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Implementation of Digital Watermarking For Image Security with EBCOT Algorithm and Error Correcting Codes  [PDF]
Ms Keta Raval,Mrs. Rajni Bhoomarker,Mrs Sameena Zafar
International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology , 2013,
Abstract: In the cutting edge of technology, secured communication media becomes the essential need of multimedia broadcasting. In the reference of multimedia broadcasting, digital audio, video, internet data needs copyright authentication to prevent unauthorized access of data. Digital Watermarking by DWT-DCT with secrete key provides robustness as well as securing information. Digital Watermarking is processed by some way before it reaches to the receiver. The uncompressed digital image has lots of problems related to bandwidth. We can do effective image compression by EBCOT Algorithm. Error correcting codes reduces the effect of noises and attacks on communication channel. Digital watermarking provides cost effective solution for image security and communication.
Double Error Correcting Long Code  [PDF]
Joanne Gomes,B K Mishra
International Journal of Computer Networks & Communications , 2010,
Abstract: This paper introduces a novel binary, long double error correcting, systematic code (8 2 5) that candetect and correct errors up to two bits in the received vector using simple concept of syndromedecoding. The motivation behind the construction of this code is the idea to achieve 100% errorcorrection on the receiver side and to use the encoder/decoder that is simpler than the existing doubleerror correcting codes. By 100% correction we mean that when the two bits of information (k=2) istransmitted simultaneously over the noisy channel and if the two bits are in the error, in the receivedvector, then this code can detect and correct errors up to two bits thus recovering both the two bits ofinformation. We show that to achieve this we need to choose long code length, maximum of 8 bits (n=8).We present a generator matrix and a parity check matrix to achieve required Hamming distance by usingthe concept of long code. The paper also presents the performance bounds satisfied by the said code.
Error correcting codes for robust color wavelet watermarking
Wadood Adbul, Philippe Carré and Philippe Gaborit
EURASIP Journal on Information Security , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1687-417X-2013-1
Abstract: This article details the conception, design, development and analysis of invisible, blind and robust color image watermarking algorithms based on the wavelet transform. Using error correcting codes, the watermarking algorithms are designed to be robust against intentional or unintentional attacks such as JPEG compression, additive white Gaussian noise, low pass filter and color attacks (hue, saturation and brightness modifications). Considering the watermarking channel characterized by these attacks, repetition, Hamming, Bose Chaudhuri Hocquenghem and Reed-Solomon codes are used in order to improve the robustness using different modes and appropriate decoding algorithms. The article compares the efficiency of different type of codes against different type of attacks. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that the effect of error-correcting codes against different attacks are detailed in a watermarking context in such a precise way: describing and comparing the effect of different classes of codes against different type of attacks. This article clearly shows that list decoding of Reed-Solomon codes using the algorithm of Sudan exhibits good performance against hue and saturation attacks. The use of error correcting codes in a concatenation mode allows the non-binary block codes to show good performance against JPEG compression, noise and brightness attacks.
Simulation of Quantum Error Correcting Code  [PDF]
Peter Nyman
Physics , 2008,
Abstract: This study considers implementations of error correction in a simulation language on a classical computer. Error correction will be necessarily in quantum computing and quantum information. We will give some examples of the implementations of some error correction codes. These implementations will be made in a more general quantum simulation language on a classical computer in the language Mathematica. The intention of this research is to develop a programming language that is able to make simulations of all quantum algorithms and error corrections in the same framework. The program code implemented on a classical computer will provide a connection between the mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics and computational methods. This gives us a clear uncomplicated language for the implementations of algorithms.
Performance evaluation of DWT based image watermarking using error correcting codes.  [PDF]
Shaikh Rakhshan Anjum, Priyanka Verma
International Journal of Advanced Computer Research , 2012,
Abstract: Due to excessive proliferation of digital multimedia, the need of protecting the ownership of digital media becomes a major issue. For content protection digital image watermarking plays an important role in Multimedia security fields. Methods developed under this are used to protect Intellectual property rights of digital data such as video, image, audio, etc. without affecting the fidelity of the original data. In this paper we show that if the logo is coded using error correcting codes before being embedded into the watermarked image the robustness of the watermark is increased. Different codes that are taken into consideration in this paper are Hamming and cyclic codes. Here the encoded and embedded watermarked image is considered to be encountering an AWG noise while transmission. We observe that the SNR and PSNR of the watermarked image even in AWGN channel are better when logo is coded before embedding. Also we observe that Hamming codes SNR and PSNR are much more superior to cyclic codes.
