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Multinationals and Interdependence in Internationalisation Processes  [PDF]
Sérgio Fernando Loureiro Rezende
BAR. Brazilian Administration Review , 2006,
Abstract: This article deals with interdependence and the internationalisation process of multinationals (MNCs); a topic that has received scarce attention in the literature (e.g. Bell & Young, 1998; Holm et al., 1995). By reviewing the literature on behavioural models of internationalisation, initially, the article suggests that MNCs should be regarded as loosely coupled systems in which independence and interdependence of operations shape how MNCs evolve and organise activities across borders. Subsequently, the article models the internationalisation process of MNCs by highlighting three dimensions that characterise their pattern of evolution - uniformity, direction and rhythm, and lays out three hypotheses on the relationship between these dimensions and interdependence. The direction of the relationship is suggested to be negative, i.e., other things being equal, interdependence is negatively related to uniformity, direction and the rhythm of the internationalisationprocesses. The article concludes by claiming that the internationalisation of MNCs results from an intricate combination ofindependent, yet interdependent, internationalisation processes that evolve in various spatial and temporal contexts within the MNC network.
Multinationals and interdependence in internationalisation processes
Rezende, Sérgio Fernando Loureiro;
BAR. Brazilian Administration Review , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1807-76922006000100002
Abstract: this article deals with interdependence and the internationalisation process of multinationals (mncs); a topic that has received scarce attention in the literature (e.g. bell & young, 1998; holm et al., 1995). by reviewing the literature on behavioural models of internationalisation, initially, the article suggests that mncs should be regarded as loosely coupled systems in which independence and interdependence of operations shape how mncs evolve and organise activities across borders. subsequently, the article models the internationalisation process of mncs by highlighting three dimensions that characterise their pattern of evolution - uniformity, direction and rhythm, and lays out three hypotheses on the relationship between these dimensions and interdependence. the direction of the relationship is suggested to be negative, i.e., other things being equal, interdependence is negatively related to uniformity, direction and the rhythm of the internationalisation processes. the article concludes by claiming that the internationalisation of mncs results from an intricate combination of independent, yet interdependent, internationalisation processes that evolve in various spatial and temporal contexts within the mnc network.
Multinationals and interdependence in internationalisation processes
Rezende, Sérgio Fernando Loureiro;
Revista de Administra??o Contemporanea , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-65552006000500002
Abstract: this article deals with interdependence and the internationalisation process of multinationals (mncs); a topic that has received scarce attention in the literature (e.g. bell & young, 1998; holm et al., 1995). by reviewing the literature on behavioural models of internationalisation, initially, the article suggests that mncs should be regarded as loosely coupled systems in which independence and interdependence of operations shape how mncs evolve and organise activities across borders. subsequently, the article models the internationalisation process of mncs by highlighting three dimensions that characterise their pattern of evolution - uniformity, direction and rhythm, and lays out three hypotheses on the relationship between these dimensions and interdependence. the direction of the relationship is suggested to be negative, i.e., other things being equal, interdependence is negatively related to uniformity, direction and the rhythm of the internationalisation processes. the article concludes by claiming that the internationalisation of mncs results from an intricate combination of independent, yet interdependent, internationalisation processes that evolve in various spatial and temporal contexts within the mnc network.
Managing risk and knowledge in the internationalisation process Managing risk and knowledge in the internationalisation process Managing risk and knowledge in the internationalisation process  [cached]
Victoria Rodríguez,Lucía Barcos,M. Jesús álvarez
Intangible Capital , 2010, DOI: 10.3926/ic.162
Abstract: The internationalisation process in a company embodies a series of projects that are performed in different geographical regions. In some cases, especially in SMEs, companies are not capable of predicting the risks that will be faced during the process and they do not have suitable tools to manage the knowledge acquired in previous internationalisation experiences. Therefore, they fail to turn internationalisation into a sustainable competitive advantage. This paper reports the conclusions of a study based on both a bibliographic research and a comprehensive study of a group of industrial companies. This study includes the analysis of 37 internal reports about internationalisation experiences and the carrying out of semi-structured interviews with managers responsible for international operations. We have identified the main factors (risks) that prevent successful internationalisation processes and we have proposed a taxonomy of them. Furthermore, we have proposed a general framework (model) which provides a common perspective for all internationalisation projects, bringing coherence, and also a certain level of systematisation, to the decisions made in regards to different internationalisation projects. The model provides a systemic vision of the whole internationalisation process and we believe that companies can develop efficient learning systems based on this framework. It would give them differentiation and, therefore, help them to turn internationalisation into a sustainable competitive advantage. The internationalisation process in a company embodies a series of projects that are performed in different geographical regions. In some cases, especially in SMEs, companies are not capable of predicting the risks that will be faced during the process and they do not have suitable tools to manage the knowledge acquired in previous internationalisation experiences. Therefore, they fail to turn internationalisation into a sustainable competitive advantage. This paper reports the conclusions of a study based on both a bibliographic research and a comprehensive study of a group of industrial companies. This study includes the analysis of 37 internal reports about internationalisation experiences and the carrying out of semi-structured interviews with managers responsible for international operations. We have identified the main factors (risks) that prevent successful internationalisation processes and we have proposed a taxonomy of them. Furthermore, we have proposed a general framework (model) which provides a common perspective for all internationalisation
Internationalisation and Equality  [cached]
Louise Ackers
Recherches Sociologiques et Anthropologiques , 2010, DOI: 10.4000/rsa.189
Abstract: This paper examines the “tension” in the debate around human resources in science between the promotion of internationalisation and mobility, on the one hand, and the promotion of equality and work-life balance, on the other. In an attempt to move away from the current polarity of mobility-immobility and understand the importance of viewing mobility as a continuum, the paper emphasises the contribution of new forms of mobility and particularly of short stays to the internationalisation process that has become so critical to career progression. It illustrates the specific opportunities that certain forms of short-stay mobility present both in terms of optimizing knowledge exchange processes and “internationalisation” but also to “potentially mobile” women and men with personal and caring obligations. Attention to the “far end” of the continuum draws attention to the role that “business visits” and on-going “travel” play in career enhancement. Migration research has rather neglected these forms of movement. Recent research on business travel would suggest that these forms of movement are highly gendered and present unique challenges to people with personal and caring responsibilities.
