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The fields of HIV and disability: past, present and future
Hanass-Hancock Jill,Nixon Stephanie A
Journal of the International AIDS Society , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1758-2652-2-3
Abstract: This article provides an historic overview of the fields of disability and HIV. We describe this area of concern in terms of "fields" versus "a single field" because of the two related but distinct trends that have evolved over time. The first field involves people living with HIV and their experiences of disability, disablement and rehabilitation brought on by the disease and its treatments. The second involves people with disabilities and their experiences of vulnerability to and life with HIV. These two fields have evolved relatively independently over time. However, in the final section of this article, we argue that the divide between these fields is collapsing, and that this collapse is beginning to produce a new understanding about shared concerns, cross-field learning and the mutual benefits that might be realized from integrating policy and programmatic responses. We close by identifying directions that we expect these merging fields to take in the coming years.
Sexuality in subjects with intellectual disability: an educational intervention proposal for parents and counselors in developing countries
Katz,Gregorio; Lazcano-Ponce,Eduardo;
Salud Pública de México , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342008000800018
Abstract: in developing countries, the study of intellectual disability has enormous knowledge gaps, especially in the areas of intervention, utilization of services and legislation. this article provides information not only for aiding in the potential development of sexuality in individuals with intellectual disability, but also for fostering their social integration. in mexico and the region, in order to develop educational interventions for promoting sexual health, it is necessary to consider the following priorities: a) mental health professionals should have the knowledge or receive training for carrying out a sexual education and counseling program; b) educational interventions for subjects with intellectual disability should be adapted for the different stages of life (childhood, adolescence and adulthood); c) during childhood, educational intervention should emphasize the concept of public and private conducts; d) in adolescence, intervention should consider the actual mental age and not the chronological age of the subjects receiving intervention; e) the expression of sexuality in the adult with intellectual disability depends on the early incorporation of factors for promoting social inclusion; f) for educational interventions to be successful, it is fundamental that sexual educators and counselors, in addition to working with the clients, also work with their parents and other close family members; g) intervention programs should establish development objectives for developing in persons with intellectual disability a positive attitude towards sexuality and the improvement in self-esteem; h) in subjects with intellectual disability, their linguistic comprehension level should be taken into consideration and techniques for open discussion and non-inductive education should be used; i) social integration programs should address the needs of developing countries and their individuals, since it is not feasible to import external programs due to differences in infrastr
Benchmarking progress in tackling the challenges of intellectual property, and access to medicines in developing countries
Musungu,Sisule F;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862006000500015
Abstract: the impact of intellectual property protection in the pharmaceutical sector on developing countries has been a central issue in the fierce debate during the past 10 years in a number of international fora, particularly the world trade organization (wto) and who. the debate centres on whether the intellectual property system is: (1) providing sufficient incentives for research and development into medicines for diseases that disproportionately affect developing countries; and (2) restricting access to existing medicines for these countries. the doha declaration was adopted at wto in 2001 and the commission on intellectual property, innovation and public health was established at who in 2004, but their respective contributions to tackling intellectual property-related challenges are disputed. objective parameters are needed to measure whether a particular series of actions, events, decisions or processes contribute to progress in this area. this article proposes six possible benchmarks for intellectual property-related challenges with regard to the development of medicines and ensuring access to medicines in developing countries.
Benchmarking progress in tackling the challenges of intellectual property, and access to medicines in developing countries  [cached]
Musungu Sisule F
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2006,
Abstract: The impact of intellectual property protection in the pharmaceutical sector on developing countries has been a central issue in the fierce debate during the past 10 years in a number of international fora, particularly the World Trade Organization (WTO) and WHO. The debate centres on whether the intellectual property system is: (1) providing sufficient incentives for research and development into medicines for diseases that disproportionately affect developing countries; and (2) restricting access to existing medicines for these countries. The Doha Declaration was adopted at WTO in 2001 and the Commission on Intellectual Property, Innovation and Public Health was established at WHO in 2004, but their respective contributions to tackling intellectual property-related challenges are disputed. Objective parameters are needed to measure whether a particular series of actions, events, decisions or processes contribute to progress in this area. This article proposes six possible benchmarks for intellectual property-related challenges with regard to the development of medicines and ensuring access to medicines in developing countries.
