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Clinical and serological response of wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) to vaccination against canine distemper, canine parvovirus infection and rabies  [cached]
J. Van Heerden,J. Bingham,M. Van Vuuren,R.E.J. Burroughs
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/jsava.v73i1.541
Abstract: Wild dogs Lycaon pictus (n = 8) were vaccinated 4 times against canine distemper (n = 8) (initially with inactivated and subsequently with live attenuated strains of canine distemper) and canine parvovirus infection (n = 8) over a period of 360 days. Four of the wild dogs were also vaccinated 3 times against rabies using a live oral vaccine and 4 with an inactivated parenteral vaccine. Commercially-available canine distemper, canine parvovirus and parenteral rabies vaccines, intended for use in domestic dogs, were used. None of the vaccinated dogs showed any untoward clinical signs. The inactivated canine distemper vaccine did not result in seroconversion whereas the attenuated live vaccine resulted in seroconversion in all wild dogs. Presumably protective concentrations of antibodies to canine distemper virus were present in all wild dogs for at least 451 days. Canine parvovirus haemagglutination inhibition titres were present in all wild dogs prior to the administration of vaccine and protective concentrations persisted for at least 451 days. Vaccination against parvovirus infection resulted in a temporary increase in canine parvovirus haemagglutination inhibition titres in most dogs. Administration of both inactivated parenteral and live oral rabies vaccine initially resulted in seroconversion in 7 of 8 dogs. These titres, however, dropped to very low concentrations within 100 days. Booster administrations resulted in increased antibody concentrations in all dogs. It was concluded that the vaccines were safe to use in healthy subadult wild dogs and that a vaccination protocol in free-ranging wild dogs should at least incorporate booster vaccinations against rabies 3-6 months after the first inoculation.
Comparison of the efficacy of autogenous inactivated Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) vaccines with that of commercial vaccines against homologous and heterologous challenges
Marc F Geldhof, Merijn Vanhee, Wander Van Breedam, Jan Van Doorsselaere, Uladzimir U Karniychuk, Hans J Nauwynck
BMC Veterinary Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-8-182
Abstract: In a first experiment (challenge with 07 V063), vaccination with the experimental homologous (07 V063) inactivated vaccine shortened the viremic phase upon challenge with approximately 2 weeks compared to the mock-vaccinated control group. Vaccination with the commercial attenuated vaccines reduced the duration of viremia with approximately one week compared to the mock-vaccinated control group. In contrast, the experimental heterologous (LV) inactivated vaccine and the commercial inactivated vaccine did not influence viremia. Interestingly, both the homologous and the heterologous experimental inactivated vaccine induced 07 V063-specific neutralizing antibodies upon vaccination, while the commercial inactivated and attenuated vaccines failed to do so.In the second experiment (challenge with 08 V194), use of the experimental homologous (08 V194) inactivated vaccine shortened viremia upon challenge with approximately 3 weeks compared to the mock-vaccinated control group. Similar results were obtained with the commercial attenuated vaccine. The experimental heterologous (07 V063 and LV) inactivated vaccines did not significantly alter viremia. In this experiment, 08 V194-specific neutralizing antibodies were induced by the experimental homologous and heterologous inactivated vaccines and a faster appearance post challenge was observed with the commercial attenuated vaccine.The experimental homologous inactivated vaccines significantly shortened viremia upon challenge. Despite the concerns regarding the efficacy of the commercial attenuated vaccines used on the farms where the field isolates were obtained, use of commercial attenuated vaccines clearly shortened the viremic phase upon challenge. In contrast, the experimental heterologous inactivated vaccines and the commercial inactivated vaccine had no or only a limited influence on viremia. The observation that homologous BEI-inactivated vaccines can provide a more or less standardized, predictable degree of protectio
EXPERIMENTAL TRIALS OF LIVE ATTENUATED AND INACTIVATED STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS VACCINES IN RABBITS  [PDF]
A. SHAKOOR, M. ATHAR, G. MUHAMMAD, S. U. RAHMAN1, A. A. BUTT2, I. HUSSAIN 2 AND R. AHMAD3
Pakistan Veterinary Journal , 2006,
Abstract: This study was conducted as a preliminary step on the rabbits for comparative efficacy of different vaccines of Staphylococcus aureus. Typical alpha-beta Staph. aureus species from a clinically affected mastitic buffalo was isolated. After proper identification based on cultural and morphological characteristics and API-Staph Trac system, a selected Staph. aureus isolate was used to prepare four different mastitis vaccines (Bacterin, oil-adjuvanted, dextran sulphate adjuvanted and live attenuated) after confirmation for pathogenicity and antigenicity, followed by its safety and sterility evaluation. Vaccines were tried in 25 rabbits divided into 5 equal groups. A separate vaccine was administered s/c @ 0.2 ml per animal and boosted at 15 days later. It was found that IHA antibody titers were higher (GMT 32-128) in live attenuated, dextran sulphate adjuvanted (GMT 32-128) and oil-adjuvanted (GMT 16-64) than the bacterin treated (GMT 16-32) group. All the vaccines showed an apparent immune response than the unvaccinated control group.
