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The Effects of Heat Treated Lima Beans (Phaseolus lunatus) on Plasma Lipids in Hypercholesterolemic Rats
H.A. Oboh,C.O. Omofoma
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2008,
Abstract: The effects of legume consumption on a dietary induced model of hypercholesterol in rats have been determined. Grower`s mash from Bendel Feed and Flour Mill (BFFM) Ewu, Nigeria, was fed to two groups of rats: the test and control groups for 30 days. To induce hypercholesterolemia in the test group, 25% Coconut oil and 1% cholesterol was included in the diet of the test group. The hypercholesterolemic rats were divided into two subgroups. The first group was fed only with heat treated Lima beans and the second group with the grower`s mash mixed with 0.1% Saponin. This was done for another 30 days. Biochemical analysis was carried out on blood samples of the rats. The results show that there was a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the amount of serum lipids in rats fed the lima beans Legume Diet (LD) and Saponin Diet (SD) when compared to the control (CD) and Hypercholestrolemic Diet (HD). The consumption of lima beans could be recommended to also lower cholesterol and promote cardiovascular health due to the presence of saponin in the legume.
Caracteriza??o morfológica e molecular de acessos de feij?o-fava (Phaseolus lunatus L.)
Guimar?es, Walma N. R.;Martins, Luiza S. S.;Silva, Edson F. da;Ferraz, Gabriela de M. G.;Oliveira, Francisco J. de;
Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-43662007000100005
Abstract: the objective of this work was to analyze genetical diversity of twenty-two accessions of lima-beans (phaseolus lunatus l.), coming from the states of ceará, paraíba and pernambuco, brazil, part of the germoplasm collection of the agronomy department of federal rural university of pernambuco, by rapd markers, as well as to characterize fourteen of these genotypes by means of morphological markers. to characterize the genetic variability, sixty polymorphic loci were used. by the sample analysis the formation of two groups and four subgroups was observed and high genetic variability among the accessions was noticed. the genetically closer genotypes were fa-01 and fa-02, from ceará state, with 85% of similarity, and the less similar ones were fa-07 and fa-20, from ceará and pernambuco states, respectively, with 35.9% similarity. related to the morphological characterization, it was noticed that the genotype fa-13 in comparison to others presented higher values of seed weight, number of seeds per pod, length and width of pod, while the fa-16 genotype showed lower values for weight of one hundred seeds, very small seeds, lower number of pods per plant, lower length of pod and lower production of seed per plant.
Cyanogenesis of Wild Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) Is an Efficient Direct Defence in Nature  [PDF]
Daniel J. Ballhorn, Stefanie Kautz, Martin Heil, Adrian D. Hegeman
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0005450
Abstract: In natural systems plants face a plethora of antagonists and thus have evolved multiple defence strategies. Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) is a model plant for studies of inducible indirect anti-herbivore defences including the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and extrafloral nectar (EFN). In contrast, studies on direct chemical defence mechanisms as crucial components of lima beans' defence syndrome under natural conditions are nonexistent. In this study, we focus on the cyanogenic potential (HCNp; concentration of cyanogenic glycosides) as a crucial parameter determining lima beans' cyanogenesis, i.e. the release of toxic hydrogen cyanide from preformed precursors. Quantitative variability of cyanogenesis in a natural population of wild lima bean in Mexico was significantly correlated with missing leaf area. Since existing correlations do not by necessity mean causal associations, the function of cyanogenesis as efficient plant defence was subsequently analysed in feeding trials. We used natural chrysomelid herbivores and clonal lima beans with known cyanogenic features produced from field-grown mother plants. We show that in addition to extensively investigated indirect defences, cyanogenesis has to be considered as an important direct defensive trait affecting lima beans' overall defence in nature. Our results indicate the general importance of analysing ‘multiple defence syndromes’ rather than single defence mechanisms in future functional analyses of plant defences.
