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The Topography and Gross Anatomy of the Abdominal Gastrointestinal Tract of the Persian Squirrel (Sciurus anomalus) La Topografía y Anatomía Macroscópica del Tracto Gastrointestinal Abdominal de la Ardilla Persa (Sciurus anomalus)
J Sadeghinezhad,Z Tootian,G. H Akbari,R Chiocchetti
International Journal of Morphology , 2012,
Abstract: The Persian Squirrel (Sciurus anomalus) is the only member of the Sciuridae family found in the Middle East. It is herbivorous, feeding mostly on pine acorns and other seeds and fruits. It is a wild animal nesting in forest trees, although it is frequently found close to city gardens and parks. As Persian squirrels are also found in homes as "companion animals", veterinarian assistance may be sometimes required; this is a good reason to gain more specific knowledge of the anatomical features of this animal. Due to the scantiness of relevant literature, we carried out this study with the aim to provide further information on the topography and gross anatomy of its abdominal gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Seven animals of this species were utilized to measure the length, content weight and area surface of the relative segments of the abdominal GIT. The stomach is unilocular, lined with glandular epithelium; the small intestine is divided into duodenum, jejunum and ileum. The cecum is situated on the right side of the abdominal cavity and lacks the vermiform appendix observed in some rodents. The ascending colon is extensive, consisting of two loops and two straight parts forming a unique topographic arrangement, closely resembling the ascending colon of the horse. The transverse colon connects the ascending and the descending colon located on the left side of the abdominal cavity, and shows a distinct sigmoid flexure before entering the pelvic cavity. Overall, the in situ examination and the relative measurements of the various parts of the abdominal GIT suggest that the ascending colon is the main fermentation chamber in the Persian Squirrel. La ardilla es el único miembro de la familia de los Sciuridae que se encuentra en el Medio Oriente. Es un herbívoro, come semillas, principalmente de pino, y fruta. Vive mayormente en el bosque en estado salvaje, aunque a veces se puede encontrar en las ciudades, en parques y jardines. Las ardillas persianas tambien se tienen en casas como mascotas y algunas veces es necesaria la atención del veterinario. Esta es una buena razón para conocer más profundamente sus características anatómicas. Teniendo en cuenta la escasa bibliografía existente a cerca de este animal, el objetivo de este estudio fue aportar nueva información sobre la anatomía topográfica y mascroscópica del tracto abdominal gastrointestinal (GIT) de la ardilla. Siete animales de esta especie han sido utilizados para medir el largo, el peso y el área de la superficie de los segmentos del GIT. El estómago es unilocular, alineado con epitelio glandular; el
Variación cariológica en diferentes fenotipos de Sciurus granatensis (Rodentia, Sciuridae) Karyologic Variation in Different Phenotypes of Sciurus granatensis (Rodentia, Sciuridae)  [cached]
Arango Carolina,Bueno Martha Lucía,Chacón Marcos Nicolás
Acta Biológica Colombiana , 2007,
Abstract: Siete ejemplares de Sciurus granatensis (ardilla colombiana) de diferentes fenotipos según color, rescatadas del tráfico ilegal de fauna silvestre de Colombia fueron estudiadas. Mediante técnicas convencionales de bandeo cromosómico G, C, Q, R y NOR se estableció su cariotipo 2n=42. Se encontraron tres cariomorfos de acuerdo al Número Fundamental (NF) y características propias de cada uno de los complementos ocasionadas por distintos rearreglos cromosómicos, lo cual sugiere que S. granatensis es un complejo de especies. No se observó relación entre cariotipo y fenotipo. La variación en el color del pelaje se debe probablemente a las condiciones ambientales. Seven specimens of Sciurus granatensis (redtailed squirrel) rescued from illegal fauna traffic in Colombia were studied; they had different phenotypes according to colour. G, C, Q, R and NOR chromosome banding was used, being found a 2n=42 diploid number for the Sciurus granatensis Colombian squirrels. There were 3 karyomorphs according to fundamental number (FN) and different chromosomal characteristics caused by rearregement, suggesting that S. granatensis represents a complex of species. Relationships between karyotype and phenotype were not observed. The variation in the colour of sqirrels' fur was probably due to environmental conditions.
