Abstract:
This essay provides a survey of two very significant phases in the history of Japanese education: 1) the founding of the modern system (1872-1890) with a focus on the pedagogical practices acquired from the United States during that period and 2) Japan’s performance on international tests of mathematics achievement. The first relies primarily on Benjamin Duke’s recently published book The History of Modern Japanese Education: Constructing the National School System, 1872-1890, and the second on a detailed comparison of ERA mathematics test scores of Japan and Singapore over a thirty year period. These two aspects provide clear evidence that, contrary to the assertions of some scholars, it is quite possible to transfer the practices in use in one culture to another, with great success. Noting the irony of the abandonment by the U.S. of the principles that have served Japan so well for almost 140 years, I suggest that we exercise the "Common Sense of Copying” ourselves.

Abstract:
Word Sense Disambiguation(WSD) is a vital area which is very useful in today’s world. Many WSD algorithms are available in literature, we have chosen to opt for an optimal and portable WSD algorithms. We are discussed the supervised, unsupervised, and knowledge-based approaches for WSD. This paper will also furnish an idea of few of the WSD algorithms and their performances, Which compares and asses the need of the word sense disambiguity.

Abstract:
Logic, considered as a technical discipline inaugurated by Aristotle and typically represented by the variety of the modern logical calculi, constitutes a clarification and refinement of a conviction and practice present in common sense, that is, the fact that humans believe that truth can be acquired not only by immediate evidence, but also by means of arguments. As a first step logic can be seen as a “descriptive” record of the main forms of the arguments present in common sense, but the fact that some of these patterns can actually allow for the derivation of false consequences from true premises imposes the task of making explicit what patterns correspond to a “correct reasoning” and what not. At this point logic (that contains the presentation of such patterns) appears endowed with a “normative” characteristic. This amounts to saying that logical calculi are intended to adequately mirror the intuitive notion of “logical consequence” and in this sense they cannot be totally arbitrary or conventional, but must satisfy certain basic requirements such as the conditions of soundness and (as far as possible) of semantic completeness. In such a way they are “judged” according to the fundamental requirements present at the level of common sense and appear as “idealizations” of the kinds of reasoning practiced in common sense. For this reason also several kinds of logical calculi are fully justified since they make explicit in an idealized form the concrete ways of reasoning that are imposed by the particular domain of reference of the discipline in which they are used and which are basically recognized in common sense.

Abstract:
We show that most of the empirical or semi-empirical isotherms proposed to extend the Langmuir formula to sorption (adsorption, chimisorption and biosorption) on heterogeneous surfaces in the gaseous and liquid phase belong to the family and subfamily of the Burr_{XII} cumulative distribution functions. As a consequence they obey relatively simple differential equations which describe birth and death phenomena resulting from mesoscopic and microscopic physicochemical processes. Using the probability theory, it is thus possible to give a physical meaning to their empirical coefficients, to calculate well defined quantities and to compare the results obtained from different isotherms. Another interesting consequence of this finding is that it is possible to relate the shape of the isotherm to the distribution of sorption energies which we have calculated for each isotherm. In particular, we show that the energy distribution corresponding to the Brouers-Sotolongo (BS) isotherm [1] is the Gumbel extreme value distribution. We propose a generalized GBS isotherm, calculate its relevant statistical properties and recover all the previous results by giving well defined values to its coefficients. Finally we show that the Langmuir, the Hill-Sips, the BS and GBS isotherms satisfy the maximum Bolzmann-Shannon entropy principle and therefore should be favoured.

Abstract:
A complete first and second order statistical characterization of noise in SENSE reconstructed data is proposed. SENSE acquisitions have usually been modeled as Rician distributed, since the data reconstruction takes place into the spatial domain, where Gaussian noise is assumed. However, this model just holds for the first order statistics and obviates other effects induced by coils correlations and the reconstruction interpolation. Those effects are properly taken into account in this study, in order to fully justify a final SENSE noise model. As a result, some interesting features of the reconstructed image arise: (1) There is a strong correlation between adjacent lines. (2) The resulting distribution is non-stationary and therefore the variance of noise will vary from point to point across the image. Closed equations for the calculation of the variance of noise and the correlation coefficient between lines are proposed. The proposed model is totally compatible with g-factor formulations.

Abstract:
Bas van Fraassen endorses both common-sense realism — the view, roughly, that the ordinary macroscopic objects that we take to exist actually do exist — and constructive empiricism — the view, roughly, that the aim of science is truth about the observable world. But what happens if common-sense realism and science come into conflict? I argue that it is reasonable to think that they could come into conflict, by giving some motivation for a mental monist solution to the measurement problem of quantum mechanics. I then consider whether, in a situation where science favors the mental monist interpretation, van Fraassen would want to give up common-sense realism or would want to give up science.

Abstract:
The motivation for relativistic world is built on robust common sense and on general physical principles which are accessible to even a school student. Author likes to call it a farmer's perspective.

Abstract:
Psychological capital is an individual’s positive psychological state of development, which has four
features and five criteria. Psychological capital structure in Chinese cultural context contains:
calm, hope, optimism and confidence. On the basis of researching literature, the redemptory valid
questionnaires were analyzed by applying Structural Equation Model (SEM). The study found that
sense of control has a positive impact on the 4 dimensions of psychological capital (calm, hope,
optimism and self-confidence).

Abstract:
Concerns about the protection of personally identifiable information are not unique to the health care industry; however, consumers view their medical records as more "private" than other information, such as financial data, because involuntary disclosure can affect jobs or health insurance status. This paper briefly touches upon new sweeping federal privacy standards mandated under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA). The article outlines who and what is covered under the new rules, considers how practitioners can approach compliance with common sense, addresses concerns related to risk management, discusses consumer health privacy issues, and notes the difficulty of evaluating these rules and regulations. The article also looks at some unique privacy issues facing telemedicine and telehealth practitioners.

Abstract:
We study the consequences of limited recoil sense reconstruction on the number of events required to reject isotropy and detect a WIMP signal using a directional detector. For a constant probability of determining the sense correctly, 3-d read-out and zero background, we find that as the probability is decreased from 1.0 to 0.75 the number of events required to reject isotropy using the mean angle statistic is increased by a factor of a few. As the probability is decreased further the number of events required using this statistic increases sharply, and in fact isotropy can be rejected more easily by discarding the sense information and using axial statistics. This however requires an order of magnitude more events than vectorial data with perfect sense determination. We also consider energy dependent probabilities of correctly measuring the sense, 2-d read-out and non-zero background. Our main conclusion regarding the sense determination is that correctly determining the sense of the abundant, but less anisotropic, low energy recoils is most important for minimising the number of events required.