Insects diversity in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus)
YAYAN SANJAYA,WIWIN SETIAWATI
Biodiversitas , 2005,
Abstract: Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) is a vegetable which usually made as a home yard plant for Indonesian people to fulfill their daily needs. This plant has not been produced in the large number by the farmer. So it is hard to find in the market. Lima bean is light by many kind of insect. Inventory, identification and the study of insect taxon to this plant is being done to collect some information about the insect who life in the plant. The research was done in Balitsa experiment garden in the district of Lembang in Bandung regency on November 2003-February 2004, the experiment start at 4 weeks age, at the height of 1260 m over the sea level. The observation was made systematically by absolute method (D-vac macine) and relative method (sweeping net). The research so that there were 26 species of phytofagous insect, 9 species of predator insect, 6 species of parasitoid insect, 4 species of pollinator and 14 species of scavenger insect. According to the research the highest species number was got in the 8th week (3rd sampling), which had 27 variety of species, so the highest diversity was also got in this with 2,113 point. Aphididae and Cicadellidae was the most insect found in roay plant. The research also had high number of species insect so the diversity of insect and evenness become high. A community will have the high stability if it is a long with the high diversity. High evenness in community that has low species dominance and high species number of insect so the high of species richness.
Analyse préliminaire de la situation et des perspectives de la culture du haricot de Lima (Phaseolus lunatus L.) sur la C te péruvienne (Vallées d'Ica, Pisco et Casma)  [PDF]
Rouschop P.,Baudoin J.P.,Mergeai G.,Camarena-Mayta F.
Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement , 1999,
Abstract: Preliminary analysis of the situation and prospects of the Lima bean crop (Phaseolus lunatus L.) in the Peruvian Coast (Valleys of Ica, Pisco and Casma). The Lima bean, Phaseolus lunatus L., is a crop of regional importance on the Peruvian Coast. Within the framework of a collaborative project between the ""faculté universitaire des Sciences agronomiques'"" in Gembloux and the ""Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina"" in Lima, we carried out a diagnosis of this speculation in the Ica, Pisco and Casma valleys in order to define the constraints which limit crop yields and to suggest improvements within the reach of the smallholders. To achieve these objectives we carried out a formal survey, centred on the Lima bean crop and smallholder relations with the agro-socio-economical environment, and an informal survey, centred on the studied farm systems. To complete these data we met some key informants belonging to all the sectors in contact with agriculture. This study allowed us to identify five undersystems in the farm systems of the Peruvian Coastal Valleys. These undersystems are: cotton, commercial food crops, self-subsistence food crops, livestock and fruit trees. The Lima bean usually belongs to the commercial food crops undersystem. There are two types of constraints. External constraints affect all the components of the farm system and are mainly: end of State support to agriculture, liberalization of trade and unavailability of credit. Internal constraints directly affect the Lima bean crop. Low income leads to a deficiency in pest control and adequate crop management. The Lima bean is also in competition with other components of the system such as cotton and common beans
Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) seed coat phaseolin is detrimental to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus)
Moraes, R.A.;Sales, M.P.;Pinto, M.S.P.;Silva, L.B.;Oliveira, A.E.A.;Machado, O.L.T.;Fernandes, K.V.S.;Xavier-Filho, J.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X2000000200005
Abstract: the presence of phaseolin (a vicilin-like 7s storage globulin) peptides in the seed coat of the legume phaseolus lunatus l. (lima bean) was demonstrated by n-terminal amino acid sequencing. utilizing an artificial seed system assay we showed that phaseolin, isolated from both cotyledon and testa tissues of p. lunatus, is detrimental to the nonhost bruchid callosobruchus maculatus (f) (cowpea weevil) with ed50 of 1.7 and 3.5%, respectively. the level of phaseolin in the seed coat (16.7%) was found to be sufficient to deter larval development of this bruchid. the expression of a c. maculatus-detrimental protein in the testa of nonhost seeds suggests that the protein may have played a significant role in the evolutionary adaptation of bruchids to legume seeds.
Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) seed coat phaseolin is detrimental to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus)  [cached]
Moraes R.A.,Sales M.P.,Pinto M.S.P.,Silva L.B.
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2000,
Abstract: The presence of phaseolin (a vicilin-like 7S storage globulin) peptides in the seed coat of the legume Phaseolus lunatus L. (lima bean) was demonstrated by N-terminal amino acid sequencing. Utilizing an artificial seed system assay we showed that phaseolin, isolated from both cotyledon and testa tissues of P. lunatus, is detrimental to the nonhost bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F) (cowpea weevil) with ED50 of 1.7 and 3.5%, respectively. The level of phaseolin in the seed coat (16.7%) was found to be sufficient to deter larval development of this bruchid. The expression of a C. maculatus-detrimental protein in the testa of nonhost seeds suggests that the protein may have played a significant role in the evolutionary adaptation of bruchids to legume seeds.
