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Kingston Caregiver Stress Scale (KCSS) Greek Validation on Dementia Caregiver Sample  [PDF]
Artemis Pitsikali, Michael Galanakis, Liza Varvogli, Christina Darviri
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.69116
Abstract: In this study, we focus on the Greek validation of the Kingston Caregiver Stress Scale (KCSS) and its 3 categories: “Caregiving issues”, “Family issues” and “Financial issues”. Our sample consists of 100 caregivers (Ν = 100) who support a relative that suffers from a type of dementia. The participants are looking after the patients, systematically, for at least an hour per week. The questionnaires were distributed by day care centres for patients with dementia, which were located in Athens. Also, we correlated KCSS with the following questionnaires: Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Older Americans Resources and Services (OARS), Multidimensional Functional Assessment Questionnaire (MFAQ)-Activities of Daily Living Section (ADL). The results for the reliability and the validity of the scale were satisfactory and the tool had high reliability a = 0.85. We also concluded that KCSS had criterion validity as it showed a positive correlation with both ZBI and PSS, while it had a negative correlation with OARS-MFAQ-ADL.
Heavy Metals in Soils around the Cement Factory inRockfort, Kingston, Jamaica  [PDF]
A. Mandal, M. Voutchkov
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2011.21005
Abstract: This study deals with the distribution of heavy metals in soils around one of the most important industries in Kingston, Jamaica i.e. the Carib Cement factory at Rockfort. The dust emitted from the Caribbean Cement Company Limited (Carib Cement), located in Rockfort, Kingston, gets deposited in course of time over the soil, leaves and forms a grey cover on the surrounding soils. Geochemical analysis of the top soil, collected from the present study area has been undertaken to assess the impact of the dust emitted from the cement factory and its effect on the surrounding ecosystem. A total of seventeen top soil samples of 0-10 cm depth were collected from the close vicinity of the Rockfort and the Harbour view area and analysed by INAA, AAS, XRF for major, minor and trace elements. Results show that the top soils of the study area are enriched in Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, V, Pb, and Hg which are released into the air from the cement kilns. Results show that the soils are enriched in Ca with a maximum value of 18% followed by Al, Fe and Na. Heavy metals in the soils of the study area shows relatively high concentrations of zinc with a maximum of 132 ppm followed by Cr (57) ppm and Pb (32) ppm. Maximum concentrations were found in soils sampled at a distance of 2-3 m from the cement factory as opposed to samples collected much further ie from the Harbour View area. High concentrations of the heavy metals in the soils near the cement factory as opposed to those further away can be due to the emissions from the factory. A significant contribution can also come from traffic emissions as the study area is located along one of the busiest street of Kingston, Jamaica.
Absence of impact of aerial malathion treatment on Aedes aegypti during a dengue outbreak in Kingston, Jamaica
Castle,Trevor; Amador,Manuel; Rawlins,Samuel; Figueroa,J. Peter; Reiter,Paul;
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 1999, DOI: 10.1590/S1020-49891999000200005
Abstract: during an outbreak of dengue fever in jamaica from october to december 1995, a study was carried out to determine the impact of aerial ultra-low volume malathion treatment on adult aedes aegypti. this was done by monitoring oviposition rates of the vector in three urban communities in kingston and by exposing caged mosquitoes both directly and indirectly to the aerial malathion treatment. the insecticide was delivered at a rate of 219 ml/ha between 7:10 a.m. and 8:45 a.m. the results of the study clearly showed that the insecticide application was ineffective in interfering with aedes aegypti oviposition, and adult mosquitoes held in cages inside dwellings were largely unaffected. consequently, this type of intervention seemed to have little significant impact in arresting or abating dengue transmission.
Absence of impact of aerial malathion treatment on Aedes aegypti during a dengue outbreak in Kingston, Jamaica  [cached]
Castle Trevor,Amador Manuel,Rawlins Samuel,Figueroa J. Peter
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 1999,
Abstract: During an outbreak of dengue fever in Jamaica from October to December 1995, a study was carried out to determine the impact of aerial ultra-low volume malathion treatment on adult Aedes aegypti. This was done by monitoring oviposition rates of the vector in three urban communities in Kingston and by exposing caged mosquitoes both directly and indirectly to the aerial malathion treatment. The insecticide was delivered at a rate of 219 mL/ha between 7:10 a.m. and 8:45 a.m. The results of the study clearly showed that the insecticide application was ineffective in interfering with Aedes aegypti oviposition, and adult mosquitoes held in cages inside dwellings were largely unaffected. Consequently, this type of intervention seemed to have little significant impact in arresting or abating dengue transmission.
