iniciativa do Instituto Brasileiro do Vinho (IBRAVIN) e da Agência de Promo o à Exporta o (APEX) na busca da promo o do vinho brasileiro no exterior. Toda a estrutura institucional desenvolvida propiciou o fomento da internacionaliza o das vinícolas da regi o, implicando um maior reconhecimento dos vinhos nacionais, n o só no exterior, mas também no Brasil, por meio do aumento do volume de exporta es e do número de exportadores envolvidos no negócio. Ao analisar as teorias de internacionaliza o baseadas nas abordagens comportamental e econ mica-racional, percebeu-se que nenhuma era capaz de explicar completamente a a o desenvolvida pelas vinícolas com vistas ao mercado externo, necessitando ampliar o escopo de análise. Todavia, constatou-se a relevancia do ambiente institucional em nível nacional para alavancar o processo de internacionaliza o das vinícolas que aderiram ao projeto, mesmo que estejam presentes limita es nos domínios normativo e regulatório em que os agentes est o inseridos. The rise on international competition in the wine market in Brazil led Brazilian wineries to analyze their strategies and reach foreign markets as an alternative to reinforce their competitiveness. This case study aimed to comprehend the influence of institutions in the internationalization process of the wineries located at Serra Gaúcha (Southern region of Brazil). Therefore, we developed this study based on the interviews made with the managers of Wines of Brazil, as well as with 4 wineries participating in the project, also using documental research. The project called Wines of Brasil, developed by the Brazilian Wine Institute (Instituto Brasileiro do Vinho - IBRAVIN) and the Brazilian Trade and Investment Promotion Agency (Agência Brasileira de Promo o à Exporta o e Investimentos - APEX), was developed to promote the Brazilian wines abroad. The institutional infrastructure developed by this project has fomented the internationalization of the wineries in the
Competition in the Brazilian loan market: an empirical analysis
Lucinda, Claudio R;
Estudos Econ?micos (S?o Paulo) , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-41612010000400004
Abstract: the aim of this paper is to review some of the existing tests for competition in brazilian banking, as well as to propose an alternative. after the description of the institutional setting of the brazilian banking system on this period, the competition tests on the literature were reviewed, beginning with the test proposed by panzar and rosse (1987). the market does not seem to be in long-run equilibrium, implying only the market does not seem to find itself in collusive outcome. the next step was to try a new methodology, applied by moreno, martínez and ruiz (2006) for the spanish banking market. on this methodology, in which the assumption of equality of conduct parameters between firms and time periods is relaxed, the results indicate that, for some firms and in some time periods, a cooperative conduct in fact is present.
Seed characteristics and dispersal of dimorphic fruit segments of Cakile maritima Scopoli (Brassicaceae) population of southern Brazilian coastal dunes
Cordazzo, César Vieira;
Brazilian Journal of Botany , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-84042006000200007
Abstract: cakile maritima occurs sporadically along the southern brazilian coast, where it is restricted to more protected sites at the base of foredunes. somatic dimorphism in c. maritima is manifested as morphologically distinct upper and lower fruit segments (silicules). the two morphs were tested for differences in size, number of seeds, dispersal ability and natural establishment. in the c. maritima population of southern brazil, the lower silicule has more seeds than upper silicule, and lower seeds are more likely to abort than the upper ones. seeds from upper segments were significantly larger than those from lower ones; however, their mass ranges overlap. the mean silicule mass was not significantly different from both segments, but the silicule/seed mass ratio from upper and lower segments was significantly different. both segments had high ability to float in sea water, more than 50% were still afloat after 70 days. nevertheless, dispersal occurs mainly to landward due to dominant wind action. most of the seedlings were restricted to within a one-metre radius of the mother plant, and were principally derived from lower fruit segments.
Intermodal Competition in the Brazilian Interstate Travel Market
Frederico Ara?ojo Turolla,Mois??s Diniz Vassallo,Alessandro Vin?-cius Marques de Oliveira
Revista de Análisis Económico (RAE) , 2008,
Abstract: This paper presents a test of intermodal interaction between coaches and airlines in Brazil in order to check for the efficacy of recent liberalization measures designed to promote competition in both industries. Interstate travel service in the country is heavily provided by coaches, and the system is fully operated by the private sector under public delegation through permits and authorizations. Agency-based regulation was introduced in 2002 along with a price cap regime aimed at enhancing the flexibility to change fares in response to demand and cost conditions. By making use of a reaction function-based model of coach operators’ pricing decisions in the interstate travel market, we then estimate the sensitivity of the changes in coach fares to the changes in airline fares in a simultaneous-equation framework. Intermodal interaction among coach operators and airlines is found to be highly significant and probably due to the competition for a small but increasing set of premium, quality-sensitive, coach passengers.
Brazilian democracy and the power of "old" theories of party competition
Santos,Fabiano;
Brazilian Political Science Review (Online) , 2008,
Abstract: brazilian politics has been usually analyzed as a case full of pathologies by scholars and political journalists alike. fragmentation, volatility, clientelism and inefficiency have become bywords for describing the performance of brazil's political institutions. as a counter to this view, this work argues that the country's democracy in the post-1988 period presents enough evidence in favor of classical hypotheses about electoral politics in the contemporary world, theories that invariably are based on premises of rationality in the behavior of voters and political parties. these theories include the median voter theorem, duverger's law on the mechanical and psychological effects of electoral systems, and the model of retrospective voting. the article also contends that the passing of time has contributed to make brazilian politics more rational and efficient in the mould of older democracies.
Wineries' Involvement in Promoting Tourism Online: The Case of Texas  [PDF]
Rasch, Leslie,Gretzel, Ulrike
PASOS : Revista de Turismo y Patrimonio Cultural , 2008,
Abstract: Wine tourism has become an important driver of business for wineries in many regions around the world, while Texas wine regions are only starting to emerge as important tourism destinations. A study was conducted to investigate how effectively Texas wineries market tourism to their own establishments as well as in a regional context. A specific focus was placed on indications of collaborative wine tourism marketing practices on winery websites. The results indicate that wineries provide basic visitor information but are missing out on strategic opportunities to market wine tourism to their areas.
Discrimination of Brazilian red wines according to the viticultural region, varietal, and winery origin
Miele, Alberto;Rizzon, Luiz Antenor;Zanus, Mauro Celso;
Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-20612010000100039
Abstract: this work evaluated the physicochemical composition of 171 red brazilian wines from the 2006 vintage, which were represented by 21 varietals. these wines were produced by 58 brazilian wineries in different regions of the country, with latitudes varying from 9o to 31o south. physicochemical wine analysis was performed in the same year and discrimination in the viticultural regions, varietal wines, and wineries was performed by means of the principal component analysis (pca). the main results show that wines from s?o joaquim had higher values of a420, a520, a620, color intensity, total phenolic compounds, anthocyanins, and dry extracts, while those from toledo had lower values of these variables; those from vale do s?o francisco had higher values of potassium, ph, density, and volatile acidity; from serra do nordeste a, they had higher titratable acidity; and from planalto superior b, higher hue. regarding the varietal wines, pca mainly discriminated the wines produced from the varieties ancellotta, teroldego, egiodola, refosco, marselan, cabernet sauvignon, pinotage, pinot noir, malbec, arinarnoa, barbera, and alfrocheiro. in relation to wineries, twenty two of them were discriminated by their higher values of some variables, i.e., three were characterized by color intensity; three by hue; eight by alcohol content; six by potassium, dry extract, density, and ph; and two by titratablel acidity.
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