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Explaining Gender Differences in Caries: A Multifactorial Approach to a Multifactorial Disease  [PDF]
Maria Ferraro,Alexandre R. Vieira
International Journal of Dentistry , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/649643
Abstract: Many studies have demonstrated that caries rates are higher in women than in men. This review attempts to provide an explanation for this trend by examining each factor which contributes to caries and how the factor differs in men and women. Evidence has been provided to demonstrate that caries risk factors for women include a different salivary composition and flow rate, hormonal fluctuations, dietary habits, genetic variations, and particular social roles among their family. Systemic diseases that have been found to be associated with caries have also been found to have an association with the female gender. An extended exposure to the oral cavity or a more cariogenic oral microflora has not been proven to contribute to higher caries in women. Further research in these areas could be done in the future to explain their contribution, or lack thereof, to a higher caries rate in women. 1. Introduction The significant impact of caries on the world’s population makes the disease an important topic of understanding. The development of caries is multifactorial, depending on many interacting variables to promote its development. In particular, the presence of bacteria, a substrate for the bacteria (food/sugars), the host’s oral environment, as well as the passing of time are the main contributing factors in the formation of caries. Epidemiological and clinical studies, through the use of tools such as DMFT and DMFS scores, have revealed a consistent trend in caries development, with females having higher prevalence than males [1]. The mechanisms underlying the reasoning for this trend can possibly be explained by an investigation of the suggested factors involved in caries development. 2. Genetic Contributions: AMELX The underlying mechanisms of any genetic contributions to the increased prevalence of caries in females versus males can be speculated to reside in the sex chromosomes, exhibiting sex-linked modes of inheritance. Genes present on the X or Y chromosome whose function affects those factors which contribute to the development of caries can be investigated. Variations in these genes would alter the host’s oral environment and the host’s response to the initiation of caries. The Amelogenin (AMELX) gene resides on the p arm of the X chromosome. Its locus is Xp22.31-p22.1 [2]. This gene and its protein product contribute to enamel formation in the dentition. The amelogenin protein constitutes 90% of the enamel matrix [3]. A mutation/deletion in the AMELX gene results in X-linked amelogenesis imperfecta [2]. There is a possibility that a deficient
Introducing Jamaican Creole into the Jamaican Educational Curriculum  [cached]
Marijke Frank
The English Languages : History, Diaspora, Culture , 2010,
Abstract: This paper argues that the low social status of Jamaican Creole is significantly influenced by its position in Jamaican education, and that the mandatory use of Jamaican Standard English in education shows a tendency to fossilize class divisions. The paper starts by providing a short overview of the impact of colonialism on language policy and education. It will then analyze in what ways Jamaican class relations and the languages of instruction are connected. Selected examples will demonstrate the benefits of using Jamaican Creole in education. It will further discuss possible consequences of introducing Jamaican Creole into the school curriculum for its socio-cultural and political position in Jamaica.
Dental caries vaccine  [cached]
Shivakumar K,Vidya S,Chandu G
Indian Journal of Dental Research , 2009,
Abstract: Dental caries is one of the most common diseases in humans. In modern times, it has reached epidemic proportions. Dental caries is an infectious microbiologic disease of the teeth that results in localized dissolution and destruction of the calcified tissue. Dental caries is a mulitifactorial disease, which is caused by host, agent, and environmental factors. The time factor is important for the development and progression of dental caries. A wide group of microorganisms are identified from carious lesions of which S. mutans , Lactobacillus acidophilus , and Actinomyces viscosus are the main pathogenic species involved in the initiation and development of dental caries. In India, surveys done on school children showed caries prevalence of approximately 58%. Surveys among the U.S. population showed an incidence of 45.3% in children and 93.8% in adults with either past or present coronal caries. Huge amounts of money and time are spent in treating dental caries. Hence, the prevention and control of dental caries is the main aim of public health, eventually the ultimate objective of public health is the elimination of the disease itself. Recently, dental caries vaccines have been developed for the prevention of dental caries. These dental caries vaccines are still in the early stages.
Incidence of dental caries in chronic urticaria
Kaur Surrinder,Ghosh Srabani,Kanwar A,Gauba A
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 1991,
Abstract: Three hundred patients of chronic urticaria were screened for dental affections. Sixty two (20.66%) patients were detected to have dental caries. Among the control group which com-prised of 100 patients, 20% had dental caries. There was thus no increased incidence of dental caries among patients with urticaria. Only 2 patients had remission of urticaria following treat-ment of caries. Dental caries therefore is probably not a cause of chronic urticaria.