“Trench Town Rock”: Reggae Music, Landscape Inscription, and the Making of Place in Kingston, Jamaica  [PDF]
Kevon Rhiney,Romain Cruse
Urban Studies Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/585160
Abstract: This paper examines place inscriptions in Trench Town, Jamaica, and explores the ways these are used to reinforce, shape, or challenge dominant images of this inner-city community. On one hand, Trench Town is like many of its neighbouring communities, characterised by high levels of poverty, unemployment, political and gang violence, derelict buildings, and overcrowded homes. On the other hand, Trench Town is iconic and unique as it is recognised worldwide for being the birth place of reggae music and home to a number of well-known reggae artists including reggae superstar Bob Marley. Today, Trench Town’s landscape is filled with inscriptions reminiscent of its rich cultural past. Linked to this is a conscious effort by its residents to identify themselves with reggae music and to recapture and sustain the positive legacies that have made the community popular. This is manifested in the numerous murals, statues, and graffiti seen throughout the community evoking past images of reggae music icons such as Marley and Tosh alongside renowned black leaders such as Marcus Garvey. These inscriptions are conceived as texts and are seen as part of a broader discourse on issues relating to urban spatial identity, commoditisation, exclusion, struggle, resistance, and change. 1. Introduction Research has long been focused on the particular ways places are represented and regulated as well as how particular places encapsulate, communicate, and (re)shape cultural and spatial identities [1–7]. Yet still, only limited attention has been given to landscape inscriptions (e.g., graffiti, murals, signscapes, etc.) and the role these play in either reproducing stereotypes or challenging dominant images of places or group identities [8]. Landscapes are constantly “written” and inscribed with meanings. These meanings can be read or interpreted as signs or texts about the particular values, identities, beliefs, and practices evocative of a particular era, social group, landscape, place, or space [9]. An assessment of landscape inscriptions can therefore assist our understanding of the contested nature of places as well as shed light on the various geographies of power and identity that shape these places. This paper examines landscape inscriptions in Trench Town, Jamaica, and explores the various ways these are used to reinforce, shape, or challenge dominant images of the community. Trench Town is a small inner-city community located in Kingston—the island’s capital. On one hand, Trench Town is like many of its neighbouring communities, as it has long been characterised by
Erratum to “Heavy Metals in Soils around the Cement Factory in Rockfort, Kingston, Jamaica” [International Journal of Geosciences 2 (2011) 48-54]  [PDF]
A. Mandal, M. Madourie, R. Maharagh, M. Voutchkov
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2015.63018
Abstract: This study deals with the distribution of heavy metals in soils around one of the most important industries in Kingston, Jamaicai.e.?the Carib Cement factory at Rockfort. The dust emitted from the Caribbean Cement Company Limited (Carib Cement), located in Rockfort, Kingston, gets deposited in course of time over the soil, leaves and forms a grey cover on the surrounding soils. Geochemical analysis of the top soil, collected from the present study area has been undertaken to assess the impact of the dust emitted from the cement factory and its effect on the surrounding ecosystem. A total of seventeen top soil samples of 0-10 cm depth were collected from the close vicinity of the Rockfort and the Harbour view area and analysed by INAA, AAS, XRF for major, minor and trace elements. Results show that the top soils of the study area are enriched in Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, V, Pb, and Hg which are released into the air from the cement kilns. Results show that the soils are enriched in Ca with a maximum value of 18% followed by Al, Fe and Na. Heavy metals in the soils of the study area shows relatively high concentrations of zinc with a maximum of 132 ppm followed by Cr (57) ppm and Pb (32) ppm. Maximum concentrations were found in soils sampled at a distance of 2-3m from the cement factory as opposed to samples collected much further ie from the Harbour View area. High concentrations of the heavy metals in the soils near the cement factory as opposed to those further away can be due to the emissions from the factory. A significant contribution can also come from traffic emissions as the study area is located along one of the busiest street of Kingston, Jamaica.
People's concepts on diarrhea and dehydration in Nicaragua: the difficulty of the intercultural dialogue
Vázquez, María Luisa;Mosquera, Mario;Kroeger, Axel;
Revista Brasileira de Saúde Materno Infantil , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-38292002000300003
Abstract: objectives: to analyse people's concepts and health seeking behavior relating to diarrhea and dehydration and its implications to improve health services practice. methods: individual and group interviews were conducted in two municipalities in the north of nicaragua, with mothers, other community members, traditional healers and basic health personnel. a household interview survey in a random sample of 1.924 families with under-fives was carried out in three departments. results: people can easily identify diarrhea, as a disease in itself or as a symptom of several folk diseases. the popular construction of the causes of diarrhea is complex, with a mixture of folk concepts and modern medical concepts which influence preventive and health seeking behavior. health personnel often believe in these popular concepts. dehydration is a new term and concept introduced by the health education campaigns and often mistaken for the term malnutrition. oral rehydration solution (ors) is seen as an ineffective drug against diarrhea. the inadequate use of pharmaceuticals is widespread and in most cases they have been prescribed by doctors. conclusions: these results show the co-existence of popular and medical concepts, the latter with different interpretations. there is a need for a change in the communication between health services and population, based on an alternative analysis of people's knowledge and behavior.
