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Dietary Effects on Cuticular Hydrocarbons and Sexual Attractiveness in Drosophila  [PDF]
Tatyana Y. Fedina, Tsung-Han Kuo, Klaus Dreisewerd, Herman A. Dierick, Joanne Y. Yew, Scott D. Pletcher
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049799
Abstract: Dietary composition is known to have profound effects on many aspects of animal physiology, including lifespan, general health, and reproductive potential. We have previously shown that aging and insulin signaling significantly influence the composition and sexual attractiveness of Drosophila melanogaster female cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), some of which are known to be sex pheromones. Because diet is intimately linked to aging and to the activity of nutrient-sensing pathways, we asked how diet affects female CHCs and attractiveness. Here we report consistent and significant effects of diet composition on female CHC profiles across ages, with dietary yeast and sugar driving CHC changes in opposite directions. Surprisingly, however, we found no evidence that these changes affect female attractiveness. Multivariate comparisons among responses of CHC profiles to diet, aging, and insulin signaling suggest that diet may alter the levels of some CHCs in a way that results in profiles that are more attractive while simultaneously altering other CHCs in a way that makes them less attractive. For example, changes in short-chain CHCs induced by a high-yeast diet phenocopy changes caused by aging and by decreased insulin signaling, both of which result in less attractive females. On the other hand, changes in long-chain CHCs in response to the same diet result in levels that are comparable to those observed in attractive young females and females with increased insulin signaling. The effects of a high-sugar diet tend in the opposite direction, as levels of short-chain CHCs resemble those in attractive females with increased insulin signaling and changes in long-chain CHCs are similar to those caused by decreased insulin signaling. Together, these data suggest that diet-dependent changes in female CHCs may be sending conflicting messages to males.
A Model-Based Analysis of Chemical and Temporal Patterns of Cuticular Hydrocarbons in Male Drosophila melanogaster  [PDF]
Clement Kent, Reza Azanchi, Ben Smith, Adrienne Chu, Joel Levine
PLOS ONE , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000962
Abstract: Drosophila Cuticular Hydrocarbons (CH) influence courtship behaviour, mating, aggregation, oviposition, and resistance to desiccation. We measured levels of 24 different CH compounds of individual male D. melanogaster hourly under a variety of environmental (LD/DD) conditions. Using a model-based analysis of CH variation, we developed an improved normalization method for CH data, and show that CH compounds have reproducible cyclic within-day temporal patterns of expression which differ between LD and DD conditions. Multivariate clustering of expression patterns identified 5 clusters of co-expressed compounds with common chemical characteristics. Turnover rate estimates suggest CH production may be a significant metabolic cost. Male cuticular hydrocarbon expression is a dynamic trait influenced by light and time of day; since abundant hydrocarbons affect male sexual behavior, males may present different pheromonal profiles at different times and under different conditions.
Mating alters gene expression patterns in Drosophila melanogaster male heads
Lisa L Ellis, Ginger E Carney
BMC Genomics , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-11-558
Abstract: We used Drosophila genome arrays to identify changes in gene expression profiles that occur in mated male heads. Forty-seven genes differed between mated and control heads 2 hrs post mating. Many mating-responsive genes are highly expressed in non-neural head tissues, including an adipose tissue called the fat body. One fat body-enriched gene, female-specific independent of transformer (fit), is a downstream target of the somatic sex-determination hierarchy, a genetic pathway that regulates Drosophila reproductive behaviors as well as expression of some fat-expressed genes; three other mating-responsive loci are also downstream components of this pathway. Another mating-responsive gene expressed in fat, Juvenile hormone esterase (Jhe), is necessary for robust male courtship behavior and mating success.Our study demonstrates that mating causes changes in male head gene expression profiles and supports an increasing body of work implicating adipose signaling in behavior modulation. Since several mating-induced genes are sex-determination hierarchy target genes, additional mating-responsive loci may be downstream components of this pathway as well.Behavior involves the perception and processing of sensory information into a signaling cascade that mediates physiological and motor outputs. This complex process is influenced by an organism's environment, genetic make-up and nervous system function. Social interactions influence an organism's behavior [1-5], and these behavioral changes are associated with alterations in morphology [6-9] and gene expression [6,10-17]. However, the mechanisms mediating the changes are unclear. As we work to understand responses to behavior at the transcript level, we can clarify the regulatory and intracellular processes governing nervous system function and behavior.Therefore, we are studying reproductive behaviors in the genetically tractable Drosophila melanogaster, which exhibit stereotypical mating behaviors [reviewed in [18,19]] regul
Male-Specific Transfer and Fine Scale Spatial Differences of Newly Identified Cuticular Hydrocarbons and Triacylglycerides in a Drosophila Species Pair  [PDF]
Joanne Y. Yew,Klaus Dreisewerd,Cássia Cardoso de Oliveira,William J. Etges
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0016898
Abstract: We analyzed epicuticular hydrocarbon variation in geographically isolated populations of D. mojavensis cultured on different rearing substrates and a sibling species, D. arizonae, with ultraviolet laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (UV-LDI MS). Different body parts, i.e. legs, proboscis, and abdomens, of both species showed qualitatively similar hydrocarbon profiles consisting mainly of long-chain monoenes, dienes, trienes, and tetraenes. However, D. arizonae had higher amounts of most hydrocarbons than D. mojavensis and females of both species exhibited greater hydrocarbon amounts than males. Hydrocarbon profiles of D. mojavensis populations were significantly influenced by sex and rearing substrates, and differed between body parts. Lab food–reared flies had lower amounts of most hydrocarbons than flies reared on fermenting cactus substrates. We discovered 48 male- and species-specific hydrocarbons ranging in size from C22 to C50 in the male anogenital region of both species, most not described before. These included several oxygen-containing hydrocarbons in addition to high intensity signals corresponding to putative triacylglycerides, amounts of which were influenced by larval rearing substrates. Some of these compounds were transferred to female cuticles in high amounts during copulation. This is the first study showing that triacylglycerides may be a separate class of courtship-related signaling molecules in drosophilids. This study also extends the kind and number of epicuticular hydrocarbons in these species and emphasizes the role of larval ecology in influencing amounts of these compounds, many of which mediate courtship success within and between species.
