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Microbiological Examination of Meatball, Cream Cake and Turkish Delight (Lokum)
Belgin Siriken,Ozgur Cadirci,Gokhan Inat,Sebnem Pamuk
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to evaluate, the incidence of some pathogen and hygienic microorganism in meatball, cream cake and Turkish delight samples. A total 63 sample (25 raw meatball, 17 cream cake and 21 Turkish delight samples) were analyzed. For this aim, drop and spread method were applied on to specific media. As a result, Salmonella sp. were present in meatball and B. cereus was found in cream cake samples. Coagulase positive staphylococci were present meatball samples up to 104 cfu g-1 levels. Sulphite reducing bacteria were not detected in any samples analyzed. Meatball samples may be potential risk for staphylococcal intoxication to consumer during shelf-life. Cream cake samples could be potential risk for B. cereus. Additionally, analyzed samples were also contaminated with other enteric and spoilage bacteria. Majority of Turkish delight samples were of satisfactory/acceptable microbiological quality. Contrast to Turkish delight, microbiological qualities of the meatball and cream cake samples analyzed were unsatisfactory and the product could be cause of food poisoning. To minimize contamination, GHP or GMP and HACCP systems could be applied to the control of the pathogenic and spoilage bacteria at all stages of manufacture, storage, transport and retail step.
How Should Staphylococcal Food Poisoning Outbreaks Be Characterized?  [PDF]
Jacques-Antoine Hennekinne,Annick Ostyn,Florence Guillier,Sabine Herbin,Anne-Laure Prufer,Sylviane Dragacci
Toxins , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/toxins2082106
Abstract: Staphylococcal food poisoning is one of the most common food-borne diseases and results from the ingestion of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) preformed in food by enterotoxigenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus. To date, more than 20 SEs have been described: SEA to SElV. All SEs have superantigenic activity whereas only a few have been proved to be emetic, representing a potential hazard for consumers. Characterization of staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks (SFPOs) has considerably progressed compared to 80 years ago, when staphylococci were simply enumerated and only five enterotoxins were known for qualitative detection. Today, SFPOs can be characterized by a number of approaches, such as the identification of S. aureus biovars, PCR and RT-PCR methods to identify the se genes involved, immunodetection of specific SEs, and absolute quantification by mass spectrometry. An integrated gene-to-protein approach for characterizing staphylococcal food poisoning is advocated.
ASSESSMENT OF THE RISK OF RAW MILK CONSUMPTION RELATED TO STAPHYLOCOCCAL FOOD POISONING
Elsa Helena Walter Santana,Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza da Cunha,Tereza Cristina Rocha Moreira de Oliveira,Luciane Bilia Moraes
Ciência Animal Brasileira , 2010,
Abstract: This study aimed to identify the risks of staphylococcal food poisoning due to the consumption of raw milk. Fifty-one farms in Londrina (PR) and 50 in Pelotas (RS) were analyzed, to determinethe population of coagulase-positive staphylococci (UFC/ mL), as well as to verify the ability of producing Staphylococcal Enterotoxin A (SEA) by immunodifusion (OSP), the presence of the gene for the production of SEA (PCR) in the cultures, and the research of enterotoxin (SEA to SEE) in milk samples using ELISA commercial kit. Considering the 101 farms analyzed, 19 (18.8%) presented coagulase-positive staphylococci count above 105 UFC/mL. For the evaluation of the enterotoxigenic ability (SEA) by the OSP technique, six cultures coagulase-positive (5.5%) were positive to the test and identified as S. aureus. From the coagualse-negative sample, one (5.5%) was OSP positive. For the evaluation of the presence of the gene for EEA synthesis, 51 cultures of staphylococci were tested. From this total, 14 (27.45%) presented the gene, and from that, only 5 (9.81%) cultures were capable of expressing it in the technique of the OSP. The morphologiccharacteristic of the evaluated cultures that had enterotoxigenic capacity, from the 14 (33,3%) cultures that presented the gene for EEA production, 05 (11.9%) were characterized as typical cultures of S.aureus in Baird Parker agar. All the 12 milk samples studied for the presence of EEA to EEE in milk were negative. Thus, it can be concluded that there is extensive contamination of raw milk for staphylococci coagulase, however, most of the isolated strains were not enterotoxigenic or did not express such a characteristic. Only 9.81% of the tested colonies expressed the gene and effectivelyproduced SEA. None of the samples had sufficient counts to produce detectable amounts of SEA. The milk samples did not present risk to cause staphylococcal food poisoning if consumed in natura until the collection moment.