Variación del tama?o de frutos y semillas en 38 poblaciones silvestres de Phaseolus lunatus (Fabaceae) del Valle Central de Costa Rica
Vargas,Elida M; Castro,Emilio; Macaya,Gabriel; J. Rocha,Oscar;
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2003,
Abstract: we studied the morfological diversity in fruits and seeds in 38 wild populations of phaseolus lunatus var. lunatus (lima beans) in the central valley of costa rica. in order to do so, measured the lenght and width of the fruits and the lenght, width and thickness of seeds. we also calculated the ratio between these traits and determined the weight of 100 seeds. in general, we found significant variation between populations for all variables. when we grouped the 38 populations into eight geographical regions within the study area, we found significant differences between regions. however, the levels of variation between populations within geographical regions was larger than that found between geographical regions. these findings suggested that there is no clear relationship between these variables and the geographical grouping established in this study. the implications of these findings for the establishment of strategies for in situ conservation of wild populations of lima beans are discussed
Genetic control of isozymes in the primary gene pool Phaseolus lunatus L.  [PDF]
Zoro-Bi I.,Maquet A.,Wathelet B.,Baudoin J.P.
Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement , 1999,
Abstract: Suitable electrophoretic separation methods of 34 isozymes from 17 enzyme systems resolved in Phaseolus lunatus L. (Lima bean) were developed. Data from the migration of the staining zones indicated that three loci control EST, GPI, IDH and MDH expression, while two loci control ACO, ADH, DIA, G6PDH, PER, PGDH, and PGM expression. The difference between the stained zones intensity on gels assayed for GDH and SOD suggest that each of these enzymes is also controlled by two loci. A single locus controls END, beta-GLU, LAP and SKDH. Based on the observed isozyme banding patterns, we inferred the quaternary structure of 11 enzyme systems. DIA isozymes were identified as tetrameric, ADH, fEST, GPI, MDH and PGDH as dimeric, and ACO, cEST, END, G6PDH, PGM and SKDH as monomeric. Allozyme polymorphisms of the resolved loci were estimated at both species and population levels. At species level, 74 / of the analysed loci were polymorphic while 44 / were polymorphic at population level.
Variación del tama o de frutos y semillas en 38 poblaciones silvestres de Phaseolus lunatus (Fabaceae) del Valle Central de Costa Rica  [cached]
Elida M Vargas,Emilio Castro,Gabriel Macaya,Oscar J. Rocha
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2003,
Abstract: Se estudió la diversidad morfológica de frutos y semillas de 38 poblaciones silvestres de Phaseolus lunatus var. lunatus (frijol lima) en el Valle Central de Costa Rica. Para ello se determinó la variación en el largo y ancho de vaina, el largo, ancho y grosor de las semillas, la razón entre estas variables y el peso promedio de 100 semillas. En términos generales, se puede afirmar que existen diferencias significativas entre las poblaciones analizadas para todas estas variables. Cuando se agruparon las 38 poblaciones en ocho regiones geográficas dentro del área de estudio, se encontró que existían diferencias significativas entre distintas regiones, pero la variación entre las poblaciones de cada región era mayor que aquella encontrada entre regiones. Estos resultados sugieren que no existe asociación entre estas variables y la región geográfica. Se analizó la utilidad de estos resultados para el desarrollo de estrategias para la conservación in situ de las poblaciones silvestres de Phaseolus lunatus We studied the morfological diversity in fruits and seeds in 38 wild populations of Phaseolus lunatus var. lunatus (lima beans) in the central valley of Costa Rica. In order to do so, measured the lenght and width of the fruits and the lenght, width and thickness of seeds. We also calculated the ratio between these traits and determined the weight of 100 seeds. In general, we found significant variation between populations for all variables. When we grouped the 38 populations into eight geographical regions within the study area, we found significant differences between regions. However, the levels of variation between populations within geographical regions was larger than that found between geographical regions. These findings suggested that there is no clear relationship between these variables and the geographical grouping established in this study. The implications of these findings for the establishment of strategies for in situ conservation of wild populations of lima beans are discussed
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