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China’s Climate- and Energy-security Dilemma: Shaping a New Path of Economic Growth
Karl Hallding,Guoyi Han,Marie Olsson
Journal of Current Chinese Affairs , 2009,
Abstract: China is undergoing modernization at a scale and speed the world has never witnessed. As climate change increasingly dominates the global agenda, China faces the challenge of shaping a new growth path in a climate-constrained world. The paper argues that China’s current climate and energy policy is, at best, a “repackaging” of existing energy and environmental strategies with co-benefits for the mitigation of climate change. Nevertheless, even though policies are not climate-change driven, the quick (rhetorical) endorsement of low-carbon development and the strong momentum of green technologies indicate that political ambitions are in favour of finding a more sustainable development pathway. A new growth path would, however, require a fundamental shift, with development and energy strategies being set within climate security constraints. The eventual success of this new path remains uncertain.
Economic policies for tobacco control in developing countries
Ross,H; Chaloupka,FJ;
Salud Pública de México , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342006000700014
Abstract: raising tobacco taxes can have an income distributional impact on the population. since lower socio-economic groups usually smoke more, they also contribute more to total cigarette tax collection. thus, those who can afford it least contribute the most in terms of tobacco taxes. this means that tobacco taxes are regressive. however, tobacco tax increases are likely to be progressive, decreasing the relative tax incidence on the poor, vis-à-vis the rich. this is based on the premise that the poor are likely to be more sensitive to price changes, and would thus reduce their cigarette consumption by a greater percentage than the rich in response to an excise tax-induced increase in cigarette prices. recent empirical studies confirm this hypothesis by demonstrating that the price responsiveness of cigarette demand increases with income. research in china confirmed that reducing cigarette expenditures could release household resources for spending on food, housing, and other goods that improve living standards. therefore, in the long run, tobacco control measures will reduce social inequality.
Economic effects in tobacco seedlings' production  [PDF]
Kuli? Gordana,Raji? Zoran,Ikanonovi? Jela,Glamo?lija ?or?e
Journal of Agricultural Sciences , 2008, DOI: 10.2298/jas0802145k
Abstract: Production of occidental type of tobacco seedlings (Barley and Virginia) in our country, so far has been organized in traditional way. It considered tobacco seedlings production in semi hot hotbed, which has been heated with manure. Tobacco seedlings' production in qualitatively new way considers seed sowing in Todd's systems. The goal of this kind of researches is to compare these two ways of seedlings' production in economic way, i.e. determination of production's total costs when product is produced by traditional and by modern way, in Todd's systems.
A Causality Analysis of Coal Consumption and Economic Growth for China and India  [PDF]
Jinke Li, Zhongxue Li
Natural Resources (NR) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2011.21007
Abstract: China and India are the two countries with the strongest economic growth in the world. Meanwhile they consume much of the global coal to fuel their economic development. With coal burning as a major factor contributing to global greenhouse gas emissions, China and India are confronted with a dilemma of economic growth and environment protection. Will coal consumption reduction cause economic shocks? Is there a causal relationship between coal consumption and economic growth in China and India? In this paper Granger causality tests were used to examine the relationship between coal consumption and GDP in China and India, using data for the period from 1965 to 2006. It was found that a unidirectional causality from GDP to coal consumption existed in China while a unidirectional causality from coal consumption to GDP did in India. Therefore, developing cleaner and more efficient technologies is essential to reduce their CO2 emissions to reach sustainable development.
Analysis of Improvement on Human Resource Management within Chinese Enterprises in Economic Globalization  [cached]
Lihui Xie,Dasong Deng,Xifa Liu
Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology , 2013,
Abstract: In this study, we analysis of improvement on human resource management within Chinese enterprises in economic globalization. China’s entry into WTO has accelerated the economic globalization pace of Chinese enterprises and Chinese economy is further integrated with the global economy in a global scope. Human resource is what economic globalization of Chinese enterprises relies on, the first resource for China to participate in the international competition and is also the key to make effective use of other resources. Nevertheless, under the background of economic globalization, human resource management in Chinese enterprises is still faced up with quite a lot of challenges and problems. In order to establish a human resource management concept of globalization and set up a human resource management mechanism to respond to the economic globalization, this study makes a discussion and proposes management method and improvement measures for reference.
