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Divane de Vargas
Journal of Nursing Education and Practice , 2012, DOI: 10.5430/jnep.v2n1p1
Abstract: Objective:Various international studies have reported on negative attitudes of nurses and nursing students towards substance misusers and have found that this issue receives little attention in professional nursing education. This research examined attitudes towards alcohol, alcoholism and alcoholics in a Brazilian nursing student sample and analyzed associations between these attitudes and participants’ socio-demographic characteristics. Methods: Study participants were 144 last-year undergraduate students from two private colleges. A scale of attitudes towards alcohol, alcoholism and alcoholics was used for data collection. Results: The results showed that most participants had positive attitudes towards alcohol, alcoholism and alcohol addicts. In addition, gender, age and the number of hours participants spent in lectures on alcohol and other drugs during their education were associated with positive attitudes towards their work and interpersonal relationships with alcoholics. This association was stronger in females (OR = 3.42), younger participants (OR = 2.18) and students who received more lecture hours on alcohol and other drugs during their education (OR = 3.53). Conclusion: In conclusion, the authors suggest that education and preparation in coping with drug problems increase nurses’ abilities at work and support more positive attitudes towards clients with drug problems. In addition, this study demonstrated that a significant part of students had negative attitudes towards alcohol, alcoholism and alcohol addicts, despite the fact that positive attitudes prevailed in their schools. These results reflect the lack of importance granted to drug issues in undergraduate nursing curricula in Brazil.
Alcohol, alcoholism and alcohol addicts: conceptions and attitudes of nurses from district basic health centers
Vargas, Divane de;Luis, Margarita Ant?nia Villar;
Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-11692008000700007
Abstract: this qualitative study aimed to learn the conceptions and attitude tendencies of nurses from public district basic health units towards alcohol, alcoholism and alcohol addicts. the sample consisted of ten nurses from three institutions in a city located in s?o paulo. data were recorded and submitted to content thematic analysis. subjects evidenced that these nurses are permissive towards moderate alcohol use, but reject alcoholism, conceiving it as a potentially fatal disease, and tend to associate it to personal will, indicating the influence of the moral concept on their conceptions and attitudes. the participating nurses' knowledge about the topics alcohol and alcoholism was also evidenced. based on the results, the authors suggest training this group and preparing these professionals for the care, recognition and prevention of disorders related to alcohol use/abuse at these health centers.
álcool e alcoolismo: atitudes de estudantes de enfermagem Alcohol y alcoholismo: actitudes de estudiantes de enfermería Alcohol and alcoholism: attitudes of nursing students  [cached]
Divane Vargas,Marina Nolli Bittencourt
Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem , 2013,
Abstract: Estudo descritivo exploratório que objetivou verificar as atitudes dos estudantes de enfermagem frente à bebida alcoólica, ao alcoolismo e ao alcoolista segundo sua posi o frente aos itens de uma escala de atitudes. Para coleta dos dados, utilizou-se a Escala de Atitudes Frente ao álcool, ao Alcoolismo e ao Alcoolista, aplicada a 144 estudantes de enfermagem. Evidenciou-se tendência a atitudes negativas desses estudantes frente ao alcoolismo, ao alcoolista e à bebida alcoólica, pois a maioria se colocou na categoria indiferente ou discordo dos itens positivos, concordando com os itens negativos da escala. Conclui-se que essa tendência a atitudes negativas deve-se à pouca aten o dada à temática durante a forma o do enfermeiro, constatando-se a necessidade de que maior importancia seja dada a essa problemática. Estudio exploratorio descriptivo, que tuvo como objetivo conocer las actitudes de los estudiantes de enfermería frente a la bebida alcohólica, el alcoholismo, y al alcohólicos, de acuerdo a su posición ante los ítems de una escala de actitudes. Para la recolección de datos, se utilizo la Escala de Actitudes frente al alcohol, al alcoholismo y al alcohólico, aplicada a 144 estudiantes de enfermería. Los resultados muestran una tendencia a actitudes negativas de estos estudiantes frente al alcoholismo, las bebidas alcohólicas y a los alcohólicos, desde que la mayoría de los participantes fueron clasificados en la categoría indiferentes o no de acuerdo con los elementos positivos, y de acuerdo con los elementos negativos de la escala. Llega-se a la conclusión de que esta tendencia de actitudes negativas es debida a la insuficiente atención al tema durante la formación de los enfermeros, observando-se la necesidad de que sea dada mayor importancia a este problema. This is a descriptive exploratory study that aimed to verify nursing students' attitudes facing to the alcoholic drinks, alcoholism and alcoholics, according to their position in face of an attitudes scale items. For data collection, it was used the Scale of Attitudes to alcohol, alcoholism and alcoholic, applied to 144 nursing students. The results showed a tendency to negative attitudes of these students in face of alcoholism, alcoholic person and alcoholic drinks, since most participants were placed in category indifferent or disagree with the positive items, agreeing with negative scale items. We conclude that this trend of negative attitudes is connected to insufficient attention given to the subject during the nurses' education, being verified the need for greater importance to be gi
Formal education and nurses' attitudes towards alcohol and alcoholism in a Brazilian sample
Pillon, Sandra Cristina;Laranjeira, Ronaldo Ramos;
Sao Paulo Medical Journal , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-31802005000400004
Abstract: context and objective: nurses are one of the largest groups of healthcare professionals sharing in patient care responsibilities, including caring for those who use and abuse psychoactive substances. the objective was to evaluate the theoretical-practical knowledge acquired by nurses in undergraduate and postgraduate studies and their perceptions about alcohol users. design and setting: quantitative, descriptive survey at universidade federal de s?o paulo - escola paulista de medicina and hospital s?o paulo. methods: the sample included nurses, students and nursing teachers. the survey included questions about sociodemographic characteristics; a nurses' attitudes and beliefs scale; and a questionnaire to identify formal nursing education on the use of alcohol and its consequences. results: 59.7% out of 319 volunteers were nurses, 22.7% were nursing teachers and 17.6% were nursing students. 70% of the participants had received little or no information on physical, family and social problems related to alcohol use; 87% had received little or no information on high risk related to specific segments of the population; 95% had received little or no information on nursing procedures for alcohol-abuse patients. conclusion: formal education regarding the use of alcohol and its consequences is limited, especially with regard to offering adequate care and management for patients who have problems with or are addicted to alcohol.
