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Efectividad biológica de productos biodegradables para el control de la cochinilla silvestre Dactylopius opuntiae (Cockerell) (Homoptera: Dactylopiidae)
Celina Palacios Mendoza,Ramón Nieto Hernández,Celina Llanderal Cázares,Héctor González Hernández
Acta zoológica mexicana , 2004,
Abstract: Se evaluaron dos clases de productos biodegradables, un detergente de uso doméstico (Roma ) y otro clasificado como producto misceláneo (Peak Plus, en trámite de registro) contra ninfas I, ninfas II y hembras adultas de la cochinilla silvestre Dactylopius opuntiae (Cockerell) en condiciones de laboratorio, por el método de aspersión dirigida a cladodios de nopal infestados. Las concentraciones probadas para ambos productos fueron 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 y 6.0%; además se evaluó el efecto de una aplicación repetida de las oncentraciones comprendidas de 0.5 a 3.0% sobre las mismas etapas de desarrollo. Se observó una mayor susceptibilidad de ninfas I, teniendo una mortalidad cercana al 50% con 5% del detergente Roma , mientras que las ninfas II y hembras adultas fueron más susceptibles al Peak Plus, lográndose un control cercano al 50% con las concentraciones de 1.5 y 3.0%, respectivamente. En la aplicación repetida, el efecto mayor se observó en hembras adultas para ambos productos.
Ciclo de vida y parámetros poblacionales de Sympherobius barberi Banks (Neuroptera: Hemerobiidae) criado con Dactylopius opuntiae Cockerell (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae)
Iliana Pacheco-Rueda,J. Refugio Lomelí-Flores,Esteban Rodríguez- Leyva,Manuel Ramírez- Delgado
Acta zoológica mexicana , 2011,
Abstract: El nopal verdura, Opuntia ficus-indica, es una hortaliza de importancia económica, social y ambiental en México, y una de sus plagas más importantes es la cochinilla silvestre del nopal, Dactylopius opuntiae. De sus enemigos naturales nativos el hemeróbido depredador Sympherobius barberi es una posible alternativa para su control. El objetivo de esta investigación fue estudiar la biología de S. barberi alimentado con D. opuntiae. Para establecer las crías en laboratorio tanto de la presa D. opuntiae y el depredador S. barberi, se colectaron insectos durante 2008 y 2009 de la zona productora de nopal verdura de Tlalnepantla, Morelos. S. barberi completó su ciclo biológico en 28 días. Las hembras tuvieron un periodo de preoviposición de cuatro días; el promedio de huevos por hembra por día fue de 1.98. Adicionalmente, S. barberi presentó una tasa neta de reproducción (Ro) de 36.6, una tasa intrínseca de crecimiento (rm) de 0.081, un tiempo de generación (T) de 44.27 días y una tasa finita de reproducción ( ) de 1.084.
