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Hepatitis B Core IgM antibody (anti-HBcIgM) among hepatitis B Surface antigen (HBsAg) negative blood donors in Nigeria
Margaret Japhet, Olufisayo Adesina, Emmanuel Donbraye, Moses Adewumi
Virology Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-8-513
Abstract: Between July and August 2009, 92 blood donors were enrolled for the study. The prevalence of 5 different markers of Hepatitis B virus infection was detected using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Demographic factors were assessed during the study.HBsAg and its antibody (anti-HBs) was detected in 18 (19.6%) and 14(15.2%) of the 92 blood donors respectively. Anti-HBc IgM was found in 12(13.0%) of the 92 blood donors while Hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg) and its antibody (anti-HBe) were detected in 4(8.9%) and 12(26.7%) respectively from 45 donors sampled. HBeAg is a marker of high infectivity and appears after HBsAg. At least one serological marker was detected in 30(32.6%) of the blood donors. Five (5.4%) of the 92 donors had anti-HBc IgM as the only serological evidence of hepatitis B virus infection.The result of this study shows that five donors have anti-HBcIgM as the only serological evidence of HBV infection. Inclusion of anti-HBcIgM in routine screening of blood donors in Nigeria should be encouraged. This is the first study to assess anti-HBcIgM in the country.Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection with its associated sequel is a disease of major public health importance, being the 10th leading cause of death globally [1,2]. HBV infection accounts for 500,000 to 1.2 million deaths each year [3]. Of the approximately 2 billion people infected worldwide, more than 350 million are chronic carriers of HBV [4]. Approximately 15-40% of infected patients will develop cirrhosis, liver failure or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) [5,6]The aetiological agent (Hepatitis B virus) is a member of the family Hepadnaviridae and the genus Orthohepadnavirus [7]. It is a double stranded circular DNA virus composed of an outer envelope containing hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and an inner nucleocapsid consisting of hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg) and hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg). Corresponding antibodies to each of these antigens are Hepatitis B surface ant
PREVENTION OF POST-TRANSFUSION HEPATITIS BY SCREENING OF ANTIBODY TO HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGEN IN HEALTHY BLOOD DONORS  [cached]
Shamee Shastry,Sudha Bhat
Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.4084/mjhid.2011.
Abstract: Background: Transfusion-associated hepatitis B viral infection continues to be a major problem in India even after adoption of mandatory screening for HBsAg by ELISA method. The high incidence of TAHBV is reported in patients receiving multiple transfusions. Objective: To study the seroprevalence of hepatitis B core antibody among healthy voluntary blood donors Subjects and Methods: The study was conducted in the department of Transfusion Medicine of a tertiary care referral hospital. A total of 12,232 volunteers after passing through the stringent criteria were selected for blood donation. Donor samples were tested for all mandatory transfusion transmissible infections and anti HBc IgM (Monolisa HBc IgM PLUS:BIO-RAD, France). Reactive results were confirmed by repeat testing in duplicate. Donor data was analyzed using SPSS software and Chi-square test was used to calculate the significance of difference between the groups. Results:A total of 12,232 healthy voluntary blood donors were recruited. Majority (93.4%) were males. Median age of donor population was 26 years (range: 18-60 years). Eighty six (0.7%) were positive for HBsAg, which comes under “low prevalence (<2%) zone” as per WHO. On screening for HBcAg Ig M, 15 (0.1%) were found to be positive and none were HBsAg reactive. There was no significance of difference in the mean age between reactive and non-reactive donors. Conclusion:Evaluating the usefulness of anti-HBc screening is critical. Anti HBcAg IgM screening may be included in routine screening of donors as it is an indicator of occult HBV during window period. The cost and the unnecessary wastage of the blood units when they are positive for anti HBsAg along with the core antibody need to be studied.
Hepatitis B Viral Markers in Surface Antigen Negative Blood Donors: The Need to Look Beyond Antibody Negativity
L Salawu, AO Adegoke, AO Aboderin, HA Huraina
West African Journal of Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: Background: The presence of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) in blood that is Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) negative is considered a potential risk for transmission of hepatitis B virus infection. Objective: To determine prevalence of antibodies to markers of hepatitis B virus infection in HBsAg negative prospective blood donors. Methods: A structured questionnaire to assess prospective donor’s demographic data and past medical history was administered to 457 consenting HBsAg negative subjects. All the subjects were also negative for antibodies to hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and syphilis. Their serum samples were tested for the presence of anti-HBc, anti-HBe, anti-HBs and HBeAg. Results: Of the 457 samples tested, 20 (4.37%), 58 (12.69%), 1 (0.22%), and 1 (0.22%) were positive to anti-HBc, anti-HBs, anti-HBe, and HBeAg antibodies, respectively. Ten (50%) of those who were positive for HBc antibody were also positive to anti-HBe and anti-HBs. Similarly, two (3.4%) donors who were positive for anti-HBs were also positive for HBeAg and anti-HBe. Of the 20 who were anti-HBc positive, seven had tattoo/traditional marks on their body and one had previous history of blood transfusion. Conclusion: This study has shown that some potential blood units containing HBV are being transfused to patients unknowingly by screening for HBsAg only. Screening for other markers of hepatitis B virus may increase the rejection rate, but will reduce HBV transmission.
