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Rates of influenza vaccination in older adults and factors associated with vaccine use: A secondary analysis of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging
Melissa K Andrew, Shelly McNeil, Heather Merry, Kenneth Rockwood
BMC Public Health , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-4-36
Abstract: The Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA) is a population-based national cohort study of 10263 older adults (≥ 65) conducted in 1991. We used data from the 5007 community-dwelling participants in the CSHA without dementia for whom self-reported influenza vaccination status is known.Of 5007 respondents, 2763 (55.2%) reported having received an influenza vaccination within the previous 2 years. The largest predictive factors for flu vaccination included: being married (57.4 vs. 52.6%, p = 0.0007), having attained a higher education (11.0 vs. 10.3 years, p < 0.0001), smoking (57.1% vs. 52.9%, p = 0.0032), more alcohol use (57.9% of those who drank more vs. 53.2% of those who drank less, p = 0.001), poorer self-rated health (54.1% of those with good self-rated health vs. 60.6% of those with poor self-rated health, p = 0.0006), regular exercise (56.8% vs. 52.0%, p = 0.001), and urban living (55.8% vs. 51.0%, p = 0.03).While many other differences were statistically significant, most were small (e.g. mean age 75.1 vs. 74.6 years for immunized vs. unimmunized older adults, p = 0.006, higher Modified Mini Mental Status Examination score (89.9 vs. 89.1, p < 0.0001), higher comorbidity (2.7 vs. 2.3 comorbidities, p < 0.0001).Residents of Ontario were more likely (64.6%) to report vaccination (p < 0.0001), while those living in Quebec were less likely to do so (48.2%, p < 0.0001). Factors retaining significance in a multivariate analysis included older age, higher education, married status, drinking alcohol, smoking, engaging in regular exercise, and having higher comorbidity.The vaccination rate in this sample, in whom influenza vaccination is indicated, was low (55.2%). Even in a publicly administered health care setting, influenza vaccination did not reach an important proportion of the elderly population. Whether these differences reflect patient preference or access remains to be determined.Influenza has the potential to cause serious complications (chiefly viral and
Effectiveness of influenza vaccine in aging and older adults: comprehensive analysis of the evidence
Lang PO, Mendes A, Socquet J, Assir N, Govind S, Aspinall R
Clinical Interventions in Aging , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S25215
Abstract: tiveness of influenza vaccine in aging and older adults: comprehensive analysis of the evidence Review (10205) Total Article Views Authors: Lang PO, Mendes A, Socquet J, Assir N, Govind S, Aspinall R Published Date February 2012 Volume 2012:7 Pages 55 - 64 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S25215 Received: 18 November 2011 Accepted: 02 December 2011 Published: 24 February 2012 Pierre-Olivier Lang1,2, Aline Mendes1, Jennifer Socquet1, Noémie Assir1, Sheila Govind2, Richard Aspinall2 1Department of Internal Medicine, Rehabilitation and Geriatrics, University Hospitals and Medical School of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland; 2Translational Medicine Research Group, Cranfield Health, Cranfield University, Cranfield, England Abstract: Foremost amongst the diseases preventable by vaccination is influenza. Worldwide, influenza virus infection is associated with serious adverse events leading to hospitalization, debilitating complications, and death in elderly individuals. Immunization is considered to be the cornerstone for preventing these adverse health outcomes, and vaccination programs are timed to optimize protection during the annual influenza season. Trivalent inactivated influenza virus vaccines are believed to be both effective and cost-saving; however, in spite of widespread influenza vaccination programs, rates of hospitalization for acute respiratory illness and cardiovascular diseases have been increasing in this population during recent annual influenza seasons. From meta-analyses summarizing estimates of influenza vaccine effectiveness from available observational clinical studies, this review aims to examine how effective current influenza vaccine strategies are in the aging and older adult population and to analyze which are the most important biases that interfere with measurements of influenza vaccine effectiveness. Furthermore, consideration is given to strategies that should be adopted in order to optimize influenza vaccine effectiveness in the face of immune exhaustion.
