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Extra??o e caracteriza??o de amido de jacatupé (Pachyrhizus ahipa)
Leonel, Magali;Sarmento, Silene B. S.;Cereda, Marney P.;C?mara, Francisco L.A.;
Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-20612003000300011
Abstract: the species of the genus pachyrhizus have been studied as a potential starchy raw material source. this work had as purpose the characterization of p. ahipa roots and process the roots in laboratory for starch extraction. the centesimal composition and amylose content of starch were analyzed. the starch granule size and shape were observed in scanning electronic microscopy. the rapid visco analyzer was used for viscosity analysis. the p. ahipa roots showed high humidity (82%) and 7,68% of starch. the process yield was low (4.28%), which reveal the necessity of searches for improving starch extraction. the product showed 12.3% of humidity, 84% of starch (13% amylose) and low content of other components. the starch granules had circular and polygonal shapes; the size ranged between 10 and 25mm. the viscosity profile of the p. ahipa starch showed low pasting temperature (56oc), peak at 272 rvu, high breakdown value and a tendency to setback.
Quality and Technological Properties of Gluten-Free Biscuits Made with Pachyrhizus ahipa Flour as a Novel Ingredient  [PDF]
María Cecilia Doporto, Fernanda Sacco, Sonia Z. Vi?a, María Alejandra García
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2017.81005
Abstract: The development of gluten-free foodstuffs with high nutritional quality components is an important objective to achieve. Pachyrhizus ahipa is one of the few leguminous species that produce edible tuberous roots with high nutritional value. Thus, the aim of this work was to formulate biscuits containing corn starch and 125 - 350 g·kg-1 of P. ahipa flour (AF) and to study the main physicochemical properties related to their nutritional and technological quality as well as their sensory acceptability. The formulation containing 250 g of AF kg-1 was selected for improving the product nutritional quality (i.e. higher protein content) without an extensive modification of textural properties. A formulation replacing corn starch by cassava flour (250 g·kg-1) was also analyzed. In this case, ahipa and cassava biscuits showed maximum force and energy required to bite twice and three times higher than the control, respectively. Slight variations were observed in color (E and browning index). The overall acceptability of biscuits formulated with both flours was better scored than the control by a sensory panel. Principal component analysis allowed to relate quality attributes, chemical composition, and sensory characteristics of biscuits containing cassava or ahipa flours. The results indicated that ahipa flour could satisfactorily substitute part of the corn starch used in the formulations of gluten-free biscuits.
Semi-hypogeal germination in Pachyrhizus ahipa (Wedd.) parodi (Fabaceae: Phaseoleae): seedling and sapling morphology
Milanez, Camilla R. Dias;Oliveira, Denise M. Trombert;Moraes-Dallaqua, Marina A.;
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-89132008000200015
Abstract: the aim of this work was to describe the morphology of seedlings and saplings of pachyrhizus ahipa, a cultivated species of phaseoleae (fabaceae), analysing the seedling type and characterizing the structure of cotyledons, eophylls and metaphylls. it was observed that the seedling was semi-hypogeal, a germination type not yet recorded for the phaseoleae tribe. it formed two opposite and unifoliated eophylls with an evident pair of stipels. metaphylls were trifoliolate and had alternate phyllotaxis. both eophylls and metaphylls were pinnate, camptodromous, and brochidodromous.
Extra o e caracteriza o de amido de jacatupé (Pachyrhizus ahipa)  [cached]
Leonel Magali,Sarmento Silene B. S.,Cereda Marney P.,C?mara Francisco L.A.
Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos , 2003,
Abstract: O gênero Pachyrhizus tem sido estudado como fonte de matéria-prima amilácea devido ao considerável teor de amido nas raízes de suas espécies. Neste trabalho objetivou-se caracterizar raízes de P. ahipa, processar em laboratório para a extra o do amido e analisá-lo quanto à composi o centesimal, teor de amilose, formato e tamanho de granulos em microscópio eletr nico de varredura e viscosidade das pastas (RVA). As raízes de P. ahipa apresentaram 18% de massa seca sendo 7,68% amido. O rendimento obtido de amido foi baixo (4,28%), apontando para a necessidade de estudos que melhorem o processo de extra o. O produto obtido apresentou 12,3% de umidade, 84% de amido com 13% de amilose e baixos teores de outros componentes (base úmida). A análise em microscópio eletr nico de varredura mostrou granulos de amido de formas circular e poligonal, com tamanho variando entre 10 e 25mm. O perfil de viscosidade apresentado por este amido mostrou baixa temperatura de pasta (56masculineC) e pico de viscosidade a 272 RVU, estando este último valor próximo ao observado para amido de mandioca, sob as mesmas condi es. O amido de P. ahipa apresentou ainda, baixa estabilidade da pasta a quente e tendência à retrograda o com o resfriamento.