Sexual selection on cuticular hydrocarbons in the Australian field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus
Melissa L Thomas, Leigh W Simmons
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-9-162
Abstract: We found that all three measures of male attractiveness generated sexual selection on male cuticular hydrocarbons, however there were differences in the form and intensity of selection among these three measures. Mating success was the only measure of attractiveness that imposed both univariate linear and quadratic selection on cuticular hydrocarbons. Although we found that all three attractiveness measures generated nonlinear selection, again only mating success was found to exert statistically significant stabilizing selection.This study shows that sexual selection plays an important role in the evolution of male cuticular hydrocarbon signals.It is common in natural populations for individuals of one sex, usually the female, to prefer certain phenotypic trait values over others in their choice of mates. Female preferences for male sexual signals are responsible for a spectacular array of phenotypic diversity found in the natural world, driving the evolution of exaggerated traits such as colouration [1], conspicuous ornaments [2,3], and song [4,5]. Females have also been found to base their choice of mate on pheromone signals. Although less well studied, pheromone signals are subject to the same kinds of natural and sexual selective forces that shape visual and auditory signals [6]. However, our understanding of the processes driving the evolution of pheromones is significantly less well developed.Cuticular hydrocarbons are chemical compounds found on the cuticle of most terrestrial arthropods. These compounds have been studied extensively for their role as signals in mate and species recognition, and ecology [7,8]. Cuticular hydrocarbons are highly sexually dimorphic in a range of species, with many of the compounds present in one sex but absent in the other, while shared compounds often differ quantitatively between the sexes [see [9] for review]. Such sexual dimorphism is expected to result from sex-specific selection. Despite the large number of species that di
Variation in the Male Pheromones and Mating Success of Wild Caught Drosophila melanogaster  [PDF]
David Scott, Alicia Shields, Michaela Straker, Heidi Dalrymple, Priya K. Dhillon, Singh Harbinder
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023645
Abstract: Drosophila melanogaster males express two primary cuticular hydrocarbons (male-predominant hydrocarbons). These act as sex pheromones by influencing female receptivity to mating. The relative quantities of these hydrocarbons vary widely among natural populations and can contribute to variation in mating success. We tested four isofemale lines collected from a wild population to assess the effect of intrapopulation variation in male-predominant hydrocarbons on mating success. The receptivity of laboratory females to males of the four wild-caught lines varied significantly, but not consistently in the direction predicted by variation in male-predominant hydrocarbons. Receptivity of the wild-caught females to laboratory males also varied significantly, but females from lines with male-predominant hydrocarbon profiles closer to a more cosmopolitan one did not show a correspondingly strong mating bias toward a cosmopolitan male. Among wild-caught lines, the male-specific ejaculatory bulb lipid, cis-vaccenyl acetate, varied more than two-fold, but was not associated with variation in male mating success. We observed a strong inverse relationship between the receptivity of wild-caught females and the mating success of males from their own lines, when tested with laboratory flies of the opposite sex.
Cuticular hydrocarbons of Chagas disease vectors in Mexico
Juárez, M Patricia;Carlson, David A;Salazar Schettino, Paz María;Mijailovsky, Sergio;Rojas, Gloria;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762002000600012
Abstract: capillary gas-liquid chromatography was used to analyse the cuticular hydrocarbons of three triatomine species, triatoma dimidiata, t. barberi and dipetalogaster maxima, domestic vectors of chagas disease in mexico. mixtures of saturated hydrocarbons of straight and methyl-branched chains were characteristic of the three species, but quantitatively different. major methylbranched components mostly corresponded to different saturated isomers of monomethyl, dimethyl and trimethyl branched hydrocarbons ranging from 29 to 39 carbon backbones. sex-dependant, quantitative differences in certain hydrocarbons were apparent in t. dimidiata.
