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Patterns of Breastfeeding in Infants
Hatami A,?Talebi Toti Z
Hayat Journal of Faculty of Nursing & Midwifery , 2007,
Abstract: Background & Objectives: Successful breastfeeding is the result of right patterns of breastfeeding. This research aimed to study the patterns of breastfeeding in infants in Ray health centers.Methods & Materials: This is a descriptive study. The cluster random sampling (CRS) technique was used to select 400 mothers who had children under one year. Data were gathered using a questionnaire. Validity of the questionnaire was evaluated using content validity and reliability was determined using test-pretest method. Statistical analysis was carried out using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS).Results: The results showed that 34.5% of mothers breastfed their children exclusively for 6 months. In 58.7% of the samples, the first contact between mother and child was made in less than 2 hours. 95.2% of children were started their first feeding with colostrums and 59% of mothers fed their children with Manna and 54% with sugary water and 39.5% gave them water. 81.5% of children were breastfeed on demand and 18.5% of them were feed two to four times a day. There was no significant relationship between parent's knowledge, child's sex, parent's age, child's rank in the family and child's race with breastfeeding (P>0.05).Conclusion: The results showed that the mothers had wrong beliefs, low knowledge and inappropriate practice on breastfeeding.
Breastfeeding knowledge and practice of health professionals in public health care services
Silvestre, Patrícia Kelly;Carvalhaes, Maria Antonieta de Barros Leite;Venancio, S?nia Isoyama;Tonete, Vera Lúcia Pamplona;Parada, Cristina Maria Garcia de Lima;
Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-11692009000600005
Abstract: this study evaluated breastfeeding knowledge and practice of professionals who care for infants at health care services in a city in the interior of s?o paulo, brazil. this epidemiological study was carried out with a population of 89 nurses and physicians. their answers to a structured questionnaire were analyzed in total and by place of work through the test for difference between proportions (chi-square) with the level of significance at p<0.05. data analysis was performed according to the ministry of health recommendations. the significant differences found for knowledge and practice, according to place of work, were restricted to certain aspects. results of average scores were slightly better for professionals from the basic care units. regular and poor performance were found in different studied aspects regardless of place of work, which suggest that potential educational interventions in this subject should include professionals at all levels of health care.
The Influence of Infants’ Characteristics on Breastfeeding Attitudes among Jordanian Mothers  [PDF]
Ghada Mohammad Abu Shosha
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2015.54032
Abstract: Background: Breastfeeding is the desired nutritional method for infants. Some infants’ characteristics were found influential to mothers’ point of views toward breastfeeding. However, the relationship between infants’ characteristics and mothers’ attitudes toward breastfeeding is still uncertain. The aim of this study was to assess infants’ characteristics and their impact on Jordanian mothers’ attitudes toward breastfeeding. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional design was used. A sample of 130 mothers was selected conveniently from mothers attending four major governmental maternal-child health centers at Zarqa city in Jordan. The Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale along with infants’ characteristics data sheet were used for data collection. Results: A more positive attitude toward breastfeeding was manifest (mean 63.5, SD: 4.67). Positive attitudes toward breastfeeding were higher among women who delivered normally than women who delivered by cesarean section (p = 0.040). In addition, women who had healthy infants were more likely to have positive attitudes toward breastfeeding compared to women with ill infants (p = 0.021). However, women with preterm deliveries were less likely to have positive attitudes compared to women with full-term deliveries (p = 0.013). Likewise, women whose infants admitted to neonatal intensive care unit recorded less positive attitudes toward breastfeeding than women with healthy neonates (p = 0.043). Gestational age, admission to neonatal intensive care unit, infant’s health status, and type of delivery, were factors influencing mothers’ attitudes towards breastfeeding. Conclusions: Jordanian mothers have positive attitudes toward breastfeeding. However, positive attitudes are subject to different infants’ characteristics that should be considered while undertaking heath education programs for promoting breastfeeding. More focusing is recommended for women who delivered preterm infants, women who have ill infants, and women who delivered by cesarean section.