Factores Bióticos y Concentración de ácido Carmínico en la Cochinilla (Dactylopius coccus Costa) (Homoptera: Dactylopiidae) Biotic Factors and Concentration of Carminic Acid in Cochineal Insects (Dactylopius coccus Costa) (Homoptera: Dactylopiidae)
Luis C Rodríguez,Eric Faúndez,Judith Seymour,Carlos A Escobar
Agricultura Técnica , 2005,
Abstract: La cochinilla, Dactylopius coccus Costa (Homoptera: Dactylopiidae), es un insecto que crece sobre la tuna, Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae), y es explotado por su capacidad para producir colorantes naturales basados en el ácido carmínico. La cochinilla fue introducida a Chile en 1989. Las exportaciones de cochinilla seca se iniciaron en 1994 y los volúmenes y montos se elevaron de manera significativa a o a a o, hasta alcanzar a cubrir más del 15% de la demanda mundial. Sin embargo, el precio actual de la cochinilla se acerca a los costos de producción, siendo necesario aumentar los rendimientos sin aumentar los costos. En este trabajo se describe el efecto de diversas variables bióticas sobre la concentración de ácido carmínico (CAC), la que fue afectada positivamente por la densidad de cochinillas en torno a la cochinilla focal, la edad y el estado nutricional de la planta, y negativamente por la edad del cladodio. La estación afectó significativamente la CAC: 16,9 % del peso seco de cochinilla en oto o y 19,1 % en primavera. Estos conocimientos abren la puerta para el dise o de estrategias de manejo que conduzcan a un incremento de la CAC en la cochinilla. The cochineal insect, Dactylopius coccus Costa (Homoptera: Dactylopiidae), grows on the prickly-pear cactus, Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae), and is exploited for its capacity to produce natural dyes based on carminic acid. Cochineal insects were introduced in Chile in 1989, and exports of dry cochineal began in 1994 and grew to cover approximately 15% of the world market. However, the current price of dry cochineal is nearing production costs; hence, it has become necessary to increase yields without increasing costs. This work reports on the effect of biotic factors on the concentration of carminic acid (CAC) in cochineal insects. CAC was positively affected by the density of cochineal insects around the insect, that was analyzed by plant age, and by the nutritional status of the plant, and was negatively affected by the age of the cladode. Additionally, CAC was significantly affected by season: 16.9% of dry weight in the Autumn and 19.1% in the Spring. This knowledge may be used in designing cultural strategies to increase carminic acid accumulation in cochineal insects.
ENEMIGOS NATURALES DE DACTYLOPIUS OPUNTIAE (COCKERELL) EN OPUNTIA FICUS-INDICA (L.) MILLER EN EL CENTRO DE MéXICO
J. M. VANEGAS-RICO,J. R. LOMELI-FLORES,E. RODRíGUEZ-LEYVA,G. MORA-AGUILERA
Acta zoológica mexicana , 2010,
Abstract: El nopal Opuntia ficus-indica se cultiva con diversos propósitos en el mundo, mientras que en México, principal productor y consumidor mundial, particularmente se consume como verdura (nopalitos). La producción de nopalitos se ubica, principalmente, en los alrededores de la Ciudad de México donde las cochinillas silvestres Dactylopius spp. son de los insectos más nocivos para el cultivo. El control químico es el método de más uso por los productores, aunque el control biológico podría ser útil para un manejo integrado de plagas. No obstante, los estudios taxonómicos sobre las especies de cochinilla y sus enemigos naturales en México no son abundantes. En esta investigación se planteó conocer las especies presentes de Dactylopius y sus enemigos naturales en Tlalnepantla, Morelos, una de las áreas de mayor producción de nopalitos en México. Se seleccionaron 30 sitios distribuidos en esta región y se establecieron cinco sitios para monitoreo de enemigos naturales cada dos semanas durante un a o. La única especie de cochinilla silvestre del nopal que se encontró correspondió a Dactylopius opuntiae (Cockerell), los enemigos naturales en orden de abundancia fueron Leucopis bellula, Sympherobius barberi, Laetilia coccidivora, Hyperaspis trifurcata, Salpingogaster cochenillivorus, Sympherobius angustus y Chilocorus cacti. Se proporcionan descripciones de biología de los enemigos naturales en campo y laboratorio. Diversos factores relacionados con el manejo del cultivo tuvieron un efecto sobre las poblaciones de D. opuntiae y sus enemigos naturales.
Ciclo de vida y parámetros poblacionales de Sympherobius barberi Banks (Neuroptera: Hemerobiidae) criado con Dactylopius opuntiae Cockerell (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae)
PACHECO-RUEDA, Iliana;LOMELí-FLORES, J. Refugio;RODRíGUEZ-LEYVA, Esteban;RAMíREZ-DELGADO, Manuel;
Acta zoológica mexicana , 2011,
Abstract: prickly pear opuntia ficus-indica, is consumed in mexico as young pads which are called "nopalitos". it is a horticultural crop of great economical, social, and environmental importance. one of its most important pests is the wild cochineal insect, dactylopius opuntiae. amoung natural enemies of the latter are sympherobius barberi, a predaceous brown lacewing that is considered one of the control alternatives. the objective of this research was to assess the biology of s. barberi reared on d. opuntiae. all the specimens used to establish laboratory colonies of both, pest and the predator, were collected during 2008 and 2009 from the nopalitos producing zone in tlalnepantla, morelos. s. barberi completed its life cycle in 28 days. females had a four day preovipositional period, while daily average eggs per female was 1.98. also, s. barberi had a net reproductive rate (ro) of 36.6; a daily intrinsic rate of increase (rm) of 0.081; a generation time (t) of 44.27 d, and a finite reproductive rate (λ) of 1.084.