Vers?o reduzida da escala de atitudes frente ao álcool, alcoolismo e ao alcoolista: resultados preliminares
Vargas, Divane de;
Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da USP , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0080-62342011000400018
Abstract: this study aimed to analyze the items of the scale of attitudes toward alcohol, alcoholism and alcoholics in order to prepare a reduced version keeping the instrument's psychometric properties. the preliminary version of the scale composed by 165 items was tested in a sample with 144 nursing student. the evaluation process of the items consisted of the total-item coefficient correlation and reliability of the instrument was estimated by cronbach's alpha coefficient. results indicate the permanence of 83 items, divided into five factors that showed satisfactory values in the different coefficients of internal consistency. further studies are needed with larger samples in order to give continuity to the process of scale validation among health professionals.
Nurses' attitudes towards alcoholism: factor analysis of three commonly used scales
Pillon, Sandra;Laranjeira, Ronaldo;Dunn, John;
Sao Paulo Medical Journal , 1998, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-31801998000200004
Abstract: objective: to investigate the psychometric properties of three scales commonly used to measure attitudes and beliefs about alcoholism. design: cross-sectional study using a systematic sample. setting: hospital s?o paulo (a public general tertiary hospital) and the adjoining federal university of s?o paulo, brazil. participants: 310 nurses and nursing teachers. instruments: the marcus alcoholism questionnaire, the seaman mannello nurses' attitudes towards alcohol and alcoholism scale and the tolor-tamarin attitudes towards alcoholism scale, which were combined into one self-administered questionnaire. analysis: the scales were re-grouped into their original formats and each underwent a principal components analysis with orthogonal rotation of factors. results: each scale was found to consist of three main factors. there was some degree of overlap in the nature of the factors that the scales measured but each scale also measured something unique. coclusion: the results of this comparative analysis could be used as a basis for developing a new scale covering all the important attitudinal groups identified by this study.
Cutaneous changes in chronic alcoholics  [cached]
Rao Gatha
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 2004,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption can have a variety of cutaneous manifestations. Awareness of the cutaneous changes of alcohol abuse can allow early detection and intervention in an attempt to limit the adverse medical consequences. Hence a study was planned to determine the cutaneous changes in chronic alcoholics. AIMS: To determine the cutaneous changes in chronic alcoholics. METHODS: All the patients attending alcohol de-addiction camps were examined for cutaneous changes. The results were analyzed using Gausian test and compared with other reports. RESULTS: Out of 200 alcoholics examined for cutaneous changes, 182 (91%) had cutaneous, nail, hair or oral cavity changes. Nail changes were found in 51 (25.5%) alcoholics, koilonychia being the commonest (16%). Oral changes were present in 107 (53.5%) alcoholics and changes due to nutritional deficiency in 20 (10%). Diseases due to poor hygiene were seen in 55 (27.5%) alcoholics. Tinea versicolor (14%) and seborrheic dermatitis (11.5%) were the commonest cutaneous changes noted. CONCLUSION: Even though alcohol abuse has a variety of cutaneous manifestations and perhaps aggravates many diseases, there are no specific cutaneous signs of alcoholism. Knowledge of the spectrum of cutaneous manifestations of alcohol abuse can allow its early detection and treatment in an attempt to minimize the medical consequences.
