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Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of Parotid Salivary Gland—A Case Study  [PDF]
Shuaib Kayode Aremu
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2018.711052
Abstract: Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma (ACC) is an infrequent slow growing epithelial tumour constituting for around less than 1% of all the oral and maxillo-facial malignancies and almost 10% of all the salivary gland tumors. Parotid gland is the second most common site to be involved in the head and neck region along with submandibular gland, Palate being the most common site involved in the oral cavity. Key feature of these tumors include its asymptomatic presentation, indolent nature, typically showing infiltrative growth and peri-neural invasion. Herein, we report a case of adenoid cystic carcinoma of right parotid gland of a 33-year-old male who presented with complaint of painless slow enlargement of left parotid gland and facial muscle weakness. On Examination firm mass in the region of the left parotid gland as well as left facial paralysis was seen. Biopsy results and further management is discussed here within.
Mitochondrial Mutations in Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Salivary Glands  [PDF]
Suhail K. Mithani,Chunbo Shao,Marietta Tan,Ian M. Smith,Joseph A. Califano,Adel K. El-Naggar,Patrick K. Ha
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0008493
Abstract: The MitoChip v2.0 resequencing array is an array-based technique allowing for accurate and complete sequencing of the mitochondrial genome. No studies have investigated mitochondrial mutation in salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinomas.
A 20-Year Retrospective Study of Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma in a Sample of Iranian Patients  [PDF]
M. Khalili,F. Salamat
Journal of Dentistry of Tehran University of Medical Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the demographic and pathological aspects of adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC) in an Iranian sample based on a 20-year archive review.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study, tumors of the head and neck registered between 1980 and 2000 were evaluated and cases of ACC were selected. Patients’ medical records and pathology reports were reviewed. Variables such as age, sex, duration of disease,symptoms, site of tumor involvement and tumor diameter as well as pathologic features were recorded. Analysis was performed using chi-square and t-tests; P<0.05 was considered as the level of significance.Results: ACC was the most common malignant tumor followed by mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenocarcinoma NOS. A total of 120 ACCs were found, of which 50.8% occurred in females and 49.2% in males. Patients’ ages ranged from 5 to 90 with a mean of 49.2 (SD=15.9) years. In 60.9% of cases, minor salivary glands were involved and the palate was the most common site. The greatest tumor diameter was between 2-15cm with a mean of 4.6 cm (SD=2.9). The most prevalent histologic appearance was cribriform, followed by tubular pattern. No significant relation was observed between lymph node metastasisand patients’ age, sex, disease duration, greatest tumor diameter and site of involvement.Conclusion: Our findings were relatively similar to other reports from different parts of the world. Further analytic and case-control studies are recommended to gain a better understanding of different aspects of ACC.
Suprabasin Is Hypomethylated and Associated with Metastasis in Salivary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma  [PDF]
Chunbo Shao,Marietta Tan,Justin A. Bishop,Jia Liu,Weiliang Bai,Daria A. Gaykalova,Takenori Ogawa,Ami R. Vikani,Yuri Agrawal,Ryan J. Li,Myoung Sook Kim,William H. Westra,David Sidransky,Joseph A. Califano,Patrick K. Ha
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0048582
Abstract: Salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare cancer, accounting for only 1% of all head and neck malignancies. ACC is well known for perineural invasion and distant metastasis, but its underlying molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis are still unclear.