Analytical Framework for Credit Portfolios  [PDF]
Mikhail Voropaev
Quantitative Finance , 2010,
Abstract: Analytical, free of time consuming Monte Carlo simulations, framework for credit portfolio systematic risk metrics calculations is presented. Techniques are described that allow calculation of portfolio-level systematic risk measures (standard deviation, VaR and Expected Shortfall) as well as allocation of risk down to individual transactions. The underlying model is the industry standard multi-factor Merton-type model with arbitrary valuation function at horizon (in contrast to the simplistic default-only case). High accuracy of the proposed analytical technique is demonstrated by benchmarking against Monte Carlo simulations.
Constitutional Game - An Analytical Framework of Constitutional Law and Constitutional Politics  [cached]
Benny Y. T. Tai
Journal of Politics and Law , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/jpl.v3n1p56
Abstract: Most lawyers have a doctrinal understanding of constitution. They are skeptical of any political understanding of a constitution, feeling that this may taint the sacredness of the legal paradigm. Political scientists view things differently. They offer three approaches to understanding a constitution from the political paradigm perspective: the attitudinal approach, the institutional approach and the strategic approach. The author argues that the incorporation of the political paradigm into one’s analytical framework is unavoidable if one wants to have a comprehensive understanding of the constitution. After arguing that different paradigms can be integrated if alternative epistemological presuppositions are being adopted, the legal and political paradigms and approaches are integrated into an analytical framework of constitutional game illustrating how law and politics may interact in the constitutional development of a country-state. Under this analytical framework of constitutional game, the constitutional processes in which decisions on the making, interpretation, implementation, adjudication and amendment or change of the constitution are made can be understood from features borrowed from the concept of game including players, rules of the game, winning goals, game resources, game actions, game field, interaction, strategy, and the end of the game.
The People's or the World's: RMB Internationalisation in Longer Historic Perspective  [PDF]
Niv Horesh
Economics Research International , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/161074
Abstract: Prognoses of China's currency—Renminbi or RMB in short—going global have become a hotly debated topic in the economic and popular literature of late. While some analysts are tipping a gradual transformation of the RMB into the world's next principal reserve currency in lieu of the US$, others contend that the deficiencies of China's financial market will continue to preclude any such transformation for a long time to come. The aim of this paper is to survey the arguments put forward by either camp and to weigh into this debate not only through the prism of applied economic theory or political economy but also through the prism of economic history. 1. Introduction The need to approach the issue of RMB internationalisation from fresh perspectives may perhaps be partly vindicated by what Wu et al. identify as the inevitable “paucity” of empirical analyses [1]. Equally compelling, however, is the fact that much of what has already been written on this issue is predicated on the fairly recent historic experience of the onset of the pound sterling and US$ through the 20th century, and on the still more recent experience of the Euro in the early 21st century. (See, e.g., Hefeker and Nabor [2].) Implicitly, therefore, the prospects of RMB internationalisation are assessed based on indicators of convergence between the Chinese economy at present, and the British, American, Japanese, or EU economies in recent decades. But such an analytical framework, when removed from the broader historic context, might of itself rule out a more distinct Chinese path to global economic eminence—one where, for example, the depth of domestic capital markets might not turn out to be a critical determinant of RMB internationalisation as was the case in the Anglo-American development trajectory. The following historic survey can perhaps shed light on current debates about the future role of RMB in at least one way: they remind us that the prospect of Chinese currency used as international currency may not be entirely new. For even though traditionally cast Chinese copper coinage was swept aside by Western steam-powered minting technology in the late 19th century, it had for a millennium or so prior set the benchmark for East and Southeast Asian monetization. As China was phasing out traditional copper coinage—known as caixa or “cash” to Europeans—Chinese indentured labourers were still taking it with them aboard British ships sailing across the South Pacific to serve as token currency for gambling and grocery purposes [3]. The analysis offered below explores what might inspire a
The Internationalisation Process of the Smaller Firm: An Examination of the Craft Microenterprise
Ian Fillis
The Open Business Journal , 2008, DOI: 10.2174/1874915100801010053]
Abstract: This work involves an examination of the internationalisation process of the smaller firm, focusing on the craft enterprise in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland. Craft sector analysis was carried out in order to determine historical precedents as well as to assist in the identification of industry and firm level factors impinging upon domestic and export market behaviour. A range of internationalisation theories are discussed, with the conclusion that the majority of these frameworks fail to readily explain smaller firm exporting behaviour. More recent developments such as the born global firm, the instant international and networking for internationalisation are deemed more appropriate fits for smaller firm internationalisation research. Quantitative results identify the majority of craft firms as microenterprises with almost one half operating as a single person business. Qualitative analysis enabled profiling of craft firm types to be carried out. Four orientations are uncovered: the entrepreneur, the idealist, the lifestyler and the latecomer. A composite framework of the factors uncovered in the analysis is constructed in order to better explain the process of smaller firm internationalisation.
Developing an analytical framework for the analysis of national and local governance processes in integrated care  [cached]
Susanne Kümpers
International Journal of Integrated Care , 2008,
Abstract:
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