Analysis of occult hepatitis B virus infection among blood donors in Tangshan, China  [cached]
CAO Xiao
Journal of Clinical Hepatology , 2013,
Abstract: ObjectiveTo investigate the prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) among the volunteer blood donors in Tangshan, China. MethodsEnzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect serum HBV markers in the blood donors. Nucleic acid test (NAT) was performed in the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative blood samples to detect HBV DNA, and Roche reagent was used to measure the viral load of HBV DNA in NAT-positive samples. ResultsAmong the HBsAg-negative blood samples of 116 741 blood donors, 39 (0.033%) had positive results in NAT, and 35 (0.029%) were confirmed with OBI. The viral load of HBV DNA was less than 102 IU/ml in 97.1% of the blood donors with OBI. Of the blood donors with OBI, 27 (77.1%) were positive for at least one of hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb), hepatitis B e antigen, hepatitis B e antibody, and hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb), and 8 (22.9%) were negative for all serum HBV markers. Of the 27 positive blood donors, 22 (81.5%) were positive for HBcAb, and 15 (55.6%) were positive for HBsAb. ConclusionOBI occurs in some HBsAg-negative blood donors in Tangshan, and the viral load of HBV DNA is low. NAT is effective in increasing the detection rate of HBV infection.
Prevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen and Hepatitis C Virus Antibody and Their Risk Factors among Guilan's Volunteer Blood Donors (1998-2003)
Fariborz Mansour-Ghanaei,Mohammad-Sadegh Fallah,Reyhaneh Jafarshad,Farahnaz Joukar
Hepatitis Monthly , 2007,
Abstract: Background and Aims: Millions of lives are saved each year through blood transfusion. Although blood is a life-saving element, it can occasionally cause some severe diseases. This study was performed to assess the prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus infections and their known risk factors among Guilan's volunteer blood donors from 1998 till 2003.Methods: The study population consisted of 221,508 blood donors referring to the Blood Transfusion Organization, Guilan, Iran. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis C virus antibody (HCV-Ab) detection. Positive cases were confirmed by neutralization and Recombinant Immunoblot Assay (RIBA), respectively. Known risk factors including histories of surgery, icterus, blood transfusion, endoscopy, unsafe sexual contact, etc. were extracted from available files and evaluated. Results: 997 individuals were positive for HBsAg and 3,603 individuals for HCV-Ab. After confirmation tests, the prevalence of HBsAg and HCV-Ab was 0.45% and 1.62%, respectively. The most common risk factors were history of surgery followed by icterus in cases or their family. Conclusions: The prevalence of HBsAg and HCV-Ab is less than that of normal population due to careful screening carried out by staff of Blood Transfusion Organization. Regarding the high frequency of surgery history in positive cases, attending to hospital and operation room hygiene seems to be very important.
Type B Hepatitis in Iran
M. Tabarestani,J.H. Hoofnagle,A. Afkari
Acta Medica Iranica , 1977,
Abstract: Hepatitis B surface antigen CHBsAg) was found in 1% of controls, 2.1% of professional blood donors, 2.0% of leprosy patients and 76.1% of acute hepatitis in Tehran and Mashhad, Iran. All HBsAg positive samples also possessed antibody to the hepatitis B core antigen and all were subtype ayw. Type B hepatitis and the HBsAg state aloe frequent in Iran, but most must be accounted for by u nonparenter- al" or "rnapparent'' parenteral exposure.
"Seroprevalence of Cytomegalovirus, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Antibodies among Volunteer Blood Donors "
R Moniri,Z Mosayebii,GA Mossavi
Iranian Journal of Public Health , 2004,
Abstract: The transfusion transmitted infections are potentially dangerous complications of transfusion therapy in immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of transmissible infections in blood donor population in Kashan, Iran. A total of 600 consecutive sera were tested for CMV-IgM antibody, HBsAg, hepatitis B core (HBc) antibody, hepatitis C (HCV) antibody, and HIV antibody with standard methods. Of the sera tested, 14 specimens (2.3%) were CMV-IgM positive. The frequency of seropositive revealed no significant differences between male and female donors. The frequency rates of CMV-IgM seropositive tests tend to decline with increasing the age. There was no relation between the frequency rates of CMV-IgM seropositive with the educational level, socioeconomic status, marital status, urban dweller and rural resident patients. The prevalence of HBV, HCV, and HIV antibody was 0.5%, 0.5%, and 0%, respectively. These findings implied important clinical applications because detection of CMV positive sera may reduce the risk for transmission of CMV in blood transfusion and thereby decrease the risk on CMV-induced complications.