In vitro angiogenesis and expression of nuclear factor κB and VEGF in high and low metastasis cell lines of salivary gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma
Jiali Zhang, Bin Peng
BMC Cancer , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-7-95
Abstract: Electrophoretic mobility shift assay was used to detect nuclear factor κappa B activity. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to quantify the mRNA level of VEGF. Immuofluorescence double staining and semi-quantitative confocal laser scanning analysis was carried out to detect nuclear factor κappa B nuclear localization and staining intensity of VEGF. The angiogenesis ability of ACC-M and ACC-2 was compared by an in vitro three-dimensional angiogenic model assay. The vector transfection assay was performed to transfect the PCMV-IκBαM vector into ACCs cell lines expressing the phosphorylation defective IκBαM.Nuclear factor κappa B activity and the rate of nuclear factor κappa B nuclear localization in ACC-M was significantly higher than that in ACC-2. Moreover, ACC-M exhibited higher mRNA and protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor than ACC-2. VEGF mRNA expression was effectively decreased by inhibition of nuclear factor κappa B activity. Furthermore, ACC-M could remarkably stimulate the migration and tube formation of endothelial cells and induce The umbilical vein endothelial cells sprouting into the gel matrix.These results implicated that ACCs cells with higher metastasis feature might present greater angiogenesis ability.Adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary glands (ACCs) is a high malignant carcinoma characterized by intensive local invasion and insidious distant metastasis to the lung at an early stage, which is responsible for a poor long-term survival rate [1]. Although reasons of the invasiveness and aggressive metastatic dissemination of ACCs remain unclear, angiogenesis might be a possible involving mechanism [2]. Our previous study showed that the ACCs histological type which presented high metastasis tendency exhibited higher microvessel density levels and more intensive expression of angiogenic related factors [3].Angiogenesis, the development of new blood vessels from the pre-existing vascular beds, is an essential pathophysiologic event occur
Prognostic value of expression of molecular markers in adenoid cystic cancer of the salivary glands compared with lymph node metastasis: a retrospective study  [cached]
Lee Seok Ki,Kwon Min Su,Lee Yoon Se,Choi Seung-Ho
World Journal of Surgical Oncology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7819-10-266
Abstract: Background Adenoid cystic cancer arising in the salivary glands has distinctive features such as perineural invasion, distant metastasis, and a variable prognosis. In salivary gland cancer, c-kit, EGFR, and VEGF are representative molecular markers that may predict remnant and recurrent tumors. In this study, the expression of c-kit, EGFR, and VEGF in adenoid cystic cancer was evaluated, and the relationships between the expression of these markers and the clinical findings were investigated. Methods The medical records of 48 patients who were treated for parotid adenoid cystic cancer from January 1990 to January 2006 were reviewed. The tumor location, size, histological subtypes, perineural invasion, the resected margin status, and lymph node metastasis were assessed. Immunohistochemical staining and semiquantitative analysis of c-kit, EGFR and VEGF were performed. The relationship between the expression of each marker and the clinicopathological factors were analyzed. Results Positive c-kit immunostaining was present in 45 patients (94%), with weak positivity (+1) in 23, moderate positivity (+2) in 19 and strong positivity (+3) in three. Positive EGFR immunostaining was observed in 27 (56%), with weak positivity (+1) in 19 and moderate positivity (+2) in eight with no strong positive staining. Positive VEGF immunostaining was present in 42 patients (88%) with weak positivity (+1) in 12, moderate positivity (+2) in 17, and strong positivity (+3) in 13. Only the expression of VEGF was significantly higher in parotid gland tumors than in any other gland (P = 0.032). Marginal involvement was associated with strong VEGF expression (P = 0.02). No marker was significantly correlated with recurrence or the survival rate. Lymph node status was related to the survival rate. Conclusions The expression of c-kit, EGRF, and VEGF had no predictive value for recurrence or the prognosis of adenoid cystic cancer. Only the lymph node status was related to the prognosis.
Lacrimal gland adenoid cystic carcinoma treated with intraarterial chemotherapy
Bülent KARAG?Z,O?uz B?LG?,Cengiz DUMAN,??nar BA?EK?M
Turkish Journal of Oncology , 2009,
Abstract: Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a malignant tumor of glandular tissue and progresses with local relapse and distant metastasis. In this report, we present a case of lacrimal gland adenoid cystic carcinoma who treated by multimodal approach with intraarterial chemotherapy. A 32-year-old woman was diagnosed with adenoid cystic carcinoma (solid variant) of the left lacrimal gland. Neoadjuvant intraarterial cisplatin, intravenous doxorubicin, and orbital exenteration were performed. The patient was followed for 32 months without relapse. Achievement of long-time survival for this disease supports studies that show benefit of intraarterial chemotherapy.