Effectiveness of influenza vaccine in aging and older adults: comprehensive analysis of the evidence  [cached]
Lang PO,Mendes A,Socquet J,Assir N
Clinical Interventions in Aging , 2012,
Abstract: Pierre-Olivier Lang1,2, Aline Mendes1, Jennifer Socquet1, Noémie Assir1, Sheila Govind2, Richard Aspinall21Department of Internal Medicine, Rehabilitation and Geriatrics, University Hospitals and Medical School of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland; 2Translational Medicine Research Group, Cranfield Health, Cranfield University, Cranfield, EnglandAbstract: Foremost amongst the diseases preventable by vaccination is influenza. Worldwide, influenza virus infection is associated with serious adverse events leading to hospitalization, debilitating complications, and death in elderly individuals. Immunization is considered to be the cornerstone for preventing these adverse health outcomes, and vaccination programs are timed to optimize protection during the annual influenza season. Trivalent inactivated influenza virus vaccines are believed to be both effective and cost-saving; however, in spite of widespread influenza vaccination programs, rates of hospitalization for acute respiratory illness and cardiovascular diseases have been increasing in this population during recent annual influenza seasons. From meta-analyses summarizing estimates of influenza vaccine effectiveness from available observational clinical studies, this review aims to examine how effective current influenza vaccine strategies are in the aging and older adult population and to analyze which are the most important biases that interfere with measurements of influenza vaccine effectiveness. Furthermore, consideration is given to strategies that should be adopted in order to optimize influenza vaccine effectiveness in the face of immune exhaustion.Keywords: influenza vaccine effectiveness, influenza virus infection, immunosenescence, hemagglutinin activity inhibition, innate immunity, hemagglutinin inhibition, older adults
DISTRIBUTION OF SMOKING HABIT AMONG SCHOOL CHILDREN AND YOUTH IN MUNICIPALITY OF KLADOVO  [PDF]
Tatjana Cagulovi?,Biljana Koci?,Irena Mihajlovi?
Acta Medica Medianae , 2009,
Abstract: Smoking is the most spread modern, social disease worlwide. It is considered that efficient programs of cigarette smoking prevention implemented among adolescents would considerably lower the morbidity and mortality in adults reported for diseases caused by smoking.The aim of the research was to investigate the prevalence of cigarette smoking among school children and youth in the municipality of Kladovo, as well as the nature of their smoking habit.The research, in the form of cross-sectional study, was conducted among the pupils of higher grades of elementary schools and all grades of high schools from the territory of the Municipality of Kladovo, during May and June, 2008. Five hundred and twenty-seven examinees aged 10-19 years (49.71% were boys and 50.28% girls) were polled. Data collection was done by a modified form of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey.15.9% of examinees declared to be smokers. The rate of cigarette smoking prevalence increases with aging: it is lowest at the age of 12 (2.4%) and highest in the examinees aged 17 years or over (30.5%). There is high statistically significant association between age and prevalence of cigarette smoking. The prevalence of cigarette smoking among boys is 16.5%, and 15.3% among girls, without statistically significant difference among sexes. The prevalence of cigarette smoking is ten times higher (30.8%) among adolescents whose best friends (45%) are smokers. This prevalence is 4.5 times higher among adolescents whose boyfriends/ girlfriends (16.3%) are smokers. The rate of cigarette smoking prevalence is proportional to the number of parents-smokers: in a group of children whose both parents are smokers, there is the highest prevalence of cigarette smoking (26.2%). The majority of pupils consider that cigarette smoking can seriously damage health (96.8%). The distribution of smoking habit is statistically significantly higher in the group of pupils who are not aware that cigarette smoking is harmful (35.3%). Only 16.7% of examinees mention that preservation of health is the chief motive to quit cigarette smoking. Even 64.3% of examinees do not consider to quit smoking at all. There is a necessity for strict implementation of the healthcare and educational programs in the lower grades of elementary school. The programs should match the age of pupils, and besides providing the information on tobacco harmful effects, they should develop certain skills and techniques which would help them resist to temptations of their peers to consume tobacco or some other psychoactive substances. Greater engagement of hea
Older Adults with Hoarding Behaviour Aging in Place: Looking to a Collaborative Community-Based Planning Approach for Solutions
Kyle Y. Whitfield,Jason S. Daniels,Keri Flesaker,Doneka Simmons
Journal of Aging Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/205425
Abstract: This paper reports on and synthesizes new research that examines how a collaborative community response can promote successful aging in place for older adults with hoarding behaviour. Through interviews with older adults with hoarding behaviour, who used a particular community support and a focus group interview with members of the community collaborative that directed supports for this population, our findings suggest that there were valuable outcomes for both groups. These older adults with hoarding behaviour were able to remain in their own homes, their safety was enhanced, their sense of isolation was minimized, empowerment was fostered, and they gained valuable insight into their behaviour. The members of the community collaborative were able to access the expertise of other professionals, maximize their own expertise, and they generated an enhanced understanding of the experience of older adults living with hoarding behaviour in Edmonton. This study is a significant addition to the much too sparse literature about the community planning needs of older adults with hoarding behaviour. It offers knowledge that is integral to theories and principles of better aging in place but attempts to translate this into practice.