Prevalence and clinical significance of SEN virus infection in patients with non A-E hepatitis and volunteer blood donors in Shanghai  [cached]
Zheng-Hao Tang, Xiao-Hua Chen, Yong-Sheng Yu, Guo-Qing Zang
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2008,
Abstract: AIM: To explore the prevalence of SEN virus (SENV) in patients with non A-E hepatitis and volunteer blood donors in Shanghai.METHODS: According to the published gene sequences, primers from the conserved region were designed. Then, the prevalence of SEN virus in 30 samples from healthy voluntary blood donors and 30 samples from patients with non A-E hepatitis were detected by nested-PCR of SENV-D/H. Some PCR products were cloned and sequenced.RESULTS: The specificity of genotype-specific PCR was confirmed by sequencing, the SENV DNA was detected in 53.3% of the patients with non A-E hepatitis and 10% of the blood donors. The prevalence of SENV-D/H viremia was significantly higher in patients with non A-E hepatitis than in blood donors (P = 0.0002). SENV-H subtype and SENV-D subtype were found in 2 and 1 samples, respectively from blood donors. SENV-H subtype, SENV D subtype, mixed SENV-D and SENV-H subtype were found in 8, 6 and 2 samples, respectively, from patients with non A-E hepatitis.CONCLUSION: The gene type of SENV in patients with non A-E hepatitis and blood donors in shanghai is D or H subtype, and transfusion is not the only transmitting form of SENV.
Clinical significance of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen in multitransfused hemodialysis patients  [cached]
Elghannam Doaa,Aly Rabab,Goda Enas,Eltoraby Ehab
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science , 2009,
Abstract: Background: In spite of the progress made in the prevention of transfusion transmitted infections over the last few years, transmission of HBV infection through transfusion of HBsAg negative blood has been documented. Objectives: To assess the frequency and clinical significance of anti-HBc in multitransfused hemodialysis patients. Materials and Methods: One hundred and forty-three hemodialysis patients who had been receiving blood regularly with an average of 39.4±7.579 months on hemodialysis were enrolled in this study. HBV markers (HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs) were measured in these patients and in 100 healthy controls by the ELISA technique. The following data were obtained for all patients: socio demographic data, number of blood transfusions and some laboratory investigations. Results: In our patients, anti-HBc was positive in 9%, anti HBs in 7%, coexistant HbsAg/anti-HBc in 2.8% and anti HBc /anti HBs in 18.9%, meanwhile no patients were positive for HBsAg alone. In patients with only positive anti-HBc, the levels of anti-HBc were significantly related to abnormal results of liver function. In patients with positive anti-HBs/anti-HBc (n = 27), 18 patients had abnormal liver function, and 9 patients had normal liver function with no significant difference between them. Conclusions: This study suggests that hepatitis B prevalence in our multitransfused hemodialysis patients is far in excess of that anticipated on the basis of HBsAg prevalence. Absence of HBsAg in the blood of hemodialyzed patients may not be sufficient to ensure lack of circulating HBV, and isolated positivity of anti-HBc may be a possible indicator of active hepatitis B infection.
A serological survey on hepatitis C virus Antibody in blood donors with an ELISA method
Tajbakhsh E.,Yaghobi R.,Vahedi AR.
Tehran University Medical Journal , 2007,
Abstract: Background: Hepatitis type C virus (HCV) is one of the important threatened infectious blood born viruses in different populations. More than 300 million people were suffered form different HCV clinical complications all around the world. It is estimated that only 20% of HCV infected individuals will recover from this viral infection, while the rest become chronically infected. The majority of chronically infected individuals never exhibit symptoms, but approximately 10-/30% of these patients will eventually develop severe liver complications. In this research the prevalence of HCV Ab and the role of some demographic data in HCV incidence and clinical outcomes were determined. Methods: In this retrospective study 11472 blood samples from, Iranian blood donors, Shahrekord city were collected for one year. The frequency of HCV Ab was analyzed with a third generation EIA method. The statistical relationships of different possible risk factors of HCV infection were analyzed by Instat software. Results: The HCV Ab was diagnosed in 69 of 11472 (0.6%) serum samples. Significant correlations were detected between the history of HCV infection with marriage, tattooing, and doubtful sexual contact. Significant relationships were not defined between HCV infection with age, history of liver disease, and record of travel to abroad.Conclusions: Significant relationships were find between HCV infection with marital status, history of tattooing and sexual contact, but significant correlations were not find between HCV infections with sex, history of liver disease and traveling to other countries.
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