Human cytomegalovirus infections in premature infants by breastfeeding
K Numazaki
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2005,
Abstract: Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common cause of congenital and perinatal infections. Understanding the epidemiology of CMV is a key element in development of strategies for prevention of infection in premature infants. Breast-fed infants are susceptible to CMV infection from breast milk. CMV was isolated more frequently from breast milk at more than one month after delivery than from colostrum or early breast milk. CMV particle shedding into milk whey have a more important role. Cytokines in serum and milk are related to the reactivation of CMV, which occurs locally in the mammary gland of the lactating mother after delivery. Premature infants with low concentration of serum antibodies can acquire CMV infection from the fresh breast milk containing the virus. Freezing breast milk may be protective for the preterm infant until the titer of CMV antibody increases. However clinical importance of CMV infection in premature infants by breast-feeding is still unclear. This minireview focuses on recent advances in the study of CMV infection in premature infants by breastfeeding.
Breastfeeding intentions, patterns, and determinants in infants visiting hospitals in La Paz, Bolivia
Jonas F Ludvigsson
BMC Pediatrics , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-3-5
Abstract: In a cross-sectional study in 1995, the author interviewed 518 mothers with infants ≤ 1 year in La Paz, Bolivia, to describe the breastfeeding pattern and its determinants including socio-economic, religious and ethnic background.The rate of any breastfeeding remained above 85% during the first year. Exclusive breastfeeding rates fell from 89% at one week of age to 45% as early as one month of age, and then gradually declined to 20–25% in 6-month-old infants. The overall exclusive breastfeeding rate in infants < 4 months was 46% (n = 246). The use of prelacteal feeds (p < 0.0001, n = 436), not feeding the infant colostrum (p = 0.0008, n = 436), and Latin ethnicity (p = 0.0091, n = 436) were associated with a shorter duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Rural mothers were four times more likely to discard the colostrum than urban mothers (p = 0.0110, n = 501). Actual exclusive breastfeeding duration was shorter than what the mothers reported to be the ideal duration of exclusive breastfeeding for the infant.The rate of exclusive breastfeeding in Bolivian infants fell rapidly during the first months of life. Avoidance of prelacteal feeding and use of colostrum were associated with improved breastfeeding patterns.Breastfeeding is associated with a lower incidence of infant diarrhoea and respiratory disease, particularly in less developed countries [1]. A recent ecological study on breastfeeding showed that more than half of all infant deaths from diarrhoeal disease and acute respiratory infections in Latin America are preventable by exclusive breastfeeding in infants aged 0–3 months and partial breastfeeding throughout the remainder of infancy[2]. The theoretical basis for this may be a combination of the nutritional and immunomodulatory effects of human milk[3]. Since 2001, the WHO recommends exclusive breastfeeding up to the age of 6 months (World Health Assembly Resolution 55.25), based largely on work later published by Kramer and Kakuma[4].In Bolivia, the exclusiv
Breastfeeding Status and Effective Factors in 21 - 27 Months Iranian Infants  [PDF]
Fatemeh Nayeri, Mamak Shariat, Hosein Dalili, Farima Raji, Akram Karimi
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2015.52024
Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the Breastfeeding status among children aged 21 - 27 moths. A cross sectional study was carried out in South Health Center (Tehran-Iran) in 2010. Four hundred 21 - 27 month breastfed infants entered the study. This study compared some variables in 2 groups; weaning before and after 22 months. The level of significance was considered P < 0.05. Mean breastfeeding duration and median (either exclusive or combined) were 19.66 ± 6.40 and 22 months. Among all reasons were cited by mothers, some reasons like insufficient breast milk supply (77.9%), infant restless (77.1%), and Mother’s reluctance (75.6%) were the most common causes of exclusive breastfeeding cessation. A significant relation was seen between breastfeeding duration and gestational age or birth trauma (P Value = 0.031, P Value = 0.04). Breastfeeding training and First mother-infant skin to skin contact had significant roles on breastfeeding duration (P Value < 0.05, P Value = 0.001, respectively). It seems lots of public health efforts and policy are needed to improve breastfeeding rate in our country.