Tobacco companies are booming despite an economic depression
Peisen He, Eiji Yano
Tobacco Induced Diseases , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1617-9625-5-9
Abstract: Since September of 2008, a serious global economic recession has affected many businesses and caused widespread unemployment. However, certain economic entities have continued to earn profits despite the difficulties affecting the rest of the world.Philip Morris International (PMI), British American Tobacco (BAT), and Japan Tobacco (JT) constitute the three largest international manufacturers of tobacco products in the world, with 2007 market shares of 15.6% [1], 12.0% and 10.6% respectively [2].PMI, separated from the Atria Group on March 28, 2008, is currently the largest transnational tobacco company [3], with products sold in approximately 160 countries [1]. In 2008, the cigarette sales of PMI totaled 869.7 billion, and its gross turnover was 63.64 billion dollars, representing increases of 2.5% and 15.2%, respectively, as compared to the previous year [3]. BAT is the second largest international tobacco company in the world, conducting business in more than 180 countries and areas. Its sales volume and gross turnover in 2008 were 715.0 billion units and 62.82 billion dollars, representing increases of 4.5% and 25.2%, respectively, as compared to 2007 [3]. The third largest tobacco company, JT, with tobacco products in more than 120 countries [2], sold 614.1 billion cigarettes in 2008, an increase of 10.8% over the previous year, which included 452.3 billion sold in the international market and 161.8 billion sold in the domestic market. The gross turnover of JT was 58.21 billion dollars, an increase of 10.2%, as compared to the previous year [3].The sales records of these tobacco companies demonstrate that smokers not only continued to smoke but also actually increased their cigarette intake during this period of economic difficulty, despite the harm to everyone caused by exposure to this habit. Tobacco has already killed 100 million people in the 20th century, and 5.4 million deaths per year currently result from tobacco use. In the absence of urgent action, mo
Changing Epidemic of Lung Cancer & Tobacco and Situation of Tobacco Control ?in China  [PDF]
Xiaonong ZOU, Manman JIA, Xin WANG, Xiuyi ZHI
- , 2017, DOI: : 10.3779/j.issn.1009-3419.2017.08.01
Abstract: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death and morbidity in China. Smoking and exposure to secondhand smoking closely related to lung cancer. Recently, series policies of tobacco control and lung cancer prevention was carried out. However, burden of lung cancer is still serious, and smoking rate in male is still very high, and in never smokers exposure to secondhand smoking is still very extensive. In this paper, epidemic situation of lung cancer, smoking and second hand smoking are described, at the same time, current implementations of tobacco control policies are summarized.
Protestantism in China: A Dilemma for the Party-State
David C. Schak
Journal of Current Chinese Affairs , 2011,
Abstract: This paper examines the relationship between the Chinese state and Protestantism. It demonstrates that it varies widely from place to place; moreover, the actual relationship between individual churches and the local authorities that are supposed to govern them paints a quite different picture from that implied by the laws and regulations. The paper also argues that the state faces a dilemma: On one hand it feels threatened by the appearance of autonomous organizations such as unregistered churches, while on the other it values the contributions they make to society and recognizes that subjecting them to the Three-Self Patriotic Movement and China Christian Council would require a good deal of force and be very socially disruptive.
Analysis of a tobacco vector and its actions in china: the activities of japan tobacco
Peisen He, Takeaki Takeuchi, Eiji Yano
Tobacco Induced Diseases , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1617-9625-8-13
Abstract: Smoking is a particular challenge for public health because unlike many other pathogens, this leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide continues to be actively promoted by large multinational corporations and governments. Previous writers have described the activities of the two largest transnational tobacco corporations (TTC) as summarized later. In this paper we report on the activities of Japan Tobacco (JT), the third largest TTC and one that, unlike Philip Morris (PM) and British American Tobacco (BAT), is largely owned and controlled by the Japanese government. We focus on JT's actions aimed at penetrating the Chinese market, the largest in the world and heavily dominated by another government tobacco monopoly, the China National Tobacco Company (CNTC).The domestic tobacco business of JT in Japan faces an increasingly tough environment, as overall demand declines and competition with other tobacco companies intensifies. Growth in demand for cigarettes in Japan began to slow in the mid-1970s as a result of several factors, including an aging population, growing health concerns and price increases [1].The proportion of smokers in Japan has been decreasing over the past 12 years. In 2007, smokers made up 26% of the adult population in Japan [2], down from 35.1% in 1996 and 32.9% in 2000 [3]. According to the smoking rate survey of Japan conducted in May 2008, 25.7% of Japanese adults smoke [4]. Besides, the 1987 suspension of import tariffs on cigarettes led to rapidly increased competition in JT's domestic tobacco market, which decreased JT's sales and market share. To combat the increased competitive pressures, JT has become more sophisticated and focused in their marketing efforts, transforming the company from a Japanese cigarette "manufacturer/distributor" to an International cigarette "manufacturer/marketer"[5,6]. One of its tobacco strategies is to "expand internationally into new markets to provide growth for the tobacco segment." Initially, "JT
A Review of Economic Evaluations of Tobacco Control Programs  [PDF]
Jennifer W. Kahende,Brett R. Loomis,Bishwa Adhikari,LaTisha Marshall
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph6010051
Abstract: Each year, an estimated 443,000 people die of smoking-related diseases in the United States. Cigarette smoking results in more than $193 billion in medical costs and productivity losses annually.In an effort to reduce this burden, many states, the federal government, and several national organizations fund tobacco control programs and policies. For this report we reviewed existing literature on economic evaluations of tobacco control interventions. We found that smoking cessation therapies, including nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and self-help are most commonly studied. There are far fewer studies on other important interventions, such as price and tax increases, media campaigns, smoke free air laws and workplace smoking interventions, quitlines, youth access enforcement, school-based programs, and community-based programs. Although there are obvious gaps in the literature, the existing studies show in almost every case that tobacco control programs and policies are either cost-saving or highly cost-effective.
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