Ontogênese do sistema subterraneo de Pachyrhizus ahipa (Wedd.) Parodi (Fabaceae)
Milanez, Camilla R.D.;Moraes-Dallaqua, Marina A.;
Brazilian Journal of Botany , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-84042003000300014
Abstract: a study on the ontogeny of the underground system of p. ahipa was held with the purpose of understanding both its morphology and its process of tuberization. samples, collected from the hypocotyl region and from the primary root during different phases of plant development, were processed according to usual technic. the underground system of p. ahipa is composed by both a xylopodium and a tuberous root. the xylopodium is a cylindrical lignified region near the soil and gives rises to new sprouts. immediately below to this part there is a primary tuberous root, which is predominantly fusiform. the root tuberization results from the activity of a typical vascular cambium and from accessory cambium originated from the parenchyma of the secondary xylem, after the first phase of the usual secondary growth. the xylopodium is of a mixed nature, as it arrises from the hypocotyl and from the base of the primary root.
Características das raízes e do amido de Pachyrhizus ahipa em diferentes épocas de plantio e estádios de desenvolvimento da planta  [cached]
Leonel Magali,Ferrari Tainara Bortolucci,Sarmento Silene Bruder Silveira,Oliveira Marcelo Alvares de
Scientia Agricola , 2005,
Abstract: De forma geral, as características do amido variam n o somente com a planta de origem, mas também com o estádio de desenvolvimento desta. Neste trabalho objetivou-se avaliar a influência da época de plantio e estádio de desenvolvimento da planta de ahipa sobre as características físico-químicas das raízes, tamanho de granulos do amido e suas propriedades viscográficas. Constatou-se influência do estádio de desenvolvimento da planta nas características físico-químicas das raízes e do amido, independentemente da época de plantio. A melhor época para o plantio de Pachyrhizus ahipa é outubro e a colheita deve ser feita no máximo com 9 meses, adotando-se o procedimento de retirada das flores a partir dos 3 meses.
Ontogênese do sistema subterraneo de Pachyrhizus ahipa (Wedd.) Parodi (Fabaceae)  [cached]
Milanez Camilla R.D.,Moraes-Dallaqua Marina A.
Brazilian Journal of Botany , 2003,
Abstract: Realizou-se o estudo da ontogênese do sistema subterraneo de P. ahipa com o objetivo de contribuir para o conhecimento da morfologia, bem como do processo de tuberiza o dos órg os subterraneos desta espécie. Amostras das regi es do hipocótilo e da raiz primária foram retiradas em diferentes fases de desenvolvimento da planta e processadas segundo técnica usual. Verificou-se que o sistema subterraneo de P. ahipa compreende um xilopódio e uma raiz tuberosa. O xilopódio corresponde a uma por o cilíndrica, lenhosa e lignificada, próxima ao solo, da qual surgem novos brotos. Logo abaixo, encontra-se a raiz primária tuberosa, de formato predominantemente fusiforme. O processo de tuberiza o da raiz resulta da atividade de um cambio vascular típico, juntamente com cambios acessórios que surgem a partir da retomada de divis o celular do parênquima do xilema secundário, após a primeira fase do crescimento secundário usual. A ontogênese do xilopódio mostra que este apresenta natureza mista, formando-se a partir do crescimento secundário tanto do hipocótilo quanto da regi o basal da raiz primária tuberosa.
Planting density and yield of cassava roots
Silva, Tiago Santos;Silva, Paulo Sérgio Lima e;Braga, Jéfferson Dantas;Silveira, Lindomar Maria da;Sousa, Roberto Pequeno de;
Revista Ciência Agron?mica , 2013, DOI: 10.1590/S1806-66902013000200014
Abstract: in mata fresca, an area located on the border of the states of rio grande do norte and ceará, in brazil, small farmers have a source of income from the production of cassava roots, using planting densities of around 5,000 plants ha-1. this procedure might be helping to limit higher yields of the roots, since some studies have shown that it is possible to obtain higher yields of cassava using higher densities. the objective of this study was to evaluate the root yield and other characteristics of the cassava, as a response to planting density. the vermelhinha cultivar was submitted to planting densities of from 5,000 to 21,000 plants ha-1, at intervals of 2,000 plants ha-1, in an experiment under irrigation. a completely randomized block design with four replications was used. the ideal planting densities in order to maximise leaf green matter, stems and branches, total roots, total marketable roots, number of marketable roots, marketable-root dry matter and stem dry matter, were 17,800; 17,077; 14,416; 13,594; 16,436; 12,361; and 18,149 plants ha-1 respectively. when adopting the planting density used by the farmers, a yield for marketable roots of 15,837 kg ha-1 was obtained. by using the optimal density as found in this work (13,594 plants ha-1), the yield was more than double that of the farmers. increasing planting density reduced both the length of the marketable roots and the harvest index (the ratio of marketable-root dry matter to total plant dry matter).