Relationship between Depression and Aging Awareness among Frail Older Adults Living Alone in Japan  [PDF]
Yumi Okinaka
Health (Health) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/health.2018.1011117
Abstract: Aim: This study aimed to clarify the relationship between depression and aging awareness among older adults living alone with low-level long-term-care needs. Methods: Participants were older adults aged 65 years and older in Japan. Data were collected via an anonymous questionnaire. Participants were categorized based on their long-term care need level, from Support 1 to Care 2 according to the care insurance criteria in Japan. The questionnaire included: 1) the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Version-Japanese (GDS); 2) items on aging life satisfaction at present, and positive and negative aging awareness in the past (when they were young); 3) the SF-8 to assess health-related quality of life; 4) the Lubben Social Network Scale-6 (LSNS-6); and 5) items on the use of care services. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: In total, 457 participants were recruited. Their mean age was 83.9 ± 6.5 years; 39.8% of the participants had a GDS score of 6 and above. In the regression analysis, the GDS score significantly correlated with aging life satisfaction at present, negative aging awareness in the past, mental health, and social networks. Conclusion: Older adults living alone who have positive views of their current lives and lacked negative views of aging in their younger years were resistant to depression after being certified as requiring low-level long-term care. Preventing and improving depression in this population requires community-based support to expand their social networks and to help individuals of all ages view the aging process positively.
Quality of care for older adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma based on comparisons to practice guidelines and smoking status
Benjamin M Craig, Connie K Kraus, Betty A Chewning, James E Davis
BMC Health Services Research , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-8-144
Abstract: Using a nationally representative sample of 29,902 older adults who participated in the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (1992–2002), we compared guideline recommendations on the treatment and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma with survey utilization data, including the use of bronchodilators, spirometry and influenza vaccine.26% to 30% of older adults were diagnosed with or self-reported chronic respiratory diseases; however 69% received no pharmacological treatment and 30% of patients reporting use of pharmacological treatments did not receive short-acting bronchodilator inhalers. Current smokers appeared to receive significantly less care for respiratory diseases than non-smokers or former smokers.Disparities between recommended and actual care for older adults with chronic lung disease require further research. The needs of older adults with co-morbidities and nicotine addiction deserve special attention in care as well as guideline development and implementation.Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of death of adults in the world and a leading cause of death in people over the age of 45 in the United States [1]. The worldwide prevalence in 1990 was estimated to be 9.34/1,000 in men and 7.33/1,000 in women, but these estimates included all ages and may have underestimated the true prevalence in older adults. COPD causes a major financial burden to the healthcare system [2]. Under-diagnosis and under-treatment are associated with increased use of emergency department services due to exacerbations of the disease [3]. Implementation of practice guidelines, optimization of pharmacotherapy and reduction of risk factors, like smoking, have been shown to improve clinical and economic outcomes.Likewise, asthma mortality continues to increase in the United States [4]. An analysis of asthma mortality between 1979 and 1996 showed that people over age 65 have the highest crude mortality rates from asthma. S
Successful aging definition in a sample of older adults / Defini o de envelhecimento saudável na perspectiva de indivíduos idosos  [cached]
Ana Paula Fabrino Bretas Cupertino,Fernanda Heringer Moreira Rosa,Pricila Cristina Correa Ribeiro
Psicologia: Reflex?o e Crítica , 2007,
Abstract: The process of aging is defined as a multidimensional process (Baltes e Baltes, 1990). Rowe and Kahn (1998) present three indicators of successful aging: low risk of disease and disease-related disabilities; high level of mental and physical functions and an active life style. Based on these presumptions, this article presents a research that examined the definition of successful aging from a sample of older adults, seeking to identify the multiple dimensions perceived by them. The sample consisted of 501 older adults between 60 to 93 years old (M=72,65; SD= 8,08). Content analysis of their answers to what successful aging means identified 29 possible categories. The most cited definitions for successful aging were: physical health, social health and emotional health. On the other hand, the least cited answers were: a life of work; aging as a pathological process and specific activities for older adults. In conclusion, this study confirmed the presumptions of heterogeneity and multidimensionality of aging, by observing the various definitions from older adults.