Factores Bióticos y Concentración de ácido Carmínico en la Cochinilla (Dactylopius coccus Costa) (Homoptera: Dactylopiidae)
Rodríguez,Luis C; Faúndez,Eric; Seymour,Judith; Escobar,Carlos A; Espinoza,Luis; Petroutsa,Maria; Ayres,Alejandro; Niemeyer,Hermann ?M;
Agricultura Técnica , 2005, DOI: 10.4067/S0365-28072005000300011
Abstract: the cochineal insect, dactylopius coccus costa (homoptera: dactylopiidae), grows on the prickly-pear cactus, opuntia ficus-indica (l.) mill. (cactaceae), and is exploited for its capacity to produce natural dyes based on carminic acid. cochineal insects were introduced in chile in 1989, and exports of dry cochineal began in 1994 and grew to cover approximately 15% of the world market. however, the current price of dry cochineal is nearing production costs; hence, it has become necessary to increase yields without increasing costs. this work reports on the effect of biotic factors on the concentration of carminic acid (cac) in cochineal insects. cac was positively affected by the density of cochineal insects around the insect, that was analyzed by plant age, and by the nutritional status of the plant, and was negatively affected by the age of the cladode. additionally, cac was significantly affected by season: 16.9% of dry weight in the autumn and 19.1% in the spring. this knowledge may be used in designing cultural strategies to increase carminic acid accumulation in cochineal insects.
Dispersal of Dactylopius opuntiae Cockerell (Homoptera: Dactylopiidae), a biological control agent of Opuntia stricta (Haworth.) Haworth. (Cactaceae) in the Kruger National Park  [cached]
L.C. Foxcroft,J.H. Hoffmann
Koedoe : African Protected Area Conservation and Science , 2000, DOI: 10.4102/koedoe.v43i2.194
Abstract: Chemical control efforts, the introduction of Cactoblastis cactorum and attempted releases of Dactylopius opuntiae Cockerell into the expanding infestation of Opuntia stricta in the Skukuza region of the Kruger National Park (KNP) have had limited suc- cess in preventing the spread and densification of 0. stricta. To boost the biological control component, a new strain of D. opuntiae was introduced into KNP during 1997. The new strain established readily and has destroyed large clumps of plants in the vicin- ity of the release site. A large-scale redistribution programme with D. opuntiae is now needed to exploit this biological control agent to the full. In order to match the frequency of manual releases with the natural rates of spread of the insects, surveys were conducted under field conditions to determine the dispersal abilities ofD. opuntiae, with regard to rate and direction of movement. Dispersal of D. opuntiae was found to be slow and restricted and that the insects need to be redistributed by placing them onto plants at approximately 10 m intervals to ensure that they become quickly and evenly distributed on the weed. This information will be crucial in the revision of the integrated management plan for 0. stricta in the KNP, in integrating the cochineal and other control mechanisms.