The Prevalence of Depression among Family Caregivers of Children with Intellectual Disability in a Rural Setting in Kenya  [PDF]
Margaret Njeri Mbugua,Mary W. Kuria,David M. Ndetei
International Journal of Family Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/534513
Abstract: Caregivers of children with intellectual disability have a great responsibility that may be stressful. The psychological well-being of the care giver may affect the quality of care given to children with intellectual disability. Objective. The objective of the study was to determine the risk of depression in caregivers of children with intellectual disability. Setting. The study was conducted at Gachie Catholic Parish, Archdiocese of Nairobi (Kenya). Design. Cross sectional, descriptive study. Method. The study was conducted among 114 caregivers registered at the Gachie Parish program (in Kenya) for the intellectual disabled children. A researcher-designed social demographic questionnaire and the Beck depression inventory were administered to those that met the inclusion criteria. Results. Seventy-nine percent (79%) of the caregivers were at risk of clinical depression. Conclusion. Majority of the caregivers of children with intellectual disability were at risk of developing clinical depression. 1. Introduction There is an increased demand on the care givers of children with developmental disability [1] especially when it is intellectual in nature. Intellectual disability is associated with poor communication, academic and social skills that make the child more dependent on the caregiver than the normal child. In the past (in Kenya), the extended family would be available to provide care to an intellectually disabled child easing the burden of care expected from the nuclear family. However, in recent times, there is a shift from extended family to nuclear family. In addition, over the past 2 decades, family units have become smaller [2] and the rate of marriage break down has increased [3]. Though the magnitude of the responsibility depends on the level of intellectual disability, it is greater for those in small nuclear families. It is also important to note that the economic situation in Kenya dictates that people work long hours with little pay especially if they are in nonskilled employment. This coupled with the fact that there are few institutions or organizations that school or take care of the intellectually disabled makes the role of caregivers enormous. The caregivers are usually the mother of the child, elderly family members, or the unemployed members of the family. Such people do not normally plan to be caregivers [4] but find the need unavoidable. In addition, the caregivers do not receive preparation for this role, and, in the process of engaging in the same, they later on find it very demanding [4]. Unlike other carers, the caregiver may
Inclusive Education for Students with Intellectual Disability  [cached]
Cornelius DJK,Janaki Balakrishnan
Disability, CBR & Inclusive Development , 2012, DOI: 10.5463/dcid.v23i2.111
Abstract: This paper traces briefly the evolution of Inclusive Education for students with special education needs (SEN) and discusses some significant challenges in its implementation. While the aim of Inclusive Education is to include all children with SEN in mainstream schools, there are many challenges that have to be overcome for their education to be meaningful. This paper focuses primarily on the inclusion of students with intellectual disability, since they are likely to be the largest number with special education needs in ‘inclusive’ schools. It offers the outline of a curriculum that may be derived from the mainstream one in use, and suggests a model that emphasises the replacement of age / grade placement, as is the present practice, with experience and maturity underpinning learning in persons with intellectual disability. The proposed model needs, of course, to be field-tested. doi 10.5463/DCID.v23i2.111
Sexual health for people with intellectual disability
Eastgate,Gillian;
Salud Pública de México , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342008000800019
Abstract: people with intellectual disability experience the same range of sexual needs and desires as other people. however, they experience many difficulties meeting their needs. they may be discouraged from relieving sexual tension by masturbating. they face a high risk of sexual abuse. they are likely not to be offered the full range of choices for contraception and sexual health screening. poor education and social isolation may increase their risk of committing sexual offences. however, with appropriate education and good social support, people with intellectual disability are capable of safe, constructive sexual expression and healthy relationships. providing such support is an essential part of supporting people with intellectual disability.
Sexual life in subjects with intellectual disability
Conod,Lo?se; Servais,Laurent;
Salud Pública de México , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342008000800017
Abstract: during the last decades, the expectancies towards sexual life of people with intellectual disability have been more and more recognized by researchers, clinicians, caregivers and parents. these expectancies, that largely depend on socio-cultural and personal factors, such as the level of disability, must be supported in order to help people with intellectual disability to reach the best quality of life as possible. therefore, it is important to identify every patient?s and resident?s personal expectancies towards sexuality and which medical and educative support he/she needs according to his/her disability and co-morbidity. the aim of the present paper is to review the different research works conducted in this area.
DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF DEPRESSION IN PERSONS WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY  [PDF]
Katarina Tomi?1,,Goran Mihajlovi?2,,Natalija Jovanovi? Mihajlovi?3,Slavica ?uki? Dejanovi?2, and
Acta Medica Medianae , 2011,
Abstract: This paper considers, from the theoretical point of view, the problem of diagnosing and treatment of depressive disorders in people with intellectual disability (ID), relying primarily on the results of previous researches, which stress the etiological, symptomatic, diagnostic and therapeutic specifics when it comes to depression and its correlates in this population. The interest in mental health and psychopathology of people with ID intensified during the seventh decade of the previous century, when it became clear that some cognitive and behavioral symptoms are not, as hitherto thought, only a part or a consequence of the syndrome of intellectual disability, but a sign of ongoing mental disorder. So, the idea of ''dual diagnosis'' was born, and now it provides guidelines for the growing number of studies which theoretically and empirically review different issues of mental health problems in people with ID. Likewise, the observation of syndrome groups of genetic disorders resulting in intellectual disability has led to the narrowing of the circle of genetic syndromes that carry increased risk for the onset of depression and its correlates, such as: Down syndrome, Fragile X syndrome and Prader-Willi syndrome. Potential diagnostic problem in people with ID, when it comes to depression, may arise from ''diagnostic overshadowing’’ of depression symptoms, which often remain hidden under abnormal behavior and adjustment disorders, especially in patients with severe forms of ID. As a possible way to overcome these problems some authors have proposed the concept of ''behavioral equivalents of depression'' or behavioral disorders that evidently can be associated with depression, such as social withdrawal, aggression, hostility, irritability, psychomotor agitation or retardation. Intensification of these forms of behavior may be a sign of developing depression, and in that sense, this view represents a useful starting point. When it comes to therapeutic approaches, there is a general tendency in favour of psycho pharmacotherapy in the treatment of depression, although there is a growing number of researches that prove the favourable effects of cognitive-behavioral and psychoanalytic psychotherapy.
Second-order Mental State Attribution in Children with Intellectual Disability: Cognitive Functioning and Some Educational Planning Challenges  [cached]
Anastasia Alevriadou,Stergiani Giaouri
Journal of Educational and Developmental Psychology , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/jedp.v1n1p146
Abstract: Second-order mental state attribution in two groups of children with non-specific intellectual disability and Down syndrome was investigated. The children were compared to overall mental age-matched group of typically developing children. The aim of the present study was to determine the specificity of the theory of mind deficit to different groups of children with intellectual disability. The results clearly showed that children with Down syndrome performed more poorly than the children with non-specific intellectual disability, and that typically developing children perform significantly better than do other groups. The findings are discussed in terms of the specificity of the etiology-related profiles of intellectually disabled groups. Several critical issues related to intervention strategies in the field of intellectual disability are also discussed, considering the educational practices.
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