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Bioprospection of marine microorganisms: potential and challenges for Argentina Bioprospección de microorganismos marinos: potencialidades y desafíos para Argentina  [cached]
Hebe M Dionisi,Mariana Lozada,Nelda L Olivera
Revista argentina de microbiolog?-a , 2012,
Abstract: The marine environments of Argentina have a remarkable extension, as well as high biological productivity and biodiversity of both macro- and microorganisms. Despite having a great potential for biotechnological applications, the microorganisms inhabiting these ecosystems remain mostly unexplored and unexploited. In this review, we study the research topics and the interactions among Argentinean laboratories, by analyzing current articles published on biotechnology-related marine microbiology by researchers of this country. In addition, we identify the challenges and opportunities for Argentina to take advantage of the genetic potential of its marine microorganisms. Finally, we suggest possible actions that could improve the development of this research field, as well as the utilization of this knowledge to solve societal needs. El medio ambiente marino de la Argentina tiene una notable extensión, como así también una alta productividad biológica y biodiversidad de macro y microorganismos. A pesar de presentar un gran potencial para aplicaciones biotecnológicas, los microorganismos que habitan estos ecosistemas permanecen mayormente inexplorados y sus propiedades aún no explotadas. En este trabajo de revisión, estudiamos los temas de investigación y las interacciones entre grupos de investigación argentinos, por medio del análisis de los artículos publicados hasta el momento en temáticas relacionadas con la aplicación biotecnológica de microorganismos marinos. Además, identificamos los desafíos y las oportunidades para que la Argentina tome ventaja del potencial genético de sus microorganismos marinos. Por último, sugerimos posibles acciones que podrían mejorar el desarrollo de este campo de estudio, como así también la utilización de este conocimiento para resolver las necesidades de la sociedad.
Marine metagenomics: strategies for the discovery of novel enzymes with biotechnological applications from marine environments
Jonathan Kennedy, Julian R Marchesi, Alan DW Dobson
Microbial Cell Factories , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2859-7-27
Abstract: It has been estimated that pelagic bacteria are extremely abundant, achieving densities of up to 106 per ml of seawater, and account for most oceanic biomass and metabolism [1]; while numbers of bacteria which are thought to colonize marine snow can reach levels of up to 109 per ml [2]. Marine environments, including the subsurface are believed to contain a total of approximately 3.67 × 1030 microorganisms [3] and with approximately 71% of the earth's surface of 361 million square kilometers covered by the ocean, this environment represents an enormous pool of potential microbial biodiversity and exploitable biotechnology or "blue biotechnology". This untapped potential has resulted in the recent acceleration in interest in the study of marine microorganisms, with the aim of not only providing us with more information on the key role they play in marine food webs and biogeochemical cycling in marine ecosystems, but also in exploiting their ability to produce novel enzymes and metabolites/compounds with potential biotechnological applications. As with terrestrial environments, where more than 99% of bacteria cannot be cultured by conventional means, the same is true for marine environments where the vast majority of these marine microbes have to date not yet been identified, classified or indeed cultured. According to Amann and colleagues as few as 0.001–0.1% of microbes in seawater are currently cultivable [4]. In this respect the recent advances in culture independent techniques to assess microbial diversity and ecology, such as phylogenetic studies based on small ribosomal RNA (rRNA) analysis and metagenomics, which were initially developed for terrestrial based research are now increasingly being employed in marine environments and are proving extremely useful [5,6]. A clear example of this was the large scale metagenome sequencing project which was recently undertaken on oligotrophic seawater samples from the Sargasso Sea [7] and the Global Ocean Sampling (GOS)
Synthesis, Production, and Biotechnological Applications of Exopolysaccharides and Polyhydroxyalkanoates by Archaea  [PDF]
Annarita Poli,Paola Di Donato,Gennaro Roberto Abbamondi,Barbara Nicolaus
Archaea , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/693253