Extraction and Characterization of Starch Fractions of Five Phenotypes Pachyrhizus tuberosus (Lam.) Spreng  [PDF]
José Luis Ramírez Ascheri, Luz Haydee Bravo Zamudio, Carlos Wanderlei Piler Carvalho, Arturo Melendez Arevalo, Lais Martins Fontoura
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.519200
Abstract: Pachyrhizus tuberosus is a native plant of short life cycle found in South America riverside, which provides easy starch extraction from its tuberous roots. The aim of this study was to determine the physicochemical, rheological and functionality of the starch granules extracted from the roots of five phenotypes identified as V2, V3, V4, V6 and V7. Protein and ash content of all phenotypes were considerable high when compared to other root sources such as cassava varying from 4.35% to 7.43% and 1.58% to 2.49%, respectively, whereas lipid content was lower, between 0.29 and 0.49%. The starch granules were mostly circular and polygonal with varied sizes. The starch granules structural conformation showed cristallinity A type, normally for cereals. The maximum pasting viscosity at 95 ranged from 1644 cP (V7) to 2232 cP (V2). The initial temperature of pasting formation occurred at 69.4 for V2, 71.5 for V3, 87.9 for V4, 69.5 for V6 and 71.5 for V7. These values showed high variability within the phenotypes and generally high for roots and tubers starches. The maximum viscosity at 95 for V2, V3, V4, V6 and V7 were 2232, 2150, 1995, 2214 and 1644 cP, respectively. The viscosity curves showed low tendency to retrogradation. The thermal properties showed that the enthalpy of gelatinization varied from 8.91 J/g (V3) to 11.78 J/g (V2). The initial gelatinization temperature varied from 63.19 (V6) to 65.14 (V4). The swelling power at 90 ranged from 14.7% to 20.1% p/p and solubility from 10.3% (V2) to 27.2% (V7). It is concluded that Pachyrhizus tuberosus starch showed low retrogradation (1320 - 1560 cP) comparable to non-common native waxy starches, a feature which indicates the capability of using this natural and easy extraction starch source as gelling agent in certain manufactured food of undesirable retrogradation.
Effect of Cultivar and Planting Time on Resistant Starch Accumulation in Pigeonpea Grown in Virginia  [PDF]
Satya S. Narina,Yixiang Xu,Anwar A. Hamama,Sharad C. Phatak,Harbans L. Bhardwaj
ISRN Agronomy , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/576471
Abstract: Recent recognition of indigestible starch component named as “Resistant Starch” in the human small intestine raised our interest to execute the current study to identify the best cultivar to produce high-quality pigeonpea seed to incorporate in ongoing pigeonpea breeding program. Though pigeonpea was identified as one of the food legumes with high RS, there were no published reports for pigeonpea resistant starch accumulation as influenced by planting time. The experiment was conducted twice in replicated block design with four varieties and two planting times. The resistant and non resistant (hydrolysable) starch components of ground seed powder of four pigeonpea varieties were analyzed to identify the best planting time and best cultivar for high-resistance starch accumulation. Planting time and varieties showed significant influence on resistant starch (RS), total starch (TS), and hydrolysable starch (HS) accumulation. The pigeonpea variety W1 was significantly superior from other three varieties and has highest RS value (21.4?g/100?g) with 70 per cent RS out of its total starch (28?g/100?g). The planting time 2 (June 11) produced seed with highest values for RS (18.7?g/100?g), HS (6.5?g/100?g), and TS (25.2?g/100?g). The cultivar W1 is the better one followed by GA1 for use in further crop improvement. 1. Introduction The resistant starch, a valuable portion of total starch which is not hydrolyzed in the human small intestine, is considered as nutritious dietary fiber and functional fiber [1]. The resistant starch helps to protect colon tissue by producing healthy compounds like short-chain fatty acid that provides energy to colon bacteria to help maintain the healthy colon epithelium [2]. The FAO recommends consuming foods with low glycemic index (GI) which is based on the ratio of amylose and amylopectin content [3, 4]. Legumes have low GI as they have more amylose content than content compared to cereals [5]. Crops that provide high-quality nutrition are important for human health. Pigeonpea is one of the adapted new legume crops under investigation at the Virginia State University. It is drought tolerant, suitable for low input areas to feed the poor people. It will add alternative income to Virginia farmers beside supplementing with healthy nutrition to lower costs. The pigeonpea seeds are rich in proteins with many essential amino acids, carbohydrates, starch, vitamins, and minerals [6]. Approximately 20?g/person/day is recommended for beneficial health from RS (http://www.criticalbench.com/knowledge_resistant_starch.htm). India (10–18?g/day)
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