Religion, spirituality, and older adults with HIV: critical personal and social resources for an aging epidemic
Vance D, Brennan M, Enah C, Smith G, Kaur J
Clinical Interventions in Aging , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S16349
Abstract: ion, spirituality, and older adults with HIV: critical personal and social resources for an aging epidemic Review (4990) Total Article Views Authors: Vance D, Brennan M, Enah C, Smith G, Kaur J Published Date May 2011 Volume 2011:6 Pages 101 - 109 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S16349 David E Vance1, Mark Brennan2, Comfort Enah1, Glenda L Smith1, Jaspreet Kaur3 1School of Nursing, University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB), Birmingham, AL, USA; 2New York University College of Nursing, AIDS Community Research Initiative of America, New York, NY, USA; 3Department of Psychology and Edward R. Roybal Center for Translational Research in Aging and Mobility, University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB), Birmingham, AL, USA Abstract: By 2015, approximately half of adults with HIV in the United States will be 50 and older. The demographic changes in this population due to successful treatment represent a unique challenge, not only in assisting these individuals to cope with their illness, but also in helping them to age successfully with this disease. Religious involvement and spirituality have been observed to promote successful aging in the general population and help those with HIV cope with their disease, yet little is known about how these resources may affect aging with HIV. Also, inherent barriers such as HIV stigma and ageism may prevent people from benefitting from religious and spiritual sources of solace as they age with HIV. In this paper, we present a model of barriers to successful aging with HIV, along with a discussion of how spirituality and religiousness may help people overcome these barriers. From this synthesis, implications for practice and research to improve the quality of life of this aging population are provided.
Anthropometric Changes in the Brazilian Cohort of Older Adults: SABE Survey (Health, Well-Being, and Aging)  [PDF]
Manuela Ferreira de Almeida,Maria de Fátima Nunes Marucci,Luís Alberto Gobbo,Luciana Silva Ferreira,Daiana Aparecida Quintiliano Scarpelli Dourado,Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira Duarte,Maria Lucia Lebr?o
Journal of Obesity , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/695496
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to analyze the anthropometric changes in a home-based cohort of Brazilian older adults who participated in the SABE Survey, conducted in 2000 and 2006. A total of 1030 men and women were examined by age group: 60–69, 70–79, and ≥80 years. This representative sample consists of the survivors of the 2000 cohort. The following anthropometric variables were assessed: body mass, arm muscle, waist and calf circumferences, triceps skinfold thickness, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, and arm muscle area according to mean values and percentile distribution. Except for body mass and body mass index, a significant difference was observed among the assessed anthropometric variables during the follow-up period. The older adults ≥80 years presented the lowest values. The reduction in the mean values of triceps skinfold thickness was greater (30%) than that of waist circumference (9%) and was more pronounced in women (21%) than in men (9%). Arm muscle circumference and area reduced by 8% and 19%, respectively, in men and 1% and 3%, correspondingly, in women. Our findings revealed reductions in the mean values for all anthropometric variables in the follow-up period from 2000 to 2006 among older adults. 1. Introduction The population aging and its socioeconomic and biopsychosocial implications are a widely discussed topic globally, including in Brazil, because this group is more vulnerable to the development of noncommunicable diseases such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. These diseases, associated with changes of the aging process, can compromise individual health and affect nutritional status [1]. For these reasons, this issue arouses the interest of researchers, as additional knowledge about the aging process and its impact on the Brazilian health system is required [2]. The aging process is associated with significant changes in body composition, including quantitative and qualitative progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and body fat redistribution, with greater accumulation in the intra-abdominal region compared to the subcutaneous abdominal area, independent of disease development [3, 4]. The redistribution of adipose tissue mass and the relative decline of skeletal muscle mass can occur even when there are no significant changes in body mass index (BMI) [5]. Several longitudinal studies suggest that fat mass increases with age in older men, but not in older women, and that lean mass decreases with age in both genders; however, there is still controversy in the scientific
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