Detection of oral streptococci in dental biofilm from caries-active and caries-free children
Silva, Andréa Cristina Barbosa da;Cruz, Jader dos Santos;Sampaio, Fábio Correia;Araújo, Demetrius Ant?nio Machado de;
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1517-83822008000400009
Abstract: this work correlated the presence of oral streptococci in dental biofilm with clinical indexes of caries and oral hygiene in caries-active and caries-free children. s. mutans and/or s. sobrinus in the dental biofilm does not indicate a direct risk for developing dental caries.
Early prevention of dental caries in children  [PDF]
Kharitonova T.L.,Lebedeva S.N.,Kazakova L.N.
Saratov Journal of Medical Scientific Research , 2011,
Abstract: Early prevention of dental caries in children plays an important role in the preservation of dental health. This article explains the necessity of early prevention of dental caries in children. The most effective methods of prevention of dental caries are beginning hygiene care and respect for the recommendations dentist since the first teeth. It is shown that the use of conservative therapy is very effective in the treatment of early forms of dental caries
PRIMARY CARIES a€“ AN OVERVIEW  [cached]
Gaurav Solanki
International Journal of Pharmacological Research , 2012, DOI: 10.7439/ijpr.v1i2.354
Abstract: Primary caries is an initial lesions produced by direct extension from an external surface. Dental caries is called as tooth decay or a cavity is a disease in which bacterial processes changes carbohydrate to acid which than dematerializes the hard tooth structure like enamel, dentin and cementum. Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus are the bacteria responsible for the dental caries by acid production. This article throws light on the dental caries disease, its sign and symptoms, treatment and prevention of it. A review of some patents on dental caries is also provided that summarizes the recent technical advancements taken place in this area.
Prevalencia de caries dental y factores familiares en ni?os escolares de Cartagena de Indias, Colombia
Díaz-Cárdenas,Shyrley; González-Martínez,Farith;
Revista de Salud Pública , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0124-00642010000500014
Abstract: objective describing the prevalence and severity of caries in schoolchildren attending the john f. kennedy school in cartagena and its relationship to family factors. methods this was a cross-sectional descriptive study of 243 students. dental caries prevalence was evaluated by dmft and ceo-d index; caries severity was measured by using icdas ii 2005 criteria and family variables were ascertained by filling out a questionnaire that included the family apgar (adaptation, partnership, growth, affection and resolve) for measuring family functioning. descriptive statistics were used when analysing relationships and the chi-square test was used for variables. results caries prevalence was 51 % (45-95 59 %ci). it was shown that 38 % (31-44 95 %ci) of parents had reached secondary school (but not completed it), 44 % (39-54 95 %ci) were living with a partner, 47 % (40-53 95 %ci) had low socioeconomic status, 53 % (47-57 95 %ci) were living in nuclear families, 47 % (41-53 95 %ci) were receiving less than minimum wage income, 66 % (58-70 95 %ci) were affiliated to the government health system and 59 % (52-66 95 %ci) were living in dysfunctional families. bivariate analysis only revealed statistical significance regarding the fathers incomplete secondary schooling and the presence of dental caries (p=0.04). conclusions even though most variables showed no statistical significance regarding explaining the presence of dental caries, they did provide epidemiologically important indicators which would facilitate decisions being made from a public health standpoint.
Asthma: A Risk Factor for Dental Caries?  [PDF]
MS Thomas,A Parolia,M Kundabala
Journal of Nepal Paediatric Society , 2010, DOI: 10.3126/jnps.v30i3.3929
Abstract: This report points out a correlation between asthma and dental caries. It also gives certain guidelines on the measures to be taken in an asthmatic to negate the risk of dental caries. Key words: Asthma, Caries risk, Caries prevention, Dental caries DOI: 10.3126/jnps.v30i3.3929 J Nep Paedtr Soc 2010;30(3):175-176
DENTAL CARIES- A WIDELY GROWING DISEASE OF TEETH
Gaurav Solanki
International Journal of Biomedical and Advance Research , 2012, DOI: 10.7439/ijbar.v3i2.353
Abstract: Dental caries called as tooth decay is basically a disease in which bacterial processes changes carbohydrate to acid. This acid then dematerializes the hard tooth structure. They are produced when demineralization amount exceeds the remineralization amount. Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus are the bacteria responsible for the dental caries. This article throws light on the dental caries disease, its sign and symptoms, treatment, prevention and risk factors associated with it. A review of some patents on dental caries is also provided that summarizes the recent technical advancements taken place in this area.
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