Comparing the accuracy of the three popular clinical dehydration scales in children with diarrhea
Kimberly Pringle, Sachita P Shah, Irenee Umulisa, Richard B Mark Munyaneza, Jean Dushimiyimana, Katrina Stegmann, Juvenal Musavuli, Protegene Ngabitsinze, Sara Stulac, Adam C Levine
International Journal of Emergency Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1865-1380-4-58
Abstract: We prospectively enrolled a non-consecutive sample of children presenting to three Rwandan hospitals with diarrhea and/or vomiting. A health care provider documented clinical signs on arrival and weighed the patient using a standard scale. Once admitted, the patient received rehydration according to standard hospital protocol and was weighed again at hospital discharge. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were created for each of the three scales compared to the gold standard, percent weight change with rehydration. Sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios were calculated based on the best cutoff points of the ROC curves.We enrolled 73 children, and 49 children met eligibility criteria. Based on our gold standard, the children had a mean percent dehydration of 5% on arrival. The WHO scale, Gorelick scale, and CDS did not have an area under the ROC curve statistically different from the reference line. The WHO scale had sensitivities of 79% and 50% and specificities of 43% and 61% for severe and moderate dehydration, respectively; the 4- and 10-point Gorelick scale had sensitivities of 64% and 21% and specificities of 69% and 89%, respectively, for severe dehydration, while the same scales had sensitivities of 68% and 82% and specificities of 41% and 35% for moderate dehydration; the CDS had a sensitivity of 68% and specificity of 45% for moderate dehydration.In this sample of children, the WHO scale, Gorelick scale, and CDS did not provide an accurate assessment of dehydration status when used by general physicians and nurses in a developing world setting.Diarrhea has the highest incidence of any childhood disease in all regions of the world and kills approximately 1.9 million children each year, accounting for 19% of all deaths in children under 5 [1,2]. The World Health Organization (WHO), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), and the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutr
Medication compliance among mentally Ill patients in public clinics in Kingston and St. Andrew, Jamaica  [PDF]
Andrea E. Pusey-Murray, Paul A. Bourne, Stan Warren, Janet LaGrenade, Christopher A. D. Charles
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2010.36082
Abstract: The Bellevue and the Hagley Park mental health outpatient clinics in Jamaica serve the majority of psychiatric patients in the country, but there is a dearth of research on medication compliance, which is a very important mental health issue. Medication compliance affects intervention outcomes. Therefore, this study seeks to examine medication compliance among psychiatric patients in Jamaica. A 33-item questionnaire which included items on demographics, health conditions, medication compliance and insightfulness was administered to a sample of 370 participants with a response rate of 93%. The majority of the participants have schizophrenia, followed by depression, bipolar disorder and drug-induced psychosis. The majority of the participants (65.3%) did not comply with their prescribed medication regimen. Medication compliance was significantly related to: gender (P < 0.05) where males were more likely to take the prescribed medication, family support (P < 0.05) where the participants who received family support (the majority being males) were more likely to take the prescribed medication, and insightfulness (P < 0.05) where the majority of participants with insightfulness were females. Locus on control was not statistically tested but a majority of the non- compliant participants reported that factors external to themselves had greater control over their disorder. Conclusion: There are three significant factors that explain the medication compliance of psychiatric patients in Jamaica. An important non-tested factor is locus of control so there needs to be more research to understand the range of factors that can inform and improve patient education about medication compliance.
Variation in the Colonization of Artificial Substrates by Mangrove Root Fouling Species of the Port Royal Mangrove Lagoons in the Eutrophic Kingston Harbour, Jamaica  [PDF]
Tovia Elliott, Gale Persad, Mona Webber
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2012.46043
Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate temporal changes in mangrove root fouling species settled on artificial substrates in the mangrove zone of the Port Royal lagoons and to determine the effect of stress as part of a larger project to determine appropriate indicators of eutrophication in mangrove lagoons. Five Perspex? panels were suspended in the prop root zone at five contrasting stations within the Port Royal mangroves and the fouling organisms were monitored fortnightly using underwater digital photography. Nine taxonomic categories of epibionts were recorded of which the most prevalent group was the ascidians. Barnacles and hydroids were initially found to have established on the artificial substrates at all stations but were quickly replaced by ascidians and bryozoans at most. Species composition was similar between all stations by the end of the study, however, the dominant taxa were different. Sheltered lagoons like Fort Rocky lagoon (north and south) had a clear dominance of non-shelled species (ascidians and polychaetes) by the end of the study, while molluscs- bivalves and barnacles dominated Hurricane Refuge lagoon. This station, deemed to be experiencing greatest stress due to exposure to the eutrophic Kingston Harbour, also had the greatest proportion of shelled taxa represented in the epibiont biomass at the end of the study. Differences in biomass and species composition of root fouling species can therefore be used to indicate water quality in the mangrove lagoons.
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