An outbreak of staphylococcal food poisoning in the Municipality of Passos, MG, Brazil
Carmo, Luiz Sime?o do;Dias, Ricardo Souza;Linardi, Valter Roberto;Sena, Maria José de;Santos, Deise Aparecida dos;
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-89132003000400012
Abstract: an outbreak of staphylococcal food poisoning involving 42 people who had eaten a meal at a restaurant in the municipality of passos, minas gerais, brazil, is reported. thirty-one of the individuals became ill with vomiting, diarrhea and dizziness within 30 minutes after eating the meal. the foods suspected were: chicken pancake, rice, beans, tomato sauce and mashed chick-peas. large numbers (> 2.0x108 cfu/g) of enterotoxigenic staphylococci were present in the chicken pancake. these strains produced enterotoxins a, b and d. swabs from the nasal cavity and throat and from under the fingernails of food handlers were cultured for the detection of enterotoxigenic staphylococci carriers. four out of five of them were healthy carriers of enterotoxin a, b, c and d producing staphylococcus aureus at the sites cultured and one of them was also a nasal carrier of tsst-1 toxin producing s. aureus. these results indicate that the food handlers would have been the source of the food contamination.
An outbreak of staphylococcal food poisoning in the Municipality of Passos, MG, Brazil  [cached]
Carmo Luiz Sime?o do,Dias Ricardo Souza,Linardi Valter Roberto,Sena Maria José de
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology , 2003,
Abstract: An outbreak of staphylococcal food poisoning involving 42 people who had eaten a meal at a restaurant in the Municipality of Passos, Minas Gerais, Brazil, is reported. Thirty-one of the individuals became ill with vomiting, diarrhea and dizziness within 30 minutes after eating the meal. The foods suspected were: chicken pancake, rice, beans, tomato sauce and mashed chick-peas. Large numbers (> 2.0x10(8) CFU/g) of enterotoxigenic staphylococci were present in the chicken pancake. These strains produced enterotoxins A, B and D. Swabs from the nasal cavity and throat and from under the fingernails of food handlers were cultured for the detection of enterotoxigenic staphylococci carriers. Four out of five of them were healthy carriers of enterotoxin A, B, C and D producing Staphylococcus aureus at the sites cultured and one of them was also a nasal carrier of TSST-1 toxin producing S. aureus. These results indicate that the food handlers would have been the source of the food contamination.
Organoleptic and Microbial Quality of Ice Cream Sold at Retail Stores in Mymensingh, Bangladesh
Journal of Microbiology Research , 2012, DOI: 10.5923/j.microbiology.20120204.05
Abstract: A study was conducted to assess the sanitary quality of ice cream manufactured by five different plants namely Milk vita, Igloo, Polar, Savoy and Kwality sold in retail stores in Mymensingh Town, Bangladesh. The result revealed the average total viable counts which were 3267 CFU/ml (log 3.5) in Milk vita, 3500 CFU/ml (log 3.5) in Igloo, 13833 CFU/ml (log 4.1) in Polar, 16500 CFU/ml (log 4.2) in Savoy and 20916 CFU/ml (log 4.3) in Kwality ice cream samples. It was found that the highest extent of microbial contamination and proliferation of viable bacteria occurred in Kwality ice cream. The average coliform counts obtained from the study was in milk vita 0.33 CFU/ml (log -0.5) and igloo 0.0 CFU/ml (log 0.0), Polar16500 CFU/ml (log 4.2), Savoy 16500 CFU/ml (log 4.2), Kwality 20916 CFU/ml (log 4.3) and the presence of numbers of coliforms in Polar, Savoy and Kwality ice creams samples were fairly high (10/ml) indicated the poor hygienic practices during manufacture, post process contamination and unsatisfactory transportation. Statistically the coliforms were found more closely related to total viable counts than the staphylococcal counts. The average staphylococcal counts as revealed in the samples of Milk vita, Igloo, Polar, Savoy and Kwality were 0.5 CFU/ml (log -0.3), 0.0 CFU/ml (log 0.0), 4.33 CFU/ml (log 0.6), 8.8 CFU/ml (log 0.9) and 4.4 CFU/ml (log 0.6) respectively may present cause for alarm which could be associated with potential food poisoning hazards. The results demonstrated that Igloo and Milk vita ice creams are of the superior quality product in respect of sanitary condition.