Alcoolismo: doen a e significado em Alcoólicos An nimos Alcoholism: illness and meaning in Alcoholics Anonymous  [cached]
Edemilson Antunes de Campos
Etnográfica , 2009,
Abstract: O objetivo deste artigo é o de compreender o modelo terapêutico construído pela irmandade de Alcoólicos An nimos (AA) para dar conta da chamada “doen a do alcoolismo”, por meio de uma análise dos códigos culturais que operam no processo saúde-doen a. A partir de uma pesquisa etnográfica feita em grupos de AA localizados na periferia da cidade de S o Paulo - Brasil -, faz-se uma análise dos significados atribuídos à experiência do alcoolismo, com ênfase na linguagem que permite aos alcoólicos encontrar um sentido para suas afli es. O modelo de AA opera a constru o simbólica da doen a alcoólica e, por essa via, os alcoólicos encontram um sentido para o mal que os aflige, recuperando as rela es familiares e profissionais perdidas no tempo do alcoolismo ativo. The purpose of this article is to understand the therapeutic model of the Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) to approach the so-called alcoholism illness by means of an analysis of cultural codes that operate in the health-illness process. Starting from an ethnographic research made among AA groups located in the outskirts of the city of S o Paulo - Brazil -, an analysis is made on the meanings attributed to the experience of alcoholism, with stress on the language that allows alcoholics to find a meaning for their afflictions. The AA model operates the symbolic construction of the alcoholic illness. This way, alcoholics find a meaning for the evil that afflicts them and recover family and professional relationships lost in the times of active alcoholism.
GABAergic Gene Expression in Postmortem Hippocampus from Alcoholics and Cocaine Addicts; Corresponding Findings in Alcohol-Na?ve P and NP Rats  [PDF]
Mary-Anne Enoch, Zhifeng Zhou, Mitsuru Kimura, Deborah C. Mash, Qiaoping Yuan, David Goldman
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029369
Abstract: Background By performing identical studies in humans and rats, we attempted to distinguish vulnerability factors for addiction from neurobiological effects of chronic drug exposure. We focused on the GABAergic system within the hippocampus, a brain region that is a constituent of the memory/conditioning neuronal circuitry of addiction that is considered to be important in drug reinforcement behaviors in animals and craving and relapse in humans. Methodology Using RNA-Seq we quantified mRNA transcripts in postmortem total hippocampus from alcoholics, cocaine addicts and controls and also from alcohol-na?ve, alcohol preferring (P) and non-preferring (NP) rats selectively bred for extremes of alcohol-seeking behavior that also show a general addictive tendency. A pathway-targeted analysis of 25 GABAergic genes encoding proteins implicated in GABA synthesis, metabolism, synaptic transmission and re-uptake was undertaken. Principal Findings Directionally consistent and biologically plausible overlapping and specific changes were detected: 14/25 of the human genes and 12/25 of the rat genes showed nominally significant differences in gene expression (global p values: 9×10?14, 7×10?11 respectively). Principal FDR-corrected findings were that GABBR1 was down-regulated in alcoholics, cocaine addicts and P rats with congruent findings in NSF, implicated in GABAB signaling efficacy, potentially resulting in increased synaptic GABA. GABRG2, encoding the gamma2 subunit required for postsynaptic clustering of GABAA receptors together with GPHN, encoding the associated scaffolding protein gephryin, were both down-regulated in alcoholics and cocaine addicts but were both up-regulated in P rats. There were also expression changes specific to cocaine addicts (GAD1, GAD2), alcoholics (GABRA2) and P rats (ABAT, GABRG3). Conclusions/Significance Our study confirms the involvement of the GABAergic system in alcoholism but also reveals a hippocampal GABA input in cocaine addiction. Congruent findings in human addicts and P rats provide clues to predisposing factors for alcohol and drug addiction. Finally, the results of this study have therapeutic implications.
Moral judgment of alcohol addicts  [PDF]
Mladenovi? Ivica,Dimitrijevi? Ivan,Le?i?-To?evski Du?ica
Srpski Arhiv za Celokupno Lekarstvo , 2010, DOI: 10.2298/sarh1008456m
Abstract: Introduction. Alcoholism could represent an important factor of crime and different forms of abuse of family members (physical and emotional) exist in many alcohol-addict cases, as well as characteristics of immoral behaviour. Objective. The objective of our study was to determine the predominating forms in moral judgment of alcohol addicts, and to examine whether there was any statistically significant difference in moral judgment between alcohol addicted persons and non-alcoholics from general population. Methods. The sample consisted of 62 subjects, divided into a study (alcoholics) and a control group (non-alcoholics from general population). The following instruments were used: social-demographic data, AUDIT, MMPI-201, cybernetic battery of IQ tests (KOG-3) and the TMR moral reasoning test. Results. Mature forms of moral judgment prevailed in both group of subjects, alcohol addicted persons and non-alcoholics. Regarding mature forms of moral judgment (driven by emotions and cognitive) non-alcoholics from the general population had higher scores, but the difference was not statistically significant. Regarding socially adapted and egocentric orientation alcohol addicted persons had higher scores. However, only regarding intuitive-irrational orientation there was a statistically significant difference in the level of moral judgment (p<0.05) between alcoholics and non-alcoholics, in favour of the alcoholics. Conclusion. Moral judgment is not a category differing alcohol addicted persons from those who are not. Nevertheless, the potential destructivity of alcoholism is reflected in lower scores regarding mature orientations in moral judgment.
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