Pulmonary adenoid cystic carcinoma : An unusual presentation
Dixit Ramakant,Nuval Paras
Lung India , 2007,
Abstract: Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a rare but distinctive salivary gland type malignant neoplasm that arises infrequently in the respiratory tract, where it is largely seen in the trachea or large airways. A 29-year-old female who presented with a peripheral lung mass due to pulmonary adenoid cystic carcinoma is reported in view of its unusual location, early age of presentation and lack of such reports in the recent literature. Lung India 2007; 24 : 28-29
MicroRNA Profiling of Salivary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma: Association of miR-17-92 Upregulation with Poor Outcome  [PDF]
Yoshitsugu Mitani, Dianna B. Roberts, Hanadi Fatani, Randal S. Weber, Merrill S. Kies, Scott M. Lippman, Adel K. El-Naggar
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0066778
Abstract: Background Salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare relentlessly progressive malignant tumor. The molecular events associated with ACC tumorigenesis are poorly understood. Variable microRNAs (miRNA) have been correlated with tumorigenesis of several solid tumors but not in ACC. To investigate the association of miRNAs with the development and/or progression of ACC, we performed a comparative analysis of primary ACC specimens and matched normal samples and a pooled salivary gland standard and correlated the results with clinicopathologic factors and validated selected miRNAs in a separate set of 30 tumors. Methods MiRNA array platform was used for the identification of target miRNAs and the data was subjected to informatics and statistical interrelations. The results were also collected with the MYB-NFIB fusion status and the clinicopathologic features. Results Differentially dysregulated miRNAs in ACC were characterized in comparison to normal expression. No significant differences in miRNA expression were found between the MYB-NFIB fusion positive and -negative ACCs. Of the highly dysregulated miRNA in ACC, overexpression of the miR-17 and miR-20a were significantly associated with poor outcome in the screening and validation sets. Conclusion Our study indicates that the upregulation of miR-17-92 may play a role in the biology of ACC and could be potentially targeted in future therapeutic studies.
Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the lacrimal gland metastasising to the liver: report of a case
Bashar A Zeidan, Mohammed Abu Hilal, Mohammed Al-Gholmy, Hanan El-Mahallawi, Neil W Pearce, John N Primrose
World Journal of Surgical Oncology , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7819-4-66
Abstract: We report a rare case of an isolated liver metastasis from a lacrimal gland adenoid cystic carcinoma 20 years after resection of the primary tumour. The patient presented with right upper quadrant pain radiating to the back and shortness of breath of 3 months duration. No local recurrence was detected during a 15 year follow-up with computerized tomography (CT) of the head. Abdominal CT scan demonstrated a solitary liver tumour with no other primary source, and the bone scan was normal. The patient was treated with an extended right hemihepatectomy. The histology revealed a predominantly cribriform tumour with focal areas of basaloid type metastatic lacrimal gland adenoid cystic carcinoma.This case illustrates the unpredictable behaviour of adenoid cystic carcinoma and the need for a life long follow up for these patients after treatment. The possibility of surgical resection for liver metastasis from adenoid cystic carcinoma should always be considered.Adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC) of the lacrimal gland are rare malignant tumours accounting for 1.6% of all orbital tumours [1-3]. Despite their rarity they are the second most frequent epithelial neoplasms occurring in the lacrimal gland after pleomorphic adenomas [4].They are slow growing tumours, which tend to spread to adjacent structures and occasionally metastasise via haematogenous spread to lungs, brain and bone in decreasing order of frequency [5-8].There are few studies and reports on lacrimal gland ACC describing time interval to presentation of metastases and length of follow-up required [9,10]. The liver is considered a rare site of distant metastasis and when it is involved is usually as part of disseminated disease [7]. To our knowledge, neither solitary liver metastasis, nor metastatic liver resection from a lacrimal gland ACC has been reported.We present a case of an isolated liver metastasis occurring 20 years after initial surgery for lacrimal gland ACC, with no evidence of loco regional, synchrono
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