Distribution and Habitat in Mexico of Dactylopius Costa (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae) and their Cacti Hosts (Cactaceae: Opuntioideae)
Chávez-Moreno, CK;Tecante, A;Casas, A;Claps, LE;
Neotropical Entomology , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-566X2011000100009
Abstract: the distribution pattern of species of the genus dactylopius costa in mexico was analyzed in relation to the distribution of their host plants (subfamily opuntioideae) to evaluate the specificity of the insect-host association. the distribution of dactylopius currently recognized is narrower than that of its hosts and probably is not representative. therefore, a broader distribution of the dactylopius species in correspondence with those of their hosts was hypothesized. insects and their hosts were collected and georeferenced in 14 states of mexico from 2005 to 2007. the distribution areas, maps, and habitat characteristics of dactylopius, opuntia sensu stricto, nopalea and cylindropuntia were determined on the basis of field collections and examination of museum collections. this information was complemented with information from the exhaustive examination of microscope slides from a local insect collection, plants from local herbaria, and literature reviews. the current distribution of the genus dactylopius and its hosts included 22 and 25 states of mexico, respectively, and dactylopius had a continuous distribution according to its hosts, broader than recognized hitherto. the new georeferenced records of the five mexican dactylopius species are reported. insects with morphological characteristics of d. confusus combined with those of d. salmianus were identified, as well as insects with characteristics of d. opuntiae combined with those of d. salmianus. these records suggest that the number of local dactylopius species could be higher than previously thought or that possible new processes of hybridization between native and introduced species may be occurring.
Enemigos naturales de Dactylopius opuntiae (Cockerell) en Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller en el centro de México
VANEGAS-RICO, J. M.;LOMELI-FLORES, J. R.;RODRíGUEZ-LEYVA, E.;MORA-AGUILERA, G.;VALDEZ, J. M.;
Acta zoológica mexicana , 2010,
Abstract: prickly pear, opuntia ficus-indica (l.) miller, is cultivated for many purposes around the world. in mexico, people consume young pads as vegetables and call them "nopalitos". the production of nopalitos occurs mainly around mexico city where cochineal insects (dactylopius spp.) are one of the most important pests. farmers partly control dactylopius using insecticides, but biological control could offer a tool for the integrated pest management. in this paper the cochineal insects and their natural enemies were studied in tlalnepantla, morelos, one of the most important regions for nopalitos production in mexico. in order to determine dactylopius species, 30 samples sites were selected in this region. additionally natural enemies were collected every other week during one year period in five different zones. dactylopius opuntiae (cockerell) was the only cochineal species found in tlalnepantla. the natural enemies, in order of abundance, were leucopis bellula, sympherobius barberi, laetilia coccidivora, hyperaspis trifurcata, salpingogaster cochenillivorus, sympherobius angustus, and chilocorus cacti. we also included some lab and field biology descriptions of these predators. diverse factors of crop management appeared to affect d. opuntiae population and their natural enemies.
Infestation and dispersal speed of dactylopius opuntiae cockerell on giant cactus pea, 1896 in the State Of Paraíba, Brazil  [PDF]
Edson Batista Lopes,Ivanildo Cavalcanti de Albuquerque,Carlos Henrique de Brito,Jacinto de Luna Batista
Engenharia Ambiental : Pesquisa e Tecnologia , 2009,
Abstract: In 2001 was introduced in the State of Paraíba, the exotic pest Dactylopius opuntiae, commonly known as carmine cochineal, which already undertaken the cultivation of the giant cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) in more than fifty cities. This study aimed to evaluate the infestation and dispersal speed of D. opuntiae at the field conditions, to establish a level of pest control. The research was performed in a field of giant cactus pear with twelve months cropped, artificially infested with the carmine cochineal in Lagoa Seca Experimental Station, Paraíba. The trial used was the completely randomized design (CRD) consisting of ten treatments (giant cactus pear plants) and ten repetitions (infested cladodes). Data were submitted to analysis of variance, using the ASSISTAT Application 7.5 Beta (2008). The results showed that ten colonies/cladodes caused infestation and a high dispersion of the insect. After 60 days the infestation and spread of colonies reached average value 171 colonies per plant. The dispersal of migrants nymphs are carried by wind from the cladodes to cladodes and plant to plant. From these results we can establish that the control level to carmine cochineal is less than 10 colonies/plant and the combat should be started immediately after detection of the first colonies of the pest in cactus pear crop.
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