Contribution of breastfeeding to vitamin A nutrition of infants: a simulation model
Ross,Jay S.; Harvey,Philip W.J.;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862003000200003
Abstract: objective: to provide information on the potential contribution to vitamin a nutrition in infants of strategies for improving maternal vitamin a status and increasing the consumption of breast milk. methods: the contribution of breastfeeding to the vitamin a nutrition of children in eight age groups between 0 and 24 months was simulated under four sets of conditions involving two levels of breast milk consumption with or without maternal vitamin a supplementation. findings: during the first 6 months, optimal breastfeeding on its own (compared with withholding colostrum and then partially breastfeeding after the first week) was as effective as postpartum maternal supplementation alone, retinol intakes being increased by 59 mg per day and 68 mg per day, respectively. combined in synergy, these strategies increase retinol intake by 144 mg per day, or 36% of the recommended intake. after 6 months, partial breastfeeding continued to provide a significant proportion of the recommended intakes: 42% from 6-12 months and 61% during the second year. conclusion: maternal supplementation with a high dose of vitamin a at the time of delivery and the promotion of optimal breastfeeding practices are highly effective strategies for improving vitamin a nutrition in infants and should be strengthened as key components of comprehensive child survival programmes.
Contribution of breastfeeding to vitamin A nutrition of infants: a simulation model  [cached]
Ross Jay S.,Harvey Philip W.J.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2003,
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To provide information on the potential contribution to vitamin A nutrition in infants of strategies for improving maternal vitamin A status and increasing the consumption of breast milk. METHODS: The contribution of breastfeeding to the vitamin A nutrition of children in eight age groups between 0 and 24 months was simulated under four sets of conditions involving two levels of breast milk consumption with or without maternal vitamin A supplementation. FINDINGS: During the first 6 months, optimal breastfeeding on its own (compared with withholding colostrum and then partially breastfeeding after the first week) was as effective as postpartum maternal supplementation alone, retinol intakes being increased by 59 mug per day and 68 mug per day, respectively. Combined in synergy, these strategies increase retinol intake by 144 mug per day, or 36% of the recommended intake. After 6 months, partial breastfeeding continued to provide a significant proportion of the recommended intakes: 42% from 6-12 months and 61% during the second year. CONCLUSION: Maternal supplementation with a high dose of vitamin A at the time of delivery and the promotion of optimal breastfeeding practices are highly effective strategies for improving vitamin A nutrition in infants and should be strengthened as key components of comprehensive child survival programmes.
Candida spp. occurrence in oral cavities of breastfeeding infants and in their mothers' mouths and breasts
Z?llner, Maria Stella Amorim da Costa;Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso;
Pesquisa Odontológica Brasileira , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S1517-74912003000200010
Abstract: this study aimed to determine the occurrence of candida spp. in the oral cavity of predominantly breastfed infants and in their mothers' mouths and breasts, as well as in the oral cavity of bottlefed infants and in non-lactating women. one hundred and sixty nine women and eighty-five milk-fed infants took part in this study and were divided into four groups: 1) infants predominantly on breastfeeding (n = 55) and their mothers (n = 55); 2) infants on bottlefeeding (n = 30); 3) non-lactating women on whom oral collections were performed (n = 80) and, 4) non-lactating women on whom breast collections were performed (n = 34). oral and mammary swabs were cultured on sabouraud agar dextrose with chloramphenicol. the candida yeast strains found were isolated and identified through morphological and biochemical tests. candida species were much less frequent in infants who were predominantly breastfed than in those who were bottlefed. yeasts were much more frequent on the breasts of lactating women, with statistical difference in relation to the control group.
Candida spp. occurrence in oral cavities of breastfeeding infants and in their mothers' mouths and breasts
Z?llner Maria Stella Amorim da Costa,Jorge Antonio Olavo Cardoso
Pesquisa Odontológica Brasileira , 2003,
Abstract: This study aimed to determine the occurrence of Candida spp. in the oral cavity of predominantly breastfed infants and in their mothers' mouths and breasts, as well as in the oral cavity of bottlefed infants and in non-lactating women. One hundred and sixty nine women and eighty-five milk-fed infants took part in this study and were divided into four groups: 1) infants predominantly on breastfeeding (n = 55) and their mothers (n = 55); 2) infants on bottlefeeding (n = 30); 3) non-lactating women on whom oral collections were performed (n = 80) and, 4) non-lactating women on whom breast collections were performed (n = 34). Oral and mammary swabs were cultured on Sabouraud agar dextrose with chloramphenicol. The Candida yeast strains found were isolated and identified through morphological and biochemical tests. Candida species were much less frequent in infants who were predominantly breastfed than in those who were bottlefed. Yeasts were much more frequent on the breasts of lactating women, with statistical difference in relation to the control group.
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