Abstract: Extreme environments, generally characterized by atypical temperatures, pH, pressure, salinity, toxicity, and radiation levels, are inhabited by various microorganisms specifically adapted to these particular conditions, called extremophiles. Among these, the microorganisms belonging to the Archaea domain are of significant biotechnological importance as their biopolymers possess unique properties that offer insights into their biology and evolution. Particular attention has been devoted to two main types of biopolymers produced by such peculiar microorganisms, that is, the extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs), considered as a protection against desiccation and predation, and the endocellular polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) that provide an internal reserve of carbon and energy. Here, we report the composition, biosynthesis, and production of EPSs and PHAs by different archaeal species. 1. Introduction A vast number of EPSs from extremophiles were reported over the last decades, and their greatly variable composition, structure, biosynthesis and functional properties have been extensively studied but only a few of them have been industrially developed. EPSs are highly heterogeneous polymers containing a number of distinct monosaccharides and noncarbohydrate substituents that are species specific. Polysaccharide chains are usually formed by using an oligosaccharide as a repeating unit that can vary in size depending on the degree of polymerization. Exopolysaccharides have found multifarious applications in the food, pharmaceutical, and other industries. Both extremophilic microorganisms and their EPSs suggest several biotechnological advantages, like short fermentation processes for thermophiles and easily formed and stable emulsions of EPSs from psychrophiles [1–4]. EPSs have been isolated from different genera of Archaea, mainly belonging to thermophilic and halophilic groups. Thermophilic (heat loving) microorganisms can be found in every phylum of Archaea and Bacteria, and have been isolated from various thermophilic ecosystems: marine hot springs, both deep and shallow, and terrestrial hot springs that have served as sources for isolation of microbial EPS producers. Among the thermophilic archaeal genera, Thermococcus and Sulfolobus produce EPSs, and Archaeoglobus fulgidus and Thermococcus litoralis accumulate significant amounts of EPSs as biofilms [5–8], a consortium of microorganisms immobilized and penned within EPS, which can restrict the diffusion of substances and antimicrobial agents. Beside archaea, several thermophilic bacteria are good
Marine Microorganisms: Potential Application and Challenges
S.N. Baharum,E.K. Beng,M.A.A. Mokhtar
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: Marine environment is an enormous pool of biodiversity resources that covers approximately 70% surface of the earth and one of organism inhabit these environment is microorganisms. Marine microorganisms have unique properties since they have to adapt to extreme marine environment condition such as high or low temperature, alkaline or acidic water, high pressure and limited substrate in the deep-sea water. These distinctive characteristics have attracted many researchers to explore in depth since there is the potential of marine microorganisms used in industry. In this review, we will focus primarily on marine microorganisms that provide biotechnological potential such as in enzymes industry and pharmaceutical products. We also discuss an overview of the challenge facing by researchers in order to explore and exploit the marine reservoir.
Perspectives on biotechnological applications of archaea  [PDF]
Chiara Schiraldi,Mariateresa Giuliano,Mario De Rosa
Archaea , 2002, DOI: 10.1155/2002/436561
Abstract: Many archaea colonize extreme environments. They include hyperthermophiles, sulfur-metabolizing thermophiles, extreme halophiles and methanogens. Because extremophilic microorganisms have unusual properties, they are a potentially valuable resource in the development of novel biotechnological processes. Despite extensive research, however, there are few existing industrial applications of either archaeal biomass or archaeal enzymes. This review summarizes current knowledge about the biotechnological uses of archaea and archaeal enzymes with special attention to potential applications that are the subject of current experimental evaluation. Topics covered include cultivation methods, recent achievements in genomics, which are of key importance for the development of new biotechnological tools, and the application of wild-type biomasses, engineered microorganisms, enzymes and specific metabolites in particular bioprocesses of industrial interest.