Cuticular hydrocarbons of Chagas disease vectors in Mexico  [cached]
Juárez M Patricia,Carlson David A,Salazar Schettino Paz María,Mijailovsky Sergio
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2002,
Abstract: Capillary gas-liquid chromatography was used to analyse the cuticular hydrocarbons of three triatomine species, Triatoma dimidiata, T. barberi and Dipetalogaster maxima, domestic vectors of Chagas disease in Mexico. Mixtures of saturated hydrocarbons of straight and methyl-branched chains were characteristic of the three species, but quantitatively different. Major methylbranched components mostly corresponded to different saturated isomers of monomethyl, dimethyl and trimethyl branched hydrocarbons ranging from 29 to 39 carbon backbones. Sex-dependant, quantitative differences in certain hydrocarbons were apparent in T. dimidiata.
Volatile Drosophila Cuticular Pheromones Are Affected by Social but Not Sexual Experience  [PDF]
Jean-Pierre Farine, Jean-Fran?ois Ferveur, Claude Everaerts
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040396
Abstract: Recognition of conspecifics and mates is based on a variety of sensory cues that are specific to the species, sex and social status of each individual. The courtship and mating activity of Drosophila melanogaster flies is thought to depend on the olfactory perception of a male-specific volatile pheromone, cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA), and the gustatory perception of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHs), some of which are sexually dimorphic. Using two complementary sampling methods (headspace Solid Phase Micro-Extraction [SPME] and solvent extraction) coupled with GC-MS analysis, we measured the dispersion of pheromonal CHs in the air and on the substrate around the fly. We also followed the variations in CHs that were induced by social and sexual interactions. We found that all CHs present on the fly body were deposited as a thin layer on the substrate, whereas only a few of these molecules were also detected in the air. Moreover, social experience during early adult development and in mature flies strongly affected male volatile CHs but not cVA, whereas sexual interaction only had a moderate influence on dispersed CHs. Our study suggests that, in addition to their role as contact cues, CHs can influence fly behavior at a distance and that volatile, deposited and body pheromonal CHs participate in a three-step recognition of the chemical identity and social status of insects.
Cuticular Hydrocarbon Content that Affects Male Mate Preference of Drosophila melanogaster from West Africa  [PDF]
Aya Takahashi,Nao Fujiwara-Tsujii,Ryohei Yamaoka,Masanobu Itoh,Mamiko Ozaki,Toshiyuki Takano-Shimizu
International Journal of Evolutionary Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/278903
Abstract: Intraspecific variation in mating signals and preferences can be a potential source of incipient speciation. Variable crossability between Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans among different strains suggested the abundance of such variations. A particular focus on one combination of D. melanogaster strains, TW1(G23) and Mel6(G59), that showed different crossabilities to D. simulans, revealed that the mating between females from the former and males from the latter occurs at low frequency. The cuticular hydrocarbon transfer experiment indicated that cuticular hydrocarbons of TW1 females have an inhibitory effect on courtship by Mel6 males. A candidate component, a C25 diene, was inferred from the gas chromatography analyses. The intensity of male refusal of TW1 females was variable among different strains of D. melanogaster, which suggested the presence of variation in sensitivity to different chemicals on the cuticle. Such variation could be a potential factor for the establishment of premating isolation under some conditions. 1. Introduction Drosophila exhibits complex mating behavior with frequent wing vibration and copulation attempts by males. The successful mating is achieved by communications between males and females using chemical, acoustic, and visual signals (reviewed in [1]). Subtle differences in these signals may accumulate during or after the formation of reproductive isolation. Once reproduction isolation is established to a certain extent, the correct mate recognition is essential to avoid costly hybridization and wasting time on unsuccessful courtship. Indeed, a certain degree of premating isolation or mating incompatibility is commonly observed between closely related species of Drosophila [2, 3]. In some cosmopolitan species of Drosophila, for example, D. ananassae [4] and D. elegans [5, 6], widely observed mating incompatibilities between populations from different locations exist. The degree of incompatibility is variable among sampled strains in these species. Another cosmopolitan species, D. melanogaster, also harbors incompatible combinations of populations [7–11]. The degree of incompatibility between populations is also variable, and many intermediate strains are typically observed. These within species incompatibilities suggest that there are many intraspecific variations in mating signals and preferences. Those variations could either fix in isolated populations or become targets of sexual selection under some conditions and consequently result in divergent mating-associated characters among different populations. It is
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