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 Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.5303/JKAS.2003.36.2.49 Abstract: CCD observations in V, I and H$_\alpha$ for NGC 3389 are used to present photometry of 61 HII regions. Their $\alpha$ and $\delta$ positions, diameters and their absolute luminosities have been determined. The luminosity and size distribution functions of the HII regions in NGC 3389 are discussed.
 Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.16738.x Abstract: We present new results from our search for Giant H\,{\sc ii} Regions in galaxies visible from the southern hemisphere. In this work we study two galaxies: NGC\,7479 and NGC\,6070. Using high-resolution spectra, obtained with different instruments at Las Campanas Observatory, we are able to resolve the emission-line profile widths and determine the intrinsic velocity dispersion of the ionised gas. We detect profile widths corresponding to supersonic velocity dispersions in the six observed H\,{\sc ii} regions. We find that all of them show at least two distinct kinematical components: a relatively narrow feature (between ~11 and ~22\kms) and a broader (between ~31 and ~77\kms) component. Two of the regions show a complex narrow profile in all ion lines, which can be further split into two components with different radial velocities. Whereas the wing broadening of the overall profile can be fitted with a low-intensity broad component for almost all profiles, in one region it was better reproduced by two separate shell-like wings. We have analysed the impact that the presence of multiple components has on the location of the H{\sc ii} regions in the $\log(L) - \log(\sigma)$ plane. Although the overall distribution confirms the presence of a regression, the precise location of the regions in the plane is strongly dependent on the components derived from the profile fitting.
 Physics , 1997, Abstract: The dust extinction towards bright HII regions in NGC 598 and NGC 5457 has been studied in detail by forming line ratios of Balmer and Paschen emission lines covering a large wavelength range. Three homogeneous models of the geometrical distribution of the emitting sources and the obscuring dust have been tested. Only for low extinctions can the data be fit by a homogeneous slab. For most of the observed HII regions the Witt et al.(1992) 'dusty nucleus' model matches the observations equally well as the usual assumption of a foreground screen, but the former implies much larger actual dust contents. Spatial variations in the optical depth in V of the order 0.3 across a region are found.
 James S. Ulvestad Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1086/301428 Abstract: Archival VLA data has been used to produce arcsecond-resolution 6- and 20-cm images of the region surrounding the nuclear 200-pc (~15") starburst in NGC 253. Twenty-two discrete sources stronger than 0.4 mJy have been detected within ~2 kpc (~3') of the galaxy nucleus; almost all these sources must be associated with the galaxy. None of the radio sources coincides with a detected X-ray binary, so they appear to be due to supernova remnants and H II regions. The region outside the central starburst has a derived radio supernova rate of <~0.1/yr, and may account for at least 20% of the recent star formation in NGC 253. Most of the newly identified sources have steep, nonthermal radio spectra, but several relatively strong thermal sources also exist, containing the equivalent of tens of O5 stars. These stars are spread over tens of parsecs, and are embedded in regions having average ionized gas densities of 20-200/cm^3, much lower than in the most active nuclear star-forming regions in NGC 253 or in the super star clusters seen in other galaxies. The strongest region of thermal emission coincides with a highly reddened area seen at near-infrared wavelengths, possibly containing optically obscured H II regions.
 Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.17990.x Abstract: Using deep Subaru/FOCAS spectra of 34 HII regions in both the inner and outer parts of the extended ultraviolet (XUV) disc galaxy NGC 4625 we have measured an abundance gradient out to almost 2.5 times the optical isophotal radius. We applied several strong line abundance calibrations to determine the HII region abundances, including R23, [NII]/[OII], [NII]/Ha as well as the [OIII]4363 auroral line, which we detected in three of the HII regions. We find that at the transition between the inner and outer disc the abundance gradient becomes flatter. In addition, there appears to be an abundance discontinuity in proximity of this transition. Several of our target HII regions appear to deviate from the ionisation sequence defined in the [NII]/Ha vs. [OIII]/Hb diagnostic diagram by bright extragalactic HII regions. Using theoretical models we conclude that the most likely explanations for these deviations are either related to the time evolution of the HII regions, or stochastic variations in the ionising stellar populations of these low mass HII regions, although we are unable to distinguish between these two effects. Such effects can also impact on the reliability of the strong line abundance determinations.
 Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/806/1/16 Abstract: The CHemical Abundances of Spirals (CHAOS) project leverages the combined power of the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) with the broad spectral range and sensitivity of the Multi Object Double Spectrograph (MODS) to measure "direct" abundances in large samples of HII regions in spiral galaxies. We present LBT MODS observations of 62 HII regions in the nearby NGC628. We measure one or more auroral lines ([OIII] 4363, [NII] 5755, [SIII] 6312, or [OII] 7320,7330) in a large number of HII regions (40). Comparing derived temperatures from multiple auroral line measurements, we find: a strong correlation between temperatures based on [SIII] and [NII]; and large discrepancies for some temperatures based on [OII] and [OIII]. These trends are consistent with other observations in the literature, yet, given the widespread use and acceptance of [OIII] as a temperature determinant, the magnitude of the T[OIII] discrepancies still came as a surprise. Based on these results, we conduct a uniform abundance analysis using the temperatures derived from [SIII] and [NII], and report the gas-phase abundance gradients for NGC628. Relative abundances of S/O, Ne/O, and Ar/O are constant across the galaxy, consistent with no systematic change in the upper IMF over the sampled range in metallicity. These alpha-element ratios, along with N/O, all show small dispersions consistent with no intrinsic dispersion (0.05) over 70% of the azimuthally averaged radius. We interpret these results as an indication that, at a given radius, the interstellar medium in NGC628 is chemically well-mixed. Unlike the nearly temperature-independent gradients, O/H abundances have a larger intrinsic dispersion of ~0.13 dex. We posit that this dispersion represents an upper limit to the true dispersion in O/H at a given radius and that some of that dispersion is due to systematic uncertainties arising from temperature measurements.
 Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201424950 Abstract: We present a study of the HII regions in the galaxy NGC 6754 from a two pointing mosaic comprising 197,637 individual spectra, using Integral Field Spectrocopy (IFS) recently acquired with the MUSE instrument during its Science Verification program. The data cover the entire galaxy out to ~2 effective radii (re ), sampling its morphological structures with unprecedented spatial resolution for a wide-field IFU. A complete census of the H ii regions limited by the atmospheric seeing conditions was derived, comprising 396 individual ionized sources. This is one of the largest and most complete catalogue of H ii regions with spectroscopic information in a single galaxy. We use this catalogue to derive the radial abundance gradient in this SBb galaxy, finding a negative gradient with a slope consistent with the characteristic value for disk galaxies recently reported. The large number of H ii regions allow us to estimate the typical mixing scale-length (rmix ~0.4 re ), which sets strong constraints on the proposed mechanisms for metal mixing in disk galaxies, like radial movements associated with bars and spiral arms, when comparing with simulations. We found evidence for an azimuthal variation of the oxygen abundance, that may be related with the radial migration. These results illustrate the unique capabilities of MUSE for the study of the enrichment mechanisms in Local Universe galaxies.
 Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2000.03737.x Abstract: We present long-slit observations in the optical and near infrared of eight HII regions in the spiral galaxy NGC 4258. Six of the observed regions are located in the SE inner spiral arms and the other two are isolated in the northern outer arms. A detailed analysis of the physical conditions of the gas has been performed. For two of the regions, an electron temperature has been derived from the [SIII] 6312 A line. For the rest, an empirical calibration based on the red and near infrared sulphur lines has been used. The oxygen abundances derived by both methods are found to be significantly lower (by a factor of two) than previously derived by using empirical calibrations based on the optical oxygen lines. In the brightest region, 74C, the observation of a prominent feature due to Wolf-Rayet stars provides an excellent constraint over some properties of the ionizing clusters. In the light of the current evolutionary synthesis models, no consistent solution is found to explain at the same time both the WR feature characteristics and the emission line spectrum of this region. In principle, the presence of WR stars could lead to large temperature fluctuations and also to a hardening of the ionizing radiation. None of these effects are found in region 74C for which the electron temperatures found from the [SIII] 6312A and the Paschen discontinuity at 8200A are equal within the errors and the effective temperature of the ionizing radiation is estimated at around 35,300K. Both more observations of confirmed high metallicity regions and a finer metallicity grid for the evolutionary synthesis models are needed in order to understand the ionizing populations of HII regions.
 Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1086/317189 Abstract: A re-analysis of the radio continuum emission from circumnuclear regions of the barred galaxies NGC 1022, 1326 & 4314 is presented. The spatial distributions of Halpha and radio continuum are similar and suggest the existence of several giant HII regions in the circumnuclear zone. The spectral indices of the HII regions, obtained with similar angular resolution and at three different wavelengths, indicate that in all three galaxies, the spectral index, alpha^6_2 >-0.1. This result suggests the existence of giant HII regions with decreasing density gradients. The average density stratifications of these HII regions could be approximated by power-laws of the form n_e~r^-w, with exponents in the range 1.6 < w < 2.4.
 Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1086/300892 Abstract: NGC 3576 (G291.28-0.71; l=291.3o, b=-0.7o) and NGC 3603 (G291.58-0.43; l=291.6o, b=-0.5o) are optically visible, luminous HII regions located at distances of 3.0 kpc and 6.1 kpc, respectively. We present 3.4 cm Australian Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) observations of these two sources in the continuum and the H90a, He90a, C90a and H113b recombination lines with an angular resolution of 7" and a velocity resolution of 2.6 km/s. All four recombination lines are detected in the integrated profiles of the two sources. Broad radio recombination lines are detected in both NGC 3576 (DV_{FWHM}>= 50 km/s) and NGC 3603 (DV_{FWHM}>=70 km/s). In NGC 3576 a prominent N-S velocity gradient (~30 km/s/pc) is observed, and a clear temperature gradient (6000 K to 8000 K) is found from east to west, consistent with a known IR color gradient in the source. In NGC 3603, the H90a, He90a and the H113b lines are detected from 13 individual sources. The Y^+ (He/H) ratios in the two sources range from 0.08+/-0.04 to 0.26+/-0.10. We compare the morphology and kinematics of the ionized gas at 3.4 cm with the distribution of stars, 10 micron emission and H_2O, OH, and CH_3OH maser emission. These comparisons suggest that both NGC 3576 and NGC 3603 have undergone sequential star formation.
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