Nests of the Brazilian squirrel Sciurus ingrami Thomas (Rodentia, Sciuridae)
Alvarenga, Cibele A.;Talamoni, S?nia A.;
Revista Brasileira de Zoologia , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-81752005000300048
Abstract: descriptions of sciurus ingrami thomas, 1901 nests are not available in the literature. in this study, a survey was made of the distribution of s. ingrami nests in a woodlot located near to the headquarters of the serra do cara?a reserve, in state of minas gerais, where there is a high concentration of syagrus romanzoffiana (chamisso) glassman palm tree, among other exotic tree species. the nest-building behaviour and the nest characteristics, such as height from the ground, total circumference, diameter of the entrance, and the position of the nest in the tree - in the crown, along the trunk or in a side branch, were described.
VARIACIóN CARIOLóGICA EN DIFERENTES FENOTIPOS DE Sciurus granatensis (RODENTIA, SCIURIDAE)
ARANGO,CAROLINA; BUENO,MARTHA LUCíA; CHACóN,MARCOS NICOLáS;
Acta Biológica Colombiana , 2007,
Abstract: seven specimens of sciurus granatensis (redtailed squirrel) rescued from illegal fauna traffic in colombia were studied; they had different phenotypes according to colour. g, c, q, r and nor chromosome banding was used, being found a 2n=42 diploid number for the sciurus granatensis colombian squirrels. there were 3 karyomorphs according to fundamental number (fn) and different chromosomal characteristics caused by rearregement, suggesting that s. granatensis represents a complex of species. relationships between karyotype and phenotype were not observed. the variation in the colour of sqirrels? fur was probably due to environmental conditions.
Variación cariológica en diferentes fenotipos de Sciurus granatensis (Rodentia, Sciuridae)  [cached]
Chacón Rojas Marcos Nicolás,Bueno Angulo Marta Lucía
Acta Biológica Colombiana , 2007,
Abstract: Debido a la poca información ecológica, taxonómica o genética sobre las ardillas colombianas, existen problemas sistemáticos aun no resueltos (Emmons LH, 1990), lo cual dificulta la reubicación y/o liberación de ejemplares sin procedencia, provenientes del tráfico ilegal de fauna silvestre. Estudios cariológicos sirven para detectar variaciones intra e interespecíficas por lo que en este trabajo se busco detectar diferencias cariotípicas entre varios fenotipos Sciurus granatensis. La diferenciación genética en conservación, puede ser una herramienta útil en la toma de decisiones en los procesos de liberación de ejemplares capturados, dado que la introducción de individuos con genomas diferentes en un población puede originar un proceso de depresión por exogamia o introgresión genética (pérdida de alelos adaptativos locales), procesos nocivos para la población receptora. Se estudiaron siete especímenes (cinco hembras y dos machos) de S. granatensis procedentes del tráfico ilegal. Los cariotipos fueron obtenidos a partir de cultivos de linfocitos de sangre periférica. Las metafases con bandas G, R, C, Q y NOR, se analizaron al microscopio y se ordenaron en el programa Lucia Karyotyping . Los individuos estudiados corresponden a los tres fenotipos reportados por Emmons LH, 1990, pero con una gran variación cariológica. Solo uno de los machos no corresponde a los fenotipos descritos, y además presenta varios rearreglos cromosómicos que lo diferencian notablemente de los demás, por lo cual posiblemente se trate de un híbrido estéril originado de dos poblaciones diferenciadas cariológicamente. El número de cromosomas fue constante (2n=42), con variación en el número fundamental (NF=80; 81), por lo cual se reportan tres cariomorfos para Sciurus granatensis, según NF y los rearreglos cromosómicos encontrados. Se observó variación en los pares 9, 16 y una translocación universal entre autosomas dentro de uno de los ejemplares. El cromosoma X es submetacéntrico mediano. El cromosoma Y es acrocéntrico, coincidente con lo descrito para Sciurus. No se registró una relación cariotipo-fenotipo. Por lo tanto se puede sugerir que Sciurus granatensis, es un complejo de especies con diferencias cariológicas y morfológicas que no ha sido estudiado a profundidad teniendo en cuenta su amplia distribución geográfica.
Comportamentos e atividade diária de Sciurus ingrami (Thomas) em cativeiro (Rodentia, Sciuridae)
Bordignon, Marcelo;Monteiro Filho, Emygdio L.A;
Revista Brasileira de Zoologia , 1997, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-81751997000300019
Abstract: from october 1994 to november 1995 the behaviour, postures and diurnal activity of tive captive squirrels sciurus ingrami were observed and registered. four basics postures, five grooming behaviours, displacements and face wiping behaviour were identified. based on behavioural observations, the diurnal activity was divided into four categories: resting, displacement, teeding and maintenance. the time spent in each category varied seasonally and the squirrels spent more time resting during winter and spring. however, more time was spent feeding during autum and summer and was reduced the displacement in autum. two types of breeding behaviour were identified: sexual trailing and mating chase of females by males. however copulatori behaviour was not recorded during the studied period. we also verified that s. ingrami presents thermorregulation behaviour during winter, remaining resting in the nest to conserve energy in heath maintenance. during the hottest seasons, the squirrels remain resting out of the nest, placed on the branchs to decrease their body heat to normal temperature, the behaviours observed in this study were similar to those described in the literature, as well as the mating behaviour, which was very similar to s. carolinensis.
