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Prevalence of Hepatitis G virus (HGV) in High-Risk Groups and Blood Donors in Tehran, Iran
S Amini,S Andalibi Mahmoodabadi,S Lamian,M Joulaie
Iranian Journal of Public Health , 2005,
Abstract: The hepatitis G virus (HGV) is a newly discovered RNA virus, which is associated with acute or chronic hepatitis. A survey was conducted in thalassemic patients, intravenous drug users (IVDU) and blood donors aiming to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis G virus (HGV) infection in these groups in Tehran. The presence of HGV RNA in these populations was determined using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of the 5’ non-coding region (NCR) of the virus. One percent of blood donors, 12.9% of thalassemics and 8.8% of the IVDUs, were infected with HGV. Twenty-five percent of HGV positive cases were also positive for HCV and none were positive for HBV-DNA. The greatest proportion of HCV positive cases were seen in IVDU group (67.4%) being the only HIV positive group (8.8%). In conclusion our study showed that HGV infection occurs with relatively intermediate frequency among thalassemics and IVDUs in Iran and a higher rate of HGV-RNA was observed in older IVDUs.
Hepatitis G virus (HGV) infection in Saudi dialysis patients and healthy controls  [cached]
Mitwalli Ahmed,Al Wakeel Jamal,Alam Awatif,Nauman Tarif
Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology , 2000,
Abstract: Background: Viral hepatitis is a global health problem with a high mortality rate. End stage renal disease (ESRD) patients have a high prevalence of Hepatitis B and C virus infection. Present study was done to identify the prevalence and course of a new isolate Hepatitis G virus (HGV) infection in Saudi dialysis patients. Methods: The pattern of viral hepatitis infection (HBV. HCV and HGV) was investigated in 109 Saudi patients with ESRD and 100 healthy Saudi blood donors. Donated blood was tested for markers of Hepatitis B, C and G viruses. Liver functions were measured and blood picture and liver biopsies were also performed at regular intervals. Results: Out of the 109 ESRD patients 68 (62.4%) were positive for at least one viral marker: 59 (54.1%) were positive for HCV, six (5.5%) were positive for HGV and three (2.8%) were positive for HBsAg. Four of the six HGV positive patients were also co-infected with HCV. Eight (8%) of the blood donors were positive for at least one viral marker. Elevated ALT levels (>4 times normal) were recorded in four out of the six HGV-positive patients including three co-infected with HCV. Conclusions: Our results are in agreement with similar studies from different countries and also raise the question about the causal relationship between HGV and liver disease among dialysis patients.
Hepatitis G virus (HGV) and liver diseases  [cached]
Ramia Sami,Al Faleh Faleh
Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology , 1999,
Abstract: Recently, a new flavi-like virus, provisionally named hepatitis GBV-C or hepatitis G virus (HGV), has been described and was initially thought to be the major etiological agent of non-A-E hepatitis. HGV does not induce an immune response that is consistently detectable by using recombinant proteins from prokaryotic expression and hence prevalence studies have been conducted by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based system. HGV-RNA has been detected in many human populations. This article reviews what has been investigated about HGV from normal blood donors, patients with liver disease, patients at risk of acquiring the infection to possible perinatal and sexual transmission of the virus. Based on the conclusions that can be drawn from these studies conducted so far, the association between HGV infection and liver disease is still not certain. It is possible that HGV might play a role in other diseases not involving the liver, but at the present time HGV can be considered as an orphan flavivirus still looking for a human disease.
Hepatitis G virus  [cached]
Vasiliy Ivanovich Reshetnyak, Tatiana Igorevna Karlovich, Ljudmila Urievna Ilchenko
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2008,
Abstract: A number of new hepatitis viruses (G, TT, SEN) were discovered late in the past century. We review the data available in the literature and our own findings suggesting that the new hepatitis G virus (HGV), disclosed in the late 1990s, has been rather well studied. Analysis of many studies dealing with HGV mainly suggests the lymphotropicity of this virus. HGV or GBV-C has been ascertained to influence course and prognosis in the HIV-infected patient. Until now, the frequent presence of GBV-C in coinfections, hematological diseases, and biliary pathology gives no grounds to determine it as an “accidental tourist” that is of no significance. The similarity in properties of GBV-C and hepatitis C virus (HCV) offers the possibility of using HGV, and its induced experimental infection, as a model to study hepatitis C and to develop a hepatitis C vaccine.