On cake dividing  [PDF]
Alex Ravsky
Mathematics , 2010,
Abstract: We consider Steinhaus cake dividing game.
Staphylococcal Enterotoxins  [PDF]
Irina V. Pinchuk,Ellen J. Beswick,Victor E. Reyes
Toxins , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/toxins2082177
Abstract: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a Gram positive bacterium that is carried by about one third of the general population and is responsible for common and serious diseases. These diseases include food poisoning and toxic shock syndrome, which are caused by exotoxins produced by S. aureus. Of the more than 20 Staphylococcal enterotoxins, SEA and SEB are the best characterized and are also regarded as superantigens because of their ability to bind to class II MHC molecules on antigen presenting cells and stimulate large populations of T cells that share variable regions on the b chain of the T cell receptor. The result of this massive T cell activation is a cytokine bolus leading to an acute toxic shock. These proteins are highly resistant to denaturation, which allows them to remain intact in contaminated food and trigger disease outbreaks. A recognized problem is the emergence of multi-drug resistant strains of S. aureus and these are a concern in the clinical setting as they are a common cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in hospitalized patients. In this review, we provide an overview of the current understanding of these proteins.
Microbial Quality of Traditional Ice Cream Produced by Small-Scale Manufacturers in Khormoj and Its Comparison with the Iranian National Standard
P. Azadnia,M. ShahAhmad Ghasemi,M.R. Abbasi,N. Taarof,M. Karimi Jashni
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2011.742.744
Abstract: Since, ice-cream harbors many potent pathogens, its microbial quality has always been crucially important in public health. In this study, 50 samples of ice cream produced by 25 different small-scale traditional ice cream manufacturers in Khormoj were studied for Total Bacterial Count (TBC), Enterobacteriacea count, coagulase positive Staphylococcal count, E. coli search and Salmonella sp. search, in order to determine if the samples meet the ice cream standard set by the Iranian National Standard Center. Out of total ice cream of Khormoj 44 samples (88%), 31 samples (62%) and 10 samples (20%) exceeded standard value of mesophilic aerobic count, Enterobacteriacea count and coagulase positive Staphylococcal count, respectively. Also, according to the results obtained from E. coli search, it was determined that 16% of ice cream samples examined were not fit bacteriologieally to the Iranian Ice Cream Standard. However, non of the samples were found to be contaminated with Salmonella sp. The microbial quality of grade 1 and 2 ice cream samples did not show significant differences. However, this study shows that the overall microbial quality of traditional ice cream samples being sold in Khormoj is poor.
The Systemic and Pulmonary Immune Response to Staphylococcal Enterotoxins  [PDF]
Sanjeev Kumar,Antoine Ménoret,Soo-Mun Ngoi,Anthony T. Vella
Toxins , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/toxins2071898
Abstract: In response to environmental cues the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus synthesizes and releases proteinaceous enterotoxins. These enterotoxins are natural etiologic entities of severe food poisoning, toxic shock syndrome, and acute diseases. Staphylococcal enterotoxins are currently listed as Category B Bioterrorism Agents by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. They are associated with respiratory illnesses, and may contribute to exacerbation of pulmonary disease. This likely stems from the ability of Staphylococcal enterotoxins to elicit powerful episodes of T cell stimulation resulting in release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Here, we discuss the role of the immune system and potential mechanisms of disease initiation and progression.
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