Immobilization of microbial cells and their biotechnological applications  [cached]
Luiz Gustavo Covizzi,Ellen Cristine Giese,Eleni Gomes,Robert F. H. Dekker
Semina : Ciências Exatas e Tecnológicas , 2007,
Abstract: This work presents an overview of different methods and carriers used to immobilize microbial cells. Methods of adsorption, entrapment and encapsulation of microorganisms are discussed, as well as of natural immobilization. The use of physical and chemical proceedings to immobilize cells in order to enhance the yields of bacteria, yeast and fungal metabolites by fermentation processes are described, as well as their biotechnological applications as biocatalystis.
Fermentation Products of Solvent Tolerant Marine Bacterium Moraxella spp. MB1 and Its Biotechnological Applications in Salicylic Acid Bioconversion  [PDF]
Solimabi Wahidullah, Deepak N. Naik, Prabha Devi
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0083647
Abstract: As part of a proactive approach to environmental protection, emerging issues with potential impact on the environment is the subject of ongoing investigation. One emerging area of environmental research concerns pharmaceuticals like salicylic acid, which is the main metabolite of various analgesics including aspirin. It is a common component of sewage effluent and also an intermediate in the degradation pathway of various aromatic compounds which are introduced in the marine environment as pollutants. In this study, biotransformation products of salicylic acid by seaweed, Bryopsis plumosa, associated marine bacterium, Moraxella spp. MB1, have been investigated. Phenol, conjugates of phenol and hydroxy cinnamic acid derivatives (coumaroyl, caffeoyl, feruloyl and trihydroxy cinnamyl) with salicylic acid (3–8) were identified as the bioconversion products by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. These results show that the microorganism do not degrade phenolic acid but catalyses oxygen dependent transformations without ring cleavage. The degradation of salicylic acid is known to proceed either via gentisic acid pathway or catechol pathway but this is the first report of biotransformation of salicylic acid into cinnamates, without ring cleavage. Besides cinnamic acid derivatives (9–12), metabolites produced by the bacterium include antimicrobial indole (13) and β-carbolines, norharman (14), harman (15) and methyl derivative (16), which are beneficial to the host and the environment.
Biosurfactants from marine microorganisms
Suppasil Maneerat
Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology , 2005,
Abstract: Biosurfactants are the surface-active molecules synthesized by microorganisms. With the advantage of environmental compatibility, the demand for biosurfactants has been steadily increasing and may eventually replace their chemically synthesized counterparts. Marine biosurfactants produced by some marine microorganisms have been paid more attention, particularly for the bioremediation of the sea polluted by crude oil. This review describes screening of biosurfactant-producing microorganisms, the determination of biosurfactant activity as well as the recovery of marine surfactant. The uses of marine biosurfactants for bioremediation are also discussed.
Acinetobacter: environmental and biotechnological applications
Desouky Abdel-El-Haleem
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2003,
Abstract: Among microbial communities involved in different ecosystems such as soil, freshwater, wastewater and solid wastes, several strains belonging to the genus of Acinetobacter have been attracting growing interest from medical, environmental and a biotechnological point of view. Bacteria of this genus are known to be involved in biodegradation, leaching and removal of several organic and inorganic man-made hazardous wastes. It is also well known that some of Acinetobacter strains produce important bioproducts. This review summarizes the usefulness and environmental applications of Acinetobacter strains. (African Journal of Biotechnology: 2003 2(4): 71-75)
Biotechnological Applications of Transglutaminases  [PDF]
Natalie M. Rachel,Joelle N. Pelletier
Biomolecules , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/biom3040870
Abstract: In nature, transglutaminases catalyze the formation of amide bonds between proteins to form insoluble protein aggregates. This specific function has long been exploited in the food and textile industries as a protein cross-linking agent to alter the texture of meat, wool, and leather. In recent years, biotechnological applications of transglutaminases have come to light in areas ranging from material sciences to medicine. There has also been a substantial effort to further investigate the fundamentals of transglutaminases, as many of their characteristics that remain poorly understood. Those studies also work towards the goal of developing transglutaminases as more efficient catalysts. Progress in this area includes structural information and novel chemical and biological assays. Here, we review recent achievements in this area in order to illustrate the versatility of transglutaminases.
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