Evaluation of HGV Viremia Prevalence and Its Co-Infection with HBV, HCV, HIV and HTLV-1 in Hemophilic Patients of Southern Khorassan, Iran
Masood Ziaee et al
Hepatitis Monthly , 2007,
Abstract: Background and Aims: The GB virus-C (GBV-C) and Hepatitis G virus (HGV), collectively known as GBV-C/HGV and transmitted through blood transfusion and blood components. A co-infection of HGV and HCV is often seen in patients with hemophilia. The paucity of information about rate of GBV-C infection among hemophilic patients in Iran promoted the current study. Methods: This study was performed on 80 hemophilic patients from south Khorassan branch of Iranian hemophilia society in Birjand. All 80 serum samples were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBs-Ag), Anti HCV, Anti HIV, and Anti HTLV-1. All sera positive for HCVAb were retested by recombinant immunoblot assay as a complementary test. Also,Serum HCV-RNA, HCV genotyping and HGV-RNA were detected. Results: The prevalence of HGV-RNA was 5% (4 of 80). The prevalence of Anti HCV positive was 26.3% (21 of 80) and HCV- RNA was detected in 80% (17 of 21) of these patients. Co infection of HGV with HCV was 5%. HBsAg and Anti HIV were negative in all of our patients. Anti HTLV-1 was detected in one patient (1.25%). Conclusions: HGV and HCV are prevalent in South Khorassan hemophilic patients. Prevalence of HGV infection is less than HCV but it is more prevalent than HBV, HIV and HTLV-1 infection.
Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Dual Infection  [cached]
Liu Zhihua,Hou Jinlin
International Journal of Medical Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections account for a substantial proportion of liver diseases worldwide. Because the two hepatotropic viruses share same modes of transmission, coinfection with the two viruses is not uncommon, especially in areas with a high prevalence of HBV infection and among people at high risk for parenteral infection. Patients with dual HBV and HCV infection have more severe liver disease, and are at an increased risk for progression to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Treatment of viral hepatitis due to dual HBV/HCV infection represents a challenge.
Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection and Hepatic Steatosis  [cached]
Yoon Eugene J.,Hu Ke-Qin
International Journal of Medical Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: There are two discrete forms of steatosis that may be found in patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Metabolic steatosis can coexist with HCV, regardless of genotype, in patients with risk factors such as obesity, hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance. The second form of hepatic steatosis in HCV patients is a result of the direct cytopathic effect of genotype 3 viral infections. There have been proposed mechanisms for this process but it remains elusive. Both categories of steatosis tend to hasten the progression of liver fibrosis and therefore prompt recognition and management should be initiated in patients with HCV and steatosis. The authors review the current understanding of the relationship between hepatitis C infection and hepatic steatosis and discuss future research directions.
The Natural History of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection  [cached]
Chen Stephen L.,Morgan Timothy R.
International Journal of Medical Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as the most common indication for liver transplantation in many countries. Although the incidence of hepatitis C infection has dramatically decreased during the past decade, the worldwide reservoir of chronically infected persons is estimated at 170 million, or 3% of the global population. There is much controversy surrounding the natural history of hepatitis C infection. The rate of chronic HCV infection is affected by a person's age, gender, race, and viral immune response. Approximately 75%-85% of HCV-infected persons will progress to chronic HCV infection, and are at risk for the development of extrahepatic manifestations, compensated and decompensated cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The rate of progression to cirrhosis is highly variable, and is influenced by several factors, including the amount of alcohol consumption, age of initial HCV infection, degree of inflammation and fibrosis on liver biopsy, HIV and HBV coinfection, and comordid conditions. An estimated 10%-15% of HCV-infected persons will advance to cirrhosis within the first 20 years. Persons with cirrhosis are at increased risk of developing HCC. An understanding of the natural history of hepatitis C is essential to effectively manage, treat, and counsel individuals with HCV infection.
Genetic History of Hepatitis C Virus in Venezuela: High Diversity and Long Time of Evolution of HCV Genotype 2  [PDF]
Maria Z. Sulbarán,Federico A. Di Lello,Yoneira Sulbarán,Clarisa Cosson,Carmen L. Loureiro,Héctor R. Rangel,Jean F. Cantaloube,Rodolfo H. Campos,Gonzalo Moratorio,Juan Cristina,Flor H. Pujol
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0014315
Abstract: The subtype diversity of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes is unknown in Venezuela.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV): ever in reliable partnerships?
A-C Yalena, D-C Santiago
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2006,
Abstract: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a parenterally transmitted hepatotropic pathogen. HCV infection is a major health problem worldwide, frequently causing cirrhosis and liver cancer. There is no preventive vaccine against HCV and treatment, consisting of interferon alpha plus Ribavirin, is generally effective in less than 50% of cases. HCV has evolved mechanisms for surviving in the host. Infection with multiple different HCV variants, as well as interaction with concurrent pathogens, might be successful strategies for viral persistence. The present review illustrates the current status of HCV co-infection with highly relevant pathogens. Issues regarding tropism, disease progression and antiviral treatment response, among other aspects, are discussed. Data accumulated reveal that HCV co-infection should not be considered the mere sum of several independent infections. Some significant questions are still unanswered. Therefore, nowadays, it might be more reasonable to face HCV co-infections as a new biological, clinical and even predominant epidemiological entity
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