Nonadditive quantum error-correcting code  [PDF]
Sixia Yu,Qing Chen,C. H. Lai,C. H. Oh
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.101.090501
Abstract: We report the first nonadditive quantum error-correcting code, namely, a $((9,12,3))$ code which is a 12-dimensional subspace within a 9-qubit Hilbert space, that outperforms the optimal stabilizer code of the same length by encoding more levels while correcting arbitrary single-qubit errors.
Naive Mean Field Approximation for the Error Correcting Code  [PDF]
Masami Takata,Hayaru Shouno,Kazuki Joe,Masato Okada
Physics , 2003,
Abstract: Solving the error correcting code is an important goal with regard to communication theory.To reveal the error correcting code characteristics, several researchers have applied a statistical-mechanical approach to this problem. In our research, we have treated the error correcting code as a Bayes inference framework. Carrying out the inference in practice, we have applied the NMF (naive mean field) approximation to the MPM (maximizer of the posterior marginals) inference, which is a kind of Bayes inference. In the field of artificial neural networks, this approximation is used to reduce computational cost through the substitution of stochastic binary units with the deterministic continuous value units. However, few reports have quantitatively described the performance of this approximation. Therefore, we have analyzed the approximation performance from a theoretical viewpoint, and have compared our results with the computer simulation.
Robustness of Watermarking: Is Error Correcting Coding Effective?
水印鲁棒性:纠错编码有效吗?

HUANG Ji-Wu,GU Li-Min,SHI Yun-Qing,
黄继武
,谷利民,施云庆

自动化学报 , 2005,
Abstract: Robustness is one of the most important requirements of digital watermarking for many applications. Spread-spectrum based methods are not effective enough to ensure their robustness. By modeling digital watermarking as digital communications, several researchers proposed using error correcting coding (ECC) to improve robustness. However, an important fact that has long been neglected is that due to the imperceptibility requirement, the redundancy introduced by ECC will lead to a decrease of the magnitude of watermark signal. Therefore, a problem arises naturally: Could the usage of ECC effectively improve the robustness of watermarking? This paper addresses this problem from the perspectives of both theoretical analysis and experimental investigation. Our investigation shows that ECC cannot effectively improve the robustness of watermarking against a great majority of various attacks except for cropping and jitter attacks. Hence, ECC should not be considered as a universal measure that can be employed to enhance robustness of watermarking.
Image Watermarking Scheme With Unequal Protection Capability Based on Error Correcting Codes  [cached]
Chuan Qin,Qian Mao,Xinpeng Zhang
Journal of Multimedia , 2010, DOI: 10.4304/jmm.5.5.427-433
Abstract: We propose a novel image watermarking scheme capable of providing unequal protection levels to different regions. In the scheme, we firstly construct the unequal error protection (UEP) code by designing an unequal coding space using algebra means, then we divide the image into high protection region, low protection region and non-protection region, and use the UEP code to encode the bits generated by high and low protection regions simultaneously and form the watermark bits to embed in the non-protection region. On the receiver side, the extracted bits with UEP capability can restore the high protection region more correctly than the low protection region after the efficient decoding algorithm is applied.
Clifford Code Constructions of Operator Quantum Error Correcting Codes  [PDF]
Andreas Klappenecker,Pradeep Kiran Sarvepalli
Mathematics , 2006,
Abstract: Recently, operator quantum error-correcting codes have been proposed to unify and generalize decoherence free subspaces, noiseless subsystems, and quantum error-correcting codes. This note introduces a natural construction of such codes in terms of Clifford codes, an elegant generalization of stabilizer codes due to Knill. Character-theoretic methods are used to derive a simple method to construct operator quantum error-correcting codes from any classical additive code over a finite field.
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