Posible asociación de la ardilla enana Microsciurus flaviventer (rodentia: sciuridae) Y bandadas mixtas de aves En la amazonia ecuatoriana
Galo Buitrón-Jurado,Marcelo Tobar
Mastozoolog?-a neotropical , 2007,
Abstract: Se describe la posible asociación entre la ardilla Microsciurus flaviventer y bandadas de especies mixtas en la Amazonia ecuatoriana. Estas asociaciones fueron notadas principalmente en la ma ana entre las 7:00-8:00 hs. Las ardillas siguieron ocasionalmente a las bandadas (19 participaciones en n = 220 observaciones) y permanecieron con éstas durante un promedio de 21.58 ± 20.21 min. M. flaviventer buscó activamente insectos en compa ía de las aves entre 2-10 m de altura del bosque. Nuestras observaciones presentan evidencia de la asociación de roedores y aves en bosques neotropicales y se comparan con asociaciones similares encontradas en el Sudeste Asiático
Dieta de Sciurus ingrami Thomas (Rodentia, Sciuridae) em um remanescente de Floresta com Araucária, Paraná, Brasil
Miranda, Jo?o M. D.;
Revista Brasileira de Zoologia , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-81752005000400047
Abstract: this study was conducted between february, 2002 and january, 2003 in a remnant of araucaria pine forest located in the district of bugre, municipality of balsa nova, paraná, brazil. the goal of this study was to survey the species used as food items by sciurus ingrami thomas, 1901 throughout a year. ten (n = 10) species were recorded in the diet of these squirrels, belonging to seven plant families. squirrels preyed on seeds of three plant species and fed on three exotic species, indicating good adaptability to disturbed habitats.
Formas de abertura dos frutos de Syagrus romanzoffiana (Chamisso) glassman efetuadas por Sciurus ingrami Thomas (Rodentia, Sciuridae)
Bordignon, Marcelo;Margarido, Teresa Cristina C;Lange, Rogério R;
Revista Brasileira de Zoologia , 1996, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-81751996000400002
Abstract: in this work was identifyed the diferents opening forms of the palm nuts syagrus romanzoffiana by brazilian squirrel sciurus ingrami in four diferents points of curitiba, paraná, brazil. was caracterized tive basic forms of opening, in acording with the number of incisions and opening aspects. the form with lower number of incisions (two) was also the greather frequently in the four points sampled (66,25%; n = 5194) well as registred the lower opening time (7,2 ± 1,7 min) in relationship with other forms (9,2 ± 2,3 min). to explicate the diferences in the frequences of forms discovered, is proposed "apprenticeship's hypothesis" which the young squirrels of the population, along the opening nuts apprenticeship, to passing of the forms with larger number of incisions to forms with lower number of incisions, ending in the form of more frequence, which is maintained by adult squirrels.
Blood and intestinal parasites of squirrels (Rodentia: Sciuridae) in Amazonian Brazil
Lainson, Ralph;Brígido, Maria do Carmo de Oliveira;Silveira, Fernando Tobias;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762004000600008
Abstract: we report the result of an examination for blood and intestinal protozoa in 12 specimens of the red squirrel sciurus spadiceus (rodentia: sciuridae) from birroque, municipality of plácido de castro, state of acre, brazil. no parasites were detected in thin, giemsa-stained blood films of the animals, but culture of the blood of three in difco b45 medium blood-agar slants gave rise to isolates of epimastigotes. inoculation of one isolate into laboratory mice resulted in the appearance of trypanosoma cruzi-like trypomastigotes in their peripheral blood, and the other two isolates gave rise to transient infections with a t. lewisi-like parasite in inoculated mice and hamsters. the failure of the latter parasite to develop in the triatomine bug rhodnius robustus suggests that it is probably not t. rangeli. this appears to be the first record of a t. lewisi-like trypanosome in neotropical squirrels. oocysts of an eimeria sp., were detected in the faeces of 10 animals (83.3%). the parasite develops in the epithelial cells of the intestine, where it may cause severe damage and sometimes results in death of the animal. no oocysts were detected in bile.
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