Efficacy of Live attenuated and Inactivated Oil Emulsion Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Vaccines in Broiler chicks  [PDF]
Nazir Ahmed Lone*, Shafqat Fatima Rehmani1, Taseer Ahmed Khan2 and Shahana Urooj Kazmi3
Pakistan Veterinary Journal , 2012,
Abstract: This study was carried out with the aims to evaluate the efficacy of indigenous live and inactivated Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) vaccines in broilers. Two hundred and fifty (250), a-day-old broiler chicks divided into five groups (A-E) were immunized with live and inactivated vaccine at varying ages. Live vaccine was given to group A (at 8 days post hatch), B (at 8, 15 days post hatch), C (at 8, 15 and 23 days post hatch) and D (at 8 days post hatch). In addition group D received a booster dose of inactivated vaccine at 21 days of age, while group E served as control. Antibody titers were measured via Agar Gel Precipitation (AGP) test and ELISA, while the degree of protection against the virulent strains of IBDV was also recorded. Results showed that vaccine program adopted for group C and D produced significantly (P<0.05) higher antibody titer as compared to other groups. While a significant (P<0.05) difference in antibody titers was observed between group A and B while no considerable antibodies were detected in group E. The response to challenge dose was recorded as the difference of lesions in bursa, pectoral muscles or other visceral organs with the exception of group C and D. The study suggests that broiler chicks may be vaccinated at days 8, 15 and 23 with live attenuated vaccine or live attenuated vaccine followed by inactivated vaccine at days 8 and 21 that could provide an adequate protection against the virulent form of IBDV.
Humoral immunity in puppies of immune bitches vaccinated with an attenuated and inactivated  [PDF]
Baci? Dragan,Obrenovi? Sonja,Val?i? Miroslav A.,Trailovi? Dragi?a R.
Veterinarski Glasnik , 2002, DOI: 10.2298/vetgl0206285b
Abstract: In order to examine the humoral immune response to a vaccine against canine parvoviruses in puppies of immune bitches, vaccinated during gravidity, an experiment was performed on a total of 56 puppies from 10 litters, which were vaccinated three times, on the 7th, 11th, and 17th weeks of life. One group of puppies was vaccinated with an attenuated vaccine, while another was vaccinated with an inactivated vaccine. The titer of maternal antibodies and the vaccine - induced titer of specific antibodies were examined using the IHA test. The titer of maternal antibodies in puppies before the first vaccination ranged from <20 to 1:80. Following vaccination, we established an expected increase in the titer of specific antibodies, over 1:160 without more significant differences between the two types of vaccines.
Serological Survey of Newcastle Disease Virus in Chukar Partridges by Vaccination with Inactivated Oil Adjuvant Vaccine Following Use of Live Vaccines
M. Davani Rad,N. Ghaleh Golab Behbahan,G. Moazeni Jula
International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: Newcastle Disease (ND) is an acute, highly contagious viral disease in poultry. Despite the intensive vaccination programs to control Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), the recent infection of NDV in Iran has led to severe morbidity and mortality in Chukar Partridges. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of Inactivated Oil Adjuvant Vaccine (IOAV) following use of live vaccine to have better protection in Chukar Partridges against ND. Three hundred Chukar Partridges were divided in to 5 groups. The groups were vaccinated according to following program: I-vaccinated with B1 strain of NDV via drinking water at five weeks of age; group II-vaccinated in the same mode as group I with B1 live vaccine and revaccinated at seven weeks of age with la Sota strain of NDV via drinking water; group III-vaccinated at five weeks of age with strain B1 live vaccine given by drinking water in combination with IOAV vaccine administered subcutaneously at the nape of each bird; group IV-vaccinated at five weeks of age with B1 by eye drop in combination with IOAV vaccine also administered as in group III; and group V-not vaccinated. All groups were reared in the same conditions. At 17 weeks of age, all Chukar Partridges were challenged with Hertz 33/56 strain of NDV. All the Chukar Partridges in group V died, indicating that there was no disease resistance of this unvaccinated control group of Chukar Partridges. The disease resistance of chukar Partridges in the vaccine groups (100.00) was significantly different from that of the control group (0.00) (p<0.001). The mean antibody titers between all groups were significantly different (p<0.001). In the groups that vaccinated simultaneously with B1 live vaccine and IOAV, the enhancement of titers was meaningful in comparison to the groups that received only lived vaccines.
New Vaccine Design Based on Defective Genomes That Combines Features of Attenuated and Inactivated Vaccines  [PDF]
Teresa Rodríguez-Calvo,Samuel Ojosnegros,Marta Sanz-Ramos,Juan García-Arriaza,Cristina Escarmís,Esteban Domingo,Noemí Sevilla
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010414
Abstract: New vaccine designs are needed to control diseases associated with antigenically variable RNA viruses. Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of livestock that inflicts severe economic losses. Although the current whole-virus chemically inactivated vaccine has proven effective, it has led to new outbreaks of FMD because of incomplete inactivation of the virus or the escape of infectious virus from vaccine production premises. We have previously shown that serial passages of FMD virus (FMDV) C-S8c1 at high multiplicity of infection in cell culture resulted in virus populations consisting of defective genomes that are infectious by complementation (termed C-S8p260).
Immune response in cattle vaccinated against rabies
Oliveira, Alexandre Nunes de;Andrade, Márcia Cristina Ribeiro;Silva, Marlon Vicente da;Moura, Wlamir Corrêa de;Cortez Contreiras, Ellen;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762000000100013
Abstract: in order to determine the best type of rabies vaccine to use as a booster, 78 serological samples from singly vaccinated cattle were analyzed by counterimmunoelectrophoresis technique. the animals were divided into several groups, received the first vaccine dose with modified live virus vaccine (era strain) and were revaccinated with inactivated virus or modified live virus vaccines. boosters were given at 2, 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks following first vaccination. results showed high titres in the cases of booster with inactivated vaccine. in all cases, however, detectable antibody titres declined quickly.
Immune response in cattle vaccinated against rabies  [cached]
Oliveira Alexandre Nunes de,Andrade Márcia Cristina Ribeiro,Silva Marlon Vicente da,Moura Wlamir Corrêa de
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2000,
Abstract: In order to determine the best type of rabies vaccine to use as a booster, 78 serological samples from singly vaccinated cattle were analyzed by counterimmunoelectrophoresis technique. The animals were divided into several groups, received the first vaccine dose with modified live virus vaccine (ERA strain) and were revaccinated with inactivated virus or modified live virus vaccines. Boosters were given at 2, 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks following first vaccination. Results showed high titres in the cases of booster with inactivated vaccine. In all cases, however, detectable antibody titres declined quickly.
Cross-Protection of Different Vaccines Against Three Divergent Wild Animal Mexican Molecular Variants of Rabies Virus
Elizabeth Loza-Rubio,Jose Ernesto Weimersheimer Rubi,Alvaro Aguilar-Setien
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: Now that canine rabies in Mexico has been controlled, most of human and animal cases are due to variants from wildlife: vampire bats, skunks and others. Although, most variants are similar in their genome, a skunk variant from Baja California Sur differs up to 19% in its genome from other rabies isolates. We wanted to test the efficiency of various commercial veterinary and human vaccines in protecting this and other wildlife viruses; the inactivated PV strain vaccine used in dog vaccination campaigns in Mexico; the recombinant vaccinia-rabies VRG vaccine, usually used by oral route was administered by parenteral route; the human vaccine produced in diploid cells (PM 3-1503 strain) and the human-used vaccine produced in VERO cells (PM strain). Three different isolates were used as challenges viruses: vampire bat, lynx/fox and hypervariable skunk virus. The protection proffered was tested by the NIH test. All 4 vaccines tested protected above the WHO’s requirements: VRG administered intramuscularly conferred the highest protection (> 5 IU). All vaccines evaluated were efficient against the skunk isolate (>5, 4, 4 and 7 IU, respectively). PV strain vaccine conferred the least protection. All vaccines tested were efficient against the hypervariable skunk